Opportunity rover has landed on Mars around
2004-01-25 05:05 UTC in a small crater in the Meridiani Planum.
The soil of Meridiani Planum is believed to contain Hematite,
a compound of iron and oxygen, which is an important iron ore on Earth.
Puzzling rock slabs near the landing spot in contrast to the surrounding fine dark soil will be examined to see if they are made of particles left by water, wind or volcanic activities.
Spirit rover has computer problems which delay the transmission of data and driving to examine distant rocks. Before the problems Spirit had detected Olivine, a volcanic mineral consisting of iron, silicon and oxygen. Other indicators for past volcanic activity found in the soil are Pyroxene and Magnetite, a magnetic compound of iron and oxygen. The spectrometer detected also the elements chlorine and sulfur in the soil.
Mars Express orbiter has taken data with its combined camera and infrared spectrometer which show water ice and carbon dioxide ice at Mars's south pole cap.
Mars home 2004
2001: Mars one and a half years later
June 23, 2000
Mars is the fourth planet of the Solar System
Moons: Deimos and Phobos
Distance of Earth - Mars orbits: 78.340.000 km
Distance Sun - Mars: 227.940.000 km
Time to circle around Sun: 687 days
Diameter: 6.794 km (4.222 miles)
Atmoshperic pressure: 0.008 bars
Atmospheric composition: 95% CO2 / 0.13% O2
Temperature: -140/average -60/+20 degree Celsius
Weight: 100 kg on Earth are 38.5 kg on Mars
Water: As ice detected in southpole area.
Global Surveyor images
Hubble Space Telescope
Dust Storm at Mars North Pole
HST Archive at Cornell
Zoomable Mars Map
MSSS Viking Image Archive
Mars Position and Weather
Astrobiology: Recent news on Mars life
On the Question of the Mars Meteorite
1960 Marsnik 1 and Marsnik 2 unsuccessfull launch.
1962 Sputnik 22 and Sputnik 24 unsuccessfull launch.
1962 Mars 1 contact lost during flight.
1964 Mariner 3 other course due solar panel problem.
1964 Mariner 4 passed Mars in 9.900 km (6.150 miles) distance.
1964 Zond 2 contact lost during flight.
1969 Mariner 6 and 7 both fly over Mars.
Closest approach approximately 3.500 km (2.175 miles).
1971 Mars 2 landing unit fell on Mars surface.
1971 Mars 3 landing unit landed safely.
1971 Mariner 8 fell back to Earth.
1971 Kosmos 419 unsuccessfull launch.
1971 Mars 2 and 3 reached Mars orbit.
1971 Mariner 9 entered Mars orbit.
1973 Mars 4 passed Mars due breaking problem.
1973 Mars 5 and 6 reached Mars orbit.
1973 Mars 7 unsuccessfull orbit inclusion.
1988 Phobos 1 lost during flight.
1988 Phobos 2 lost shortly before moon Phobos
1975 Viking 1 and 2. The orbiter units imaged the entire surface.
On 1976-07-20 Viking 1 landing unit touched Mars surface.
On 1976-09-03 followed the lander unit of Viking 2.
1992 Mars Observer get lost three days before Mars orbit.
1996 Mars-96 fell back to Earth.
1996 Pathfinder has landed successfully on Mars 1997-07-04.
1996 Global Surveyor orbits Mars since 1997-09-12.
1998 Japanese Planet B atmosphere probe launched 1998-07-04, lost 2003.
1998 Surveyor 98 Climate Orbiter launched 1998-12-11, lost 1999-09-23.
1999 Surveyor 98 Polar Lander launched 1999-01-03, lost 1999-12-03.
2001 Surveyor 2001 Lander - canceled March 2000.
2001 Orbiter "Odyssey" launched 2001-04-07 surveys Mars.
2003 Mars Express launched 2003-06-02, orbit 2003-12-25, lander lost.
2003 Spirit launched 2003-06-10, arrived 2004-01-04.
2003 Opportunity launched 2003-07-08, arrived 2004-01-25.
Twin Rovers Spirit and Opportunity
ESA Mars News
ESA Mars mission
Mars Orbiter Odyssey
Mars 2001 Orbiter
PDS Mars Data
The Martian Chronicle
JPL Pathfinder Archive
Mars Mission Research Center
Ecological life support
Expedition & settlement plans
Spots spotting and lines lineages
Mars 'face' from another view
Mars Sun Times
Missing Mars lander Beagle 2
Surveyor mission review
Maestro Mars rovers software + data updates