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The challenge of an expansive environment

General Astronomy | Solar System | Milky Way | Galaxies | Univers | Satellites & Spacecrafts
Humans in Space | Images | Star Maps | Software | Organizations | MARS SCAN | Back to AIS

General Astronomy
Speed of light is 299.792.458 metres per second.

Positional Astronomy
Astronomical coordinate systems explained. Switch

Courses in Astronomy
Hyper text lections on various topics. Switch

Astronomy Unbound
Astronomy pages covering many astronomy and related issues. Switch

Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics
Martin V. Zombeck, second edition. Switch

Encyclopedia of Astronomy and Astrophysics
Hyper text lections on various topics. Switch

Space physics
NSSDC space physics data. Switch

Handbook of Space Astronomy and Astrophysics
Advanced study. Second Edition by Martin V. Zombeck. Switch

Astronomy and Space Science
Index of resources. Switch

NASA Science
Popular articles related to space science. Switch | Conmutar

ESA Astrophysics
Astrophysics research and news. Switch

ADC Astronomical Data Center
Data set collections from professional astronomers. Switch

About the Àryabhatíya
Accuracy of early Indian astronomical calculations. Switch

Solar System

On this page: Solar System | Sun | Mercury | Venus | Earth | Mars | Jupiter | Saturn | Uranus | Neptun | Pluto | Kuiper Belt | Asteroids and Comets

Solar System Simulator
A simulation how planets might appear at given date/time/place. Very nice. Switch

Solar System Live
A graphical view of the Solar System.
Controls allow you to set time, date, location. Switch

ESA Solar System exploration projects
Cassini/Huygens, Cluster, Soho, Ulysses. Switch

Views of the Solar System
Click on the desired planet. Switch

Solar System Lithograph Set
Solar System traveler companion, images and fact sheets (PDF). Switch

Dundee Astronomy Page
Planet Data. Position Charts. Switch

The nine planets
Inside Solar System. Switch Mirrors

Planetary Sciences at NSSDC
NSSDC resources. Switch

Heliospheric Planet Coordinates
Available for planets from Venus to Neptune. Switch

IMO International Meteor Organization
How, where and when to observe Meteors. Switch

Mt. Wilson Observatory
Insights on space observation. Switch

Minor Planet Center
Lists and plots related to minor planets. Switch

Leonid meteors
Pictures and descriptions of the meteor storm 1966 and predictions. Switch

LPI Lunar and Planetary Institute
Stereo Atlas of the Solar System / Exploring the moon Switch

ESO European Southern Observatory
European organisation for astronomical research.
Very large telescope project. Switch

Windows to the Universe
Earth and Space Science tour. Switch

- Sun -

The Sun started to burn Hydrogen to Helium around 4.600.000.000 years ago.
Or does the Sun burn iron?

Core 15.000.000°C > Photosphere 6.000°C > Chromosphere 50.000°C > Corona over 1.000.000°C

Diameter 1.390.000 kilometres.

Earth is closest to Sun on January 2 (perihelion).
Earth is farthest away from Sun on July 2 (aphelion).

Solar Terrestrial Activity Report
Flares, mass ejections and coronal holes. Switch

Sun Status
Solar Activity Monitor. Switch

TRACE Transition Region and Coronal Explorer
Images from the Sun orbiter at Lockheed Martin. Switch

TRACE small explorer mission
Data about the Sun orbiter from NASA. Switch

Virtual Sun
Knowledge about the Sun. Switch


Images and information. Switch

SOI Solar Oscillations Investigation
Jet streams of plasma flowing inside the sun. Switch

From Core to Corona
Layers of the sun. Switch

Overview and explanation of common terms like convection and sunspots. Switch

Stanford Solar Center
Entertaining education and discoveries. Switch

SOHO Solar and Heliospheric Observatory
Observations in the field of helioseismology, solar atmosphere and solar wind. Switch


JPL Mercury
Planet profile. Switch


JPL Venus
Planet profile. Switch


Earth was formed around 4.500.000.000 years ago.

Diameter ~ 12.756 kilometres equatorial, ~ 12.713 km poles.

Perihelion year  365,259636 days
Siderial year    365,256366 days
Tropical year    365,242199 days

On Earth live an estimated 5.000.000 species. 
The number of species is decreasing. 
The highest number of species are among insects, 
fungi and worms living in the ocean sediments.

Fossilized remains of early organisms have been found in 
sediments that appear to be around 3.500.000.000 years old.

Theories of human evolution
(more on evolution)

Google Earth
Zoomable Earth globe with close up satellite maps showing details up to cars
with overlays for land and man-made features. Needs internet connection
to constantly update map and overlay data while changing views. Switch

NASA World Wind
Zoomable Earth globe with close up satellite maps and recent Earth observation data.
Check if your video card is listed. Needs internet connection to constantly update
map and overlay data while changing views.
There is also a JAVA version for download. Switch

GéoPortail France
Zoomable satellite view. Needs internet connection. Switch

Moscow from above
Zoomable satellite view. Needs internet connection. Switch

Earth viewer
Shows Earth's globe for given date/time/position with day/night shading and city lights. Switch

Globe Visualization
Configurable maps of the Earth. Switch

U.S. Wind Map

SSEC Space Science and Engineering Center
Satellite composite images of the Earth globe. Switch

ESA Earth Watching
Satellite images of fires, floods and more. Switch

Operational significant event imagery
Weather satellite images from storms to volcanoes. Switch

Global Change Master Directory
Earth environment data. Switch

Gletscher Archiv - Glacier Archive
Documents how large glaciers have been diminished within a century. Switch

Zoomable topographic world map. For some areas there are photos on close approach. Switch

From african snow to tropical storms - a map of last weeks occurances. Switch

USGS Near Real Time Earthquake List
Time, place, strength of recent earthquakes listed. Switch

USGS National Earthquake Information Center
Worldwide seismic activities. Switch

MTU Earth's Active Volcanoes
Worldwide volcanic activities. Switch

Tide and Current Predictor

Current altimeter data map Switch

Tropical Storms Worldwide
Tracking current tropical cyclones and data archive. Switch

Ozone Hole
The ozone hole clearly explained and illustrated with graphics and movies. Switch

Aurora Forecast
Maps, images and information. Switch

Specialized Earth data sets. Switch

The Great Globe Gallery
Many images of the earth globe in different projection types. Switch

USGS Antarctic Atlas

Listen to lightning

Oceans from space

Mr. Eclipse
Solar and lunar eclipses for beginners. Switch

NASA Eclipses I

NASA Eclipses II

- Earth's Moon -

Moon is around 384.399 kilometres away from Earth.

Diameter ~ 3.476 kilometres.

Moon month 29,5306 days.

Moon viewer
Moon globe from given date/time/position. Switch

Moon images
High resolution images from earlier Moon missions. Switch

Diversion - fake moon landing argumentation rejected
At least the flag mistake will not show up again on stormy Mars :)
While you follow the to and fro you can learn many titbits about
Moon and missions. Switch

- MARS -

Mars Scan
Mars is covered on a special page. Switch

Jupiter has more than 60 moons. The orbits of Jupiter's inner moons Io, Europa and Ganymede are gravitationally interlocked.
When Io does 4 circles around Jupiter, Europa does 2 and Ganymede 1 circle.

Galileo Probe
News and images from the probe that has explored Jupiter and its moons. Switch

JPL Jupiter
Planet profile. Switch


33 moons have been spotted around Saturn.

NASA JPL Cassini Saturn Mission
Mission reports and images. Switch

Cassini NSSDC
Information about the Saturn orbiter. Switch

JPL Saturn
Saturn planet profile. Switch


JPL Uranus
Planet profile. Switch


Neptune has at least 11 moons, some as small as 40 kilometres (25 miles) in diameter.

JPL Neptune
Planet profile. Switch


JPL Pluto
Planetoid profile. Switch

- Kuiper Belt = Edgeworth-Kuiper Belt = Trans-Neptunian Belt -

Kuiper Belt

2004 DW
Large Kuiper Belt object, estimated 1.600 kilometers diameter. Switch

Large Kuiper Belt object, estimated 1.250 kilometers diameter. Switch

- Asteroids and Comets -

An estimated one in six of the big near-Earth asteroids may be actually
two asteroids orbiting each other. This can result in a double hit.
A double system circling around a common axis is more difficult to engage
and increases prediction complexity.

Deep impact
Will current technology reliable hit a comet? How does it affect its motion? Switch

NEODyS Near Earth Objects Dynamic Site
Near Earth asteroids information center. Switch | Backup Switch

Minor Planet Center
News on NEOs, ephemerides, lists like potentially dangerous asteroids. Switch

Minor Planet Electronic Circular
New data about minor planets and comets. Switch

Asteroid shapes and spin states
Radar and optical data of Earth crossing asteroids. Switch

Impact Craters on Earth
Maps of known impact craters for each continent. Switch

NASA JPL Comet Observation
Recent comet observations. Switch

Milky Way - our home galaxy
In the Milky Way are at least stars.

Milky Way and Andromeda galaxy merger
Timeline: years. Switch

San Francisco State University Planet Search Project
New planets found with the Doppler Technique. Switch

Why Files
How to find a new planet. Switch

Falling Into a Black Hole
Images what it might be to approach a black hole Switch

Black Holes and Neutron Stars
Discription of the visible distortions if one would travel near a highly compacted star. Switch

Variable Stars
American Association of Variable Star Observers. Switch

SETI Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence
Includes Project Phoenix. Switch


Basic facts and pictures of galaxies. Switch

The Univers is an estimated years old.

Dark matter, Cosmology and large-scale structure of the universe. Switch

String theory
A theory about the small scale consistency of all matter. Switch

Satellites & Spacecrafts
Satellites in a geosynchronous orbit stay over the same area of Earth
in a height of about 35.800 kilometres (22.250 miles).

ESA Satellites
Track the orbits of ESA satellites. Switch

Russian satellite based system for navigation. Switch

Heavens Above
Tracking ISS, Space Shuttle and more. Switch

Nightsky with stars, planets, Sun, Moon and various crossing satellites.
Needs a java enabled browser. Switch
Position tracker of some spacecraft like MIR, Hubble and Space Shuttle.
Needs a java enabled browser. Switch
Real time positions of important weather satellites.
Needs a java enabled browser. Switch

Space Shuttle
Missions Timetable
Dates of the next missions. Switch
Status Reports
An archive from 1994 to the latest Space Shuttle status reports. There are also payload status reports and monthly weather statistics. Switch

Jonathan's Space Report
Covers all space launches, including piloted missions and automated satellites. Switch

Distribution of information on satellites and space probes. Switch

Space technology
Information on space programmes, technology and history. Switch

International Space Station
The international space station is a cooperative project of 16 nations. Switch

Canadian Avro Arrow 1959
An advanced jet which was scrapped due to policital reasons before going into mass production.
Owing to its qualities it could be seen as a space shuttle predecessor. Switch | Switch

Galileo Position System
Planned European satellite based position information network with higher available precision than GPS. Switch

Peroxide Propulsion
Replacing toxic rocket propellant hydrazine/nitrogen tetroxide with hydrogen peroxide. Switch

M2P2 Mini-Magnetospheric Plasma Propulsion
New small ionized helium plasma drive. Switch

Langley Technical Reports
NASA proceedings. Switch

NASA Technical Reports
Rockets, robots, rovers... Switch

Small Satellite home page
Satellite knowledge. Switch

Satellite Design
Reflections on current and future satellite design. Switch

Satellite Encyclopedia
Fact sheets with basic launch and payload information for a lot of satellites. Switch

Orbital mechanics
With orbital velocity and period calculator. Switch

ASF Alaska SAR Facility:
Tracking and receiving stadion for international
Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data. Switch

After Earth
Humans living in space or on other planets

B612 Foundation
Preventing a harmful asteroid impact on Earth. Switch

Space ventures
Privately organized space program. Switch

Space visits
Travel agency for Earth orbit flights. Switch

Terraforming Information Pages
Making planets Earth-like. Switch

Alien Planet Designer

American Society for Gravitational and Space Biology

National Space Biomedical Research Institute

NASA Life and Microgravity Sciences

UN Space Law


NASA Visible Earth
Catalog of NASA images and animations of our home planet. Switch

NASA Earth Observatory


Nasa Images
Features images from various NASA collections. Switch

Two Micron All Sky Survey
Sky, galaxy and cluster images. Switch

To search in several astronomical databases. Switch

NEAR Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous
Close up images of asteroid 433 Eros. Switch

SOHO very latest images
Up-to-date images of the Sun. Switch

Solar views
Image collection of the Sun from various sources. Switch

NOAO National Optical Astronomy Observatory
Images from Sun to Galaxies. Switch

XMM X-ray Multi Mirrors
Advanced X-ray space telescope in an elongated approx. 7.000 to 114.000 kilometres orbit. Switch

Planned X-ray space observatory as a higher sensitive follow up to XMM. Switch

Gamma-ray space observatory (0.2 to 0.0008 nanometers, 15 keV to 10 MeV) in high orbit outside Earth's radiation belt. Switch

Images from the X-ray space observatory. Switch

Hubble Space Telescope
Latest images from the hubble space telescope. Switch

Images from Jupiter and its moons. Switch

NIX NASA Image eXchange
Interface to NASA image collections. Switch

NASA Planetary Photojournal
Images of the Solar System. Switch

PDS Planetary Data System Imaging Node
Images of the planets. Switch

APOD Astronomy Picture of the Day
Galaxies, stars and planets. Switch

DLR Image Gallery

GRIN Great Images in NASA
Collection wit high-resolution images. Switch

NASA Earth Observatory
Views and news, Earth from above. Switch

HSF Space Shuttle Gallery
Images and videos from the Space Shuttle missions. Switch

KAO Kuiper Airborne Observatory
Images from an observatory flying in an aircraft. Switch

Self made planet pictures
How to make pictures with video camera and small telescope. Switch

Observatories - Sensors - Detectors
Arecibo Observatory
Effelsberg Radio Observatory
Laser Interferometer Gravitational Wave Observatory
Maunakea Observatory
Mount Stromlo Observatory
Owens Valley Radio Observatory
Subaru Observatory
VLA Very Large Array

Star Maps

Interactive Sky Map
Night sky map, user definable sections. Switch

Hipparcos & Tycho Catalogues
Approximate star positions. Switch

STScI Digitized Sky Survey
Image database of the night sky. Switch

NASA SkyView
Pictures of the celestial skys at various selectable wavelenghts. Switch

MWO Star Map
You will need a postscript printer or a program that can view postscript. Switch

Starchart Map Server
You will need a postscript printer or a program that can view postscript. Switch

Navigational Star Chart
PDF from the US Navy. Switch


Space Organizations

ASI Italian Space Agency

BNSC British National Space Centre

CAST China Academy of Space Technology

CNES Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales

CSA Canadian Space Agency

DLR German Aerospace Research Establishment

ESA European Space Agency
IKI Russian Space Research Institute

NASA National Aeronautics and Space Administration

NASDA Japanese Space Agency | Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency | ISAS Japan Institute of Space and Astronautical Science

NLR Netherlands National Aerospace Laboratory

SSC Swedish Space Corporation

General Astronomy | Solar System | Milky Way | Galaxies | Univers | Satellites & Spacecrafts
Humans in Space | Images | Star Maps | Software | Organizations | MARS SCAN | Back to AIS

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