Edward Hobbs (
Mon, 13 May 1996 15:45:56 -0400 (EDT)

From: LUCY::EHOBBS "Edward Hobbs" 13-MAY-1996 15:44:55.42
To: IN%""
Subj: RE: Hearts and Minds

From: IN%"" 13-MAY-1996 14:56:34.74

This discussion on what the Hebrews meant by "heart" or "kidneys" or "guts"
etc. raises a question I have had, which is: Is Peter Levi's translation at
Rev. 2:23 of NEPHROUS (in his published translation of the REVELATION) as
"testicles" legitimate?

In my opinion (not even very humble), this is an outrageous translation!
The Greek word means "kidneys," which in Israelite psychology functioned much
like what we mean when we say "heart". It WAS used occasionally in some
Greek literature as a euphemism for "testicles," but we only know that
because the context always makes it clear that the word means, in fact,
"testicles." Much like the euphemism "feet" in the HB--sometimes it means
"genitalia," but it is usually clear that it means just that. Some
passages are in doubt, such as the "seduction of Boaz" story in Ruth. But
unless the context tells one otherwise, the proper English translation is
usually "heart".

Edward Hobbs