Jim, could you give an example or a reference in the text that would be
translated this way?
The import of the perfect tense is perfective action. In the perfect the
speaker/writer can use it to stress the completed action or the continuing
>If one is trying to give integrity to the subtle differences of the
>language, wouldn't it be more acceptable to let the perfect passive
>be translated as such rather than giving it the appearance that is
>really "past action in past time" with no necessary effects continuing
>in the present.
As far as time, the perfect vasilates between the present and the past.
>One grammar does suggest the "pluperfect passive forms a part of the
>perfect middle system."
>I'm reviewing this part of my grammar and thought some of you might have
>a helpful comment.
>One other question: Doesn't the language have more fluidity to it than
>most of the traditional grammars have a tendency to recognize?
Carlton L. Winbery
LA College, Pineville, La