Re: Question on James 3:6

David J. Rising (
Thu, 24 Oct 1996 16:05:48 -0400 (EDT)

Bill Warren wrote:
>Don't overlook the textual variant which places "outws" or "outws kai" after
>"melos", supplying the connection of "a world of injustice/unrighteousness"
>with the phrase that follows and supporting taking "o kosmos . . ." as being
>in apposition to the second "glwssa" in the verse, which functions as the
>subject of the verb "kaQistatai". The inclusion of "outws" clarifies the
>connection with "glwssa" in lew of an acceptable verb for a predicate
>nominative (eimi, ginomai, uparxw) (given that the use of "isthmi" as a
>linking/connective verb could be argued, nevertheless such a usage would not
>be the common practice, IMO), and avoids possible misunderstandings of
>linking the phrase with the beginning of the verse. Although the variant
>readings are unlikely to be original, they do show fairly early
>interpretations of the text that take the first of your choices (if I've
>understood you correctly as referring of the second occurrence of "glwssa" in
>the verse).

Yes, this was what I meant.

>In this case, the reading shown in NA-27 and UBS-4 follows the
>shorter text, but most interpretations, including the punctuation in NA-27
>adn UBS-4, are nevertheless in sync with the understanding/interpretation
>indicated in the other variant readings.

Thanks for your comments and note on the varients (I neglected to look at my
NA27 and see the variants). I can see where OUTWS and OUTWS KAI may have
entered as a varient since it parallels 3:5 with the same flow of thought,
and does seem to help the construction flow more smoothly.