Syntax of Eph 4:11

Thu, 14 Nov 1996 16:00:59 -0500

On Tue, 12 Nove 1996 Rod Decker wrote...
>I'm interested in the syntactical series of Eph. 4:11 (MEN... DE...
>DE... DE... KAI). I don't find this pattern elsewhere in the NT (even
>with fewer KAIs). Is anyone aware of it outside the NT?

On Thu, 14, Nov 1996 Demenico Lembo wrote...
The second option is the right one. In other words, "pastors KAI
teachers" are a single group: the fourth one in the series. It *must*
be so, just because there is a single article, which unifies "pastors
KAI teachers" as a single group. We have one slight ambiguity left.
Are the same people both pastors and teachers? Or are pastors and
teachers two different subsets of the whole group? Well, the common
way to express the latter thing would be to use TE ... KAI (TOUS ...
TE ... KAI ... TOUS). What we have is "TOUS x KAI y". So we should
think of people that are both pastors and teachers. However, this is
strongly probable but not entirely sure. What the text means could
equally be: the other ones (let's say, the fourth group), whether they
are pastors or teachers. In this case, the unifying perspective would
be a bit weaker and partly subjective. I.e., the fourth group would be
kind of a residue: the whole minus the first three. To say the same
thing without any ambiguity, the text should read "pastors H

I did a search through the LXX and found no exact parallels. It
appears though that the single article TOUS puts pastors and teachers together
and probably for the practical theological consideration that pastors
or shepherds (POIMENAS) lead the sheep to food and water, so
teaching (leading God's flock to spiritual food) is a function of
pastoring. In 1Tim 3:1, those DESIRING (EPITHUMIA) the office of
Bishop (the Elder or Pastor), he must be "able to teach."
Elsewhere "teaching" is a separate ministry gift (Rom
12:7 and I Cor 12:28).

Fred Haltom
Associate Professor of Christian Ministries
Central Bible College
Springfield, MO 65803