Re: hHMIN, hUMIN : were both pronounced the *same* ?

Dale M. Wheeler (
Tue, 10 Dec 1996 08:55:03 -0800

Stephen C. Carlson wrote:

>In the first century, H (eta) was pronounced like the vowel in English
>"day", a closed 'e' (like the French =E9) with a strong 'y' glide. By
>the second century A.D., the H had completely risen to its modern
>Greek value.
>The U (upsilon) in the first century was a high, front, rounded vowel
>like the French 'u' or German =FC. This sound unrounded by the ninth
>century to acquire its modern Greek value. The ninth century, by the
>way, was also one of the most prolific in terms of production of the
>Byzantine text.
>So, hHMIN and hUMIN at the time they were in common use were pronounced
>differently. However, they came to be pronounced exactly the same
>when the copyists were active in transmitting the text of the New


I think it might be helpful to all if you could cite the authorities
from which you derived the above information...I know I'd appreciate



Dale M. Wheeler, Th.D.
Research Professor in Biblical Languages Multnomah Bible College
8435 NE Glisan Street Portland, OR 97220
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