Re: Ephesians 1.2

} Taken out of context of the epistle and of the other NT examples of this
} and similar formulae, yes, the phrasing here could technically yield
} either of the two translations offered by John Moody.  But, given that
} both God (the Father) and Jesus are characteristically linked in grace
} benedictions in the Pauline corpus, it seemsmore likely that two "sources"
} of the grace here are intended.  Larry Hurtado, Religion, Univ. of Manitoba

The cultural and religious context, too, helps assure this translation.

First, the Roman and more generally Mediterranean model of patron-and-
client and master-and-slave relationships is commonly found in the
description of the relation between God and the faithful or between
Jesus and his followers.  This is particularly true in the rather
grandiloquent openings to the long epistles, as in Ep. Romans.  Hence in
Ep. Ephesians the perspective of ancient culture places God and Jesus on
one "social" or hierarchical plane, but "us" on a lower one, that of the
dependents (whether "clientes" or slaves).

Second, Jewish literature in Greek, including translations of the sacred
writings, normally represents the Hebrew "elohim" with "theos" but both
"YHWH" and "adonai" with "kyrios".  Of course, all three Hebrew terms
are understood to refer to the same deity in the first century (though
perhaps not twelve or fifteen hundred years earlier!).  A Jewish writer
such as Paul, using "kyrios" in such close proximity to "theos", while
probably not intending to refer both items to exactly the same deity
here, is nonetheless tying Jesus very closely to God.  After all, an
emissary or a representative of a king or a conqueror could easily be
called a "kyrios" even if the same title were also applied to his boss.

--David N. WIGTIL.  ER Network Support.  U. S. Department of Energy.
Graeca leguntur in omnibus fere gentibus,
Latina suis finibus exiguis sane continentur.   (Cicero, "Pro Archia")
(Greek works are read in practically all nations;
 Latin works are confined in their rather small territory.)
                     [ How things can change! ]
{ ER Ntwk Sppt: 301-903-5313.  ER Ntwk Fax: 301-903-7363. }
{ cc:Mail :  David Wigtil at ER                           }
{ Internet:  david.wigtil@mailgw.er.doe.gov     (cc:Mail) }
{ Personal:  72331.1732@compuserve.com                    }
{ X.400   :  g=david s=wigtil o=er p=usdoe a=attmail c=us }
{ Bitnet  :  u8806dw@doevm           (OfficeVision/PROFS) }
{            Voice/voice mail: 301-903-7327.              }