Re: Romans 3:23
The second ths, if it were a relative pronominal usage related
to charati, would like charati be in the dative unless there
were something influencing a genitive. Thus this tes seems
to be in aposition to the first tes, a common way to introduce
a prepositional phrase (en X.I.) so that the phrase is taken
to describe the first noun (apolutrwsews) rather than as a
vague adverbial phrase. "...freely by his
grace through the redemption, the (redemption) which is in...."
Or so it seems to me.