Re: Rom 4:12
I don't think it is so much a matter of changing the text, which
apparently was not done in any of the ms. witnesses, but of understanding
an awkward text that would make more sense if either the negative particle
were moved, or if there was only one tois.
As for a second group identified by the second tois referring to Gentiles,
it must be noted that this "group" too is related to Abraham as patera
peritomEs, if I read the grammar correctly. Why would Paul want to say
that Abraham is the father OF CIRCUMCISION to Gentiles who follow Abraham
according to faith, etc.? Surely if Paul is referring to two groups, his
point is that Abraham is the father not only of those who are circumcised
(i.e. because they ARE circumcised), but also (more importantly) to those
among them who follow after him in faith (not just in circumcision).
These would be distinct groups, but one a subset of the other.