Re: Predicate nominative in Koine

I suggest Lane McGaughy's book, "Toward a Descriptive Analysis of EINAI in 
the Net Testament" from Scholars Press (dissertation series).  I am not as 
current with the literature as I should be, but there is good material 

The most sensible (read: quick and memorable) rules for sorting out two 
nominatives associated with EINAI are as follows:
1. Subject is that which agrees with the verb; if one nom. disagrees with 
the verb EINAI in person or in number, it is the predicate.
2. The more definite of the two nominatives is the subject (if both could 
agree with the verb EINAI).  An article flags greater definiteness than an 
anarthrous noun; a demonstrative (pronominal or adjectival) ranks higher 
than a noun with an article.
     NOTE:  An anarthrous noun is not necessarily indefinite in this
            construction.  If the predicate precedes the verb and the
            subject follows the verb, the predicate is virtually always
3. If both nominatives are of equal definiteness, the first is the subject.
This is true for Nom.-Nom.-Vb. clauses and for Nom.-Vb.-Nom. clauses.


___________________________ Reply Separator ______________________________
Subject: Predicate nominative in Koine
Author:  gewex@cais.cais.com_at_internet at X400PO
Date:    9/26/94 12:52 PM

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I am looking for some current thinking on the use of predicate nominative 
in Koine, although such thinking may take into account historical 
perspectives on the subject. Is there a *best rule* ? Can we have any 
certainty regarding word placement in specific instances where the 
predicate nominative is used? I am particularly interested in Johannine 
use, but are there any characteristic differences between the various NT 
writers on this point - either from your own work or other sources you can 


Chuck Arnold