Types of paraphrase

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Stephen Hughes
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Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Types of paraphrase

Post by Stephen Hughes » March 17th, 2015, 7:59 am

The topic of paraphrase comes up from time to time as a way to help understanding Greek. I've posted the Shield with the hope of discuss it by paraphrase if anyone is interested in that. It is one of the techniques I use to teach / encourage thinking in English with my ESL students, from intermediate level.

I use 5 different types of paraphrase in my teaching:
  1. Close synonyms - cry out = shout, easy = simple
  2. Negated antonyms - good = not bad, easy = not difficult
  3. Explanations - have adventure = do something dangerous and fun, shout = speak loudly
  4. Gramatical rephrasing - There is a book on the table = A book is on the table; She was standing by the lake = She stood by the lake for a while.
  5. Changes in points of view - I'm excited = It's fun here; He just arrived = He is here now.
The best results come from understanding a word in a number of these different ways. The thinking in English is literally constructed by (and for - depending on their competency) the learners. I encourage students to vary their choices and not rely on just one method.

Is there an interest in paraphrasing Hesiod?
0 x


Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

cwconrad
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Re: Types of paraphrase

Post by cwconrad » March 17th, 2015, 8:41 am

Stephen Hughes wrote:Is there an interest in paraphrasing Hesiod?
Who is Hesiod? What is she? (Is this work really Hesiod's own? It is associated with Hesiod as a pseudo-Hesiodic work for no reason other than that it belongs to the same genre, which would suggest that Hesiod is a genre rather than a real person, although the biographical details cited in the earlier part of the "Works and Days" are generally thought to be genuine self-description. Hesiod's unquestionably authentic works are themselves fascinating, but the mishmash of poems like the Βατραχομυομαχία (Homeric or Hasidic?) or the weird Eoeae/Ηοίαι -- from lines beginning with ἢ οἵη ...
At any rate, it occurred to me, since you're suggesting the paraphrasing game (I realize you're serious about this game, of course), to wonder whether the ῎Ασπις belongs to Hesiod or might better be attributed to Aspasia -- sort of like the notion that "Paul's letter to the Hebrews" was really written by Priscilla. :lol:
0 x
οὔτοι ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς πάντα θεοὶ θνητοῖς ὑπέδειξαν,
ἀλλὰ χρόνῳ ζητέοντες ἐφευρίσκουσιν ἄμεινον. (Xenophanes, Fragment 16)

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University (Retired)

Stephen Hughes
Posts: 3323
Joined: February 26th, 2013, 7:12 am

Re: Types of paraphrase

Post by Stephen Hughes » March 17th, 2015, 9:06 am

cwconrad wrote:At any rate, it occurred to me, since you're suggesting the paraphrasing game (I realize you're serious about this game, of course), to wonder whether the ῎Ασπις belongs to Hesiod or might better be attributed to Aspasia -- sort of like the notion that "Paul's letter to the Hebrews" was really written by Priscilla. :lol:
Different games can be played on the same turf. The Shield thread could perhaps do with some punctuation for those not interested in the direct / immersion approach.

"the paraphrasing game", as you've put it, is a nuts and bolts skill building excercise, which is dauntingly difficult for non-native speakers to guide players through. It usually only works when there is a great gap between the competency of the game-leader (in a classroom usually a stronger student helped when needed by the teacher, or the teacher themselves) and that of the players. In this case, however, the Shield is so far removed from the Greek into which I'm expecting it to be rendered, that my assumed role as game-leader while being nearly incompetent in Greek perhaps won't turn out with such bad result.

If (pseudo-)Hesiod doesn't come about, perhaps the same approach with an easier section from a Koine work might be just the cup of tea we've been waiting for.
0 x
Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

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