Next up is A. T. Robertson, Grammar of the Greek New Testament in Light of Historical Research
. 3rd ed. (London: Hodder & Stoughton, 1919). This is probably the last big reference grammar written for the Greek of the Testament. BDF and Moule are old-style intermediate grammars that assume a basic knowledge of (Attic) Greek grammar. The newer intermediate grammars are even more basic, teaching the grammatical basics that the older ones assumed.
Robertson 1919:791-3 Chap 26 § 8 wrote:
(c) PREPOSITIONAL PHRASES. These were also often considered definite enough without the article. So ἐν οἴκῳ (1 Cor. 11:34. Cf. ἐν τῷ οἴκῳ, 'in the house,' Jo. 11:20)= 'at home.' So we say "go to bed," etc. Moulton [Prol., p. 82] pertinently cites English "down town," "on change," "in bed," "from start to finish." This idiom is not therefore peculiar to Greek. It is hardly necessary to mention all the N. T. examples, so common is the matter.
Thus with ἀνά observe ἀνἂ μέρος (1 Cor. 14:27). With ἀπό note ἀπ' ἀγροῦ (Mk. 15:21), ἀπ' ἀγορᾶς (Mk. 7:4), ἀπ' οὐρανοῦ (Lu. 17:29), ἀπ' οὐρανῶν (Heb. 12:25), ἀπὸ ἀνατολῆς (Rev. 21:13), ἀπὸ ἀνατολῶν, (Mt. 2:1), ἀπ' ἀρχῆς (1 Jo. 1:1), ἀπὸ καταβολῆς (Mt. 13:35), ἀπὸ μέρους (Ro. 11:25), ἀπὸ νεκρῶν (Lu. 16:30). Cf. Rev. 21:13, ἀπὸ βορρᾶ, ἀπὸ νότου, ἀπὸ δυσμῶν. So ἄχρι καιροῦ (Lu. 4:13).
For διά note διὰ νυκτός (Ac. 5:19), διὰ μέσου (Lu. 4:30), διὰ μέσον (17:11).
For εἰς see εἰς ᾅδην (Ac. 2:27), εἰς οὐρανόν (1 Pet. 3:22), εἰς ἀγρόν (Mk. 16:12), εἰς θάλαασαν (Mt. 17:27), εἰς οἶκον (Mk. 3:20), εἰς πρόσωπον (Mk. 12:14), εἰς μέσον (Mk. 14:60), εἰς οἰκίαν (2 Jo. 10), εἰς τέλος (Mt. 10:22).
For ἐν may be noticed ἐν οὐρανῷ (Mt. 6:20), ἐν οὐρανοῖς (Heb. 12:23), ἐν ὑψίστοις (Lu. 2:14), ἐν δεξιᾷ (Heb. 1:3), ἐν κόσμῳ (Col. 2:20), ἐν ἀγρῷ (Lu. 15:25), ἐν ἀγορᾷ (Lu. 7:32), ἐν οἴκῳ (1 Cor. 14:35), ἐν ἐκκλησίᾳ= 'at church' (1 Cor. 14:19), ἐν προσώπῳ (2 Cor. 5:12), ἐν ἡμέρᾳ (Ro. 13:13), ἐν καιρῷ (Mt. 24:45), ἐν ἀρχῇ (Jo. 1:1), ἐν σαρκί (2 Cor. 10:3), ἐν ἀνθρώποις (Lu. 1:25), ἐν νυκτί (Ac. 18:9).
Examples of ἐξ are ἐκ μέρους (1 Cor. 12:27), ἐκ ψυχῆς (Eph. 6:6), ἐκ νεότητος (Ac. 26:4), ἐξ ἀρχῆς (Jo. 6:64), ἐκ δεξιῶν (Mt. 27:38), ἐξ εὐωνύμων (Mt. 25:41), ἐξ ἀριστερῶν (Lu. 23:33), ἐκ μέσου (2 Th. 2:7), ἐκ καρδίας (Ro. 6:17), ἐκ νεκρῶν (Lu. 9:7), ἐξ οὐρανοῦ (Jo. 1:32).
For ἕως observe ἕως ᾅδου (Mt. 11:23), ἕως οὐρανοῦ (Mt. 11:23), ἕως δυσμῶν (Mt. 24:27), ἕως ἕσπέρας (Ac. 28:23), ἕως τέλους (1 Cor. 1:8).
Examples of ἐπί are ἐπὶ γῆς (Lu. 2:14), ἐπὶ θύραις (Mt. 24:33), ἐπὶ πρόσωπον (Lu. 5:12).
For κατά see κατ' ὀφθαλμούς (Gal. 3:1), κατὰ λίβα καὶ κατὰ χῶρον (Ac. 27:12), κατὰ μεσημβρίαν (Ac. 8:26), κατ' ἀρχάς (Heb. 1:10), κατὰ πρόσωπον (Ac. 25:16), κατὰ μέρος (Heb. 9:5), κατὰ σάρκα (2 Cor. 10:3), κατὰ ἀνθρώπους (1 Pet. 4:6).
For μέχρρι observe μέχρι μεσονυκτίου (Ac. 20:7), μέχρι τέλους (Heb. 3:6).
For παρά note παρὰ θάλασσαν (Ac. 10:32), παρὰ ποταμόν (Ac. 16:13).
For περί see περὶ μεσημβρίαν (Ac. 22:6).
For πρό see πρὸ καιροῦ (Mt. 8:29).
For πρός observe πρόσωπον πρὸς πρόσωπον (1 Cor. 13:12), πρὸς ἑσπέραν (Lu. 24:29).
For ὑπό see ὑπ' οὐρανόν (Lu. 17:24).
It will be noted that this usage after all is confined to a rather narrow range of words, some of which, like οὐρανός and γῆ, represent single objects. More of this a little later. Most of these examples have articular parallels. See also v, (f). For classic examples see Gildersleeve, Syntax, p. 259 f. The papyri furnish abundant parallels (Volker, Syntax, pp. 15-17) as do the inscriptions (Radermacher, N. T. Gr., p. 92).
(d) WITH BOTH PREPOSITION AND GENITIVE. It is not surprising to find no article with phrases which use both preposition and genitive like εἰς εὐαγγέλιον θεοῦ (Ro. 1:1), ἀπὸ ὀφθαλμῶν σου (Lu. 19:42), ἐκ δεξιῶν μου (Mt. 20:23), ἀπ' ἀρχῆς κόσμου (Mt. 24:21), παρὰ καιρὸν ἡλικίας (Heb. 11:11), ἐν καιρῷ πειρασμοῦ (Lu. 8:13), ἀπὸ καταβολῆς κόσμου (Mt. 25:34), ἐν βραχίονι αὐτοῦ (Lu. 1:51), etc.
Robertson's approach to obversational adequacy is lots of examples. In terms of his description, it seems largely lexical, listing the various prepositions and (definite) objects that collocate without the article. One can question whether this description is adequacy, for many of these are arguably qualitative rather than definite. In addition, Robertson admits there are many exceptions. The examples in subsection (d) are interesting: they appear to follow Apollonius' Canon, itself a poorly understood behavior of the article.
In short, the student using Robertson's grammar is alerted to the phenomenon but hardly gains an insight into its usage and meaning.