How can I best learn new vocabulary items? What aids are there and what pitfalls should be avoided? How does a beginner learn to use a lexicon?
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As you read? One way to do this is to use a tool that does morphological analysis, such as the Scaife reader.
Alpheios lets you do this for any Greek text on a web page:
Alpheios used to have derivation tables from Masternarde, they have not yet added them back, they were extremely helpful.
These tools are not always right, but it's usually close enough to be helpful. Or are you trying to learn how Greek words are formed? For that you should consider buying a Greek morphology.
@jtauber has some resources for morphological analysis of verbs and derivation of word forms if you don't mind searching in a file. Here are two files that can be useful.
ἐξίσταντο δὲ πάντες καὶ διηποροῦντο, ἄλλος πρὸς ἄλλον λέγοντες, τί θέλει τοῦτο εἶναι;