Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

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Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by Matthew Longhorn » December 7th, 2017, 12:35 pm

I am slightly puzzled by the usage of the article before the prepositional phrase in Luke 19:47.
I understand that one use may be to substantivize/nominalise the prepositional phrase. Does this therefore make the teaching being referred to something more concrete/consistent than omitting the article? By omitting the article the teaching would therefore not necessarily be flagged by the author as being the same each day?

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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by Matthew Longhorn » December 7th, 2017, 1:51 pm

To make it clearer, could there be an implied αυτο that the article is referring to? This would then mean he was teaching the purity of the temple daily

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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by S Walch » December 7th, 2017, 2:17 pm

BDF §160 literally calls it a 'meaningless article':

160. The accusative of respect with adjectives (for δεδεμένος τοὺς πόδας and the like, s. §159(3)) and the like is used in the NT in a very limited way, since its function has almost entirely passed over to the dative (§197). Mt 27:57 τοὔνομα ‘by name (with respect to name)’ as in classical, otherwise ὀνόματι. Jn 6:10 τὸν ἀριθμὸν ὡς πεντακισχίλιοι. H 2:17 πιστὸς ἀρχιερεὺς τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν, cf. 5:1. But in R 15:17 the same phrase τὰ πρὸς τὸν θεόν has now become an adverbial accusative. A 17:28 γένος (from Arat., Phaenom. 5; cf. Cleanthes, Hymn to Zeus 4 [Stoic, i 537] ἐκ σοῦ γὰρ γένος ἐσμέν), taken up in v. 29 γένος οὖν ὑπάρχοντες: with Aratus it was certainly an acc. of general reference, while in Acts it was evidently felt to be subject. Cf. Bauer s.v. for bibliography. There are other remnants of this adverbial usage in the NT:

R 12:18 τὸ ἐξ ὑμῶν … εἰρηνεύοντες, 9:5 τὸ κατὰ σάρκα, 1:15 τὸ κατʼ ἐμέ (§224(1)), 12:5 τὸ καθʼ εἷς, 16:19 τὸ ἐφʼ ὑμῖν v.l.; τὰ πολλά (v.l. πολλάκις) 15:22, τὸ πλεῖστον (‘at most’) τρεῖς 1 C 14:27, τὸ πρότερον, τὸ πρῶτον cf. §62. With meaningless article: τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ‘daily’ (class.) Lk 11:3, 19:47, A 17:11, 28 D, 19:9 D, τὸ πρωΐ 5:21 D (LXX Ex 29:39 and often), τὸ δειλινόν ‘afternoon’ 3:1 D (LXX Ex 29:39 etc.), s. §161(3). Τὸ νῦν ἔχον A 24:25 ‘for now’ (Lucian et al.), τὰ νῦν Acts, e.g. 4:29; τὸ τέλος ‘finally’ 1 P 3:8, τὴν ἀρχήν ‘from the beginning, at all’ Jn 8:25 (cf. §300(2)). For the latter meaning cf. Homil Clem 11.32.1, 18.21.3, 19.6.6, 10.1; ‘to begin with’ 19.24.3; τί καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν διαλέγομαι; 6.11 (s. Bauer, Hdb. on Jn 8:25). Αὐτὸ τοῦτο s. §290(4). Δωρεάν ‘gratuitously’ and μακράν (§161(1)) have become purely adverbial, and χάριν ‘on account of’ has become a preposition. (Τὸ) λοιπόν ‘for the rest, moreover, now, already’ rather often (E 6:10 p46S*AB τοῦ λοιποῦ ‘henceforth’, s. §186(2)); already in Att.; λοιπὸν οὖν 1 Th 4:1 as in BGU iv 1079.6 (41 ad); pap. Mayser ii 3, 145f. A. Cavallin, (Τὸ) λοιπόν, eine bedeutungsgeschichtliche Untersuchung (Eranos 39 [1941] 121–44).—Ἀκμήν ‘still’ Mt 15:16, also H 5:13 D*E*. Hell. Phryn. 123; Krumbacher, KZ 27 (1885) 498ff.; 29 (1888) 188f.; Psaltes 334; Gromska 63f. Ἀκμήν Theoc. 4.60 resumption of ἔτι 58, ἀκμὴν ἔτι Polyb. 14.4.9, 15.6.6, ἔτι ἀκμήν inscrip. 5 bc, etc. (Klaffenbach, APF 13 [1939] 213). Not in LXX; MGr ἀκόμη ‘still’.—Ὃν τρόπον Mt 23:37 and rather often (LXX often, Johannessohn i 81), τὸν ὅμοιον τρόπον Jd 7 (τὸν αὐτὸν τρ. and the like LXX, Johannessohn i 82) are related to the acc. of content; also dat. παντὶ τρόπῳ Ph 1:18 (LXX 1 Macc 14:35, §198(4)) and καθʼ ὃν τρ. A 15:11, 27:25 (LXX, Johannessohn i 82). Cf. R 3:2, 2 Th 2:3. Ptol. pap. τὸν αὐτὸν τρ., ὃν τρ., τίνα τρ. besides οὐδενὶ τρόπῳ and the like (Mayser ii 2, 329). Οὐδὲν χρείαν ἔχω Rev 3:17 AC (οὐδενός SP 046; cf. §154).—Smyth §§1600ff., 1606ff.; Rob. 486ff. Mayser ii 2, 151, 326ff.

Blass, F., Debrunner, A., & Funk, R. W. (1961). A Greek grammar of the New Testament and other early Christian literature (87). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by Matthew Longhorn » December 7th, 2017, 2:24 pm

Thanks for the reply.
I am reticent to ascribe meaninglessness to something where an author had a choice to use it or not. Not sure whether the mantra of choice=meaning is a valid one, but the author here has used a more complex phrase than he needed to if it were simply meaningless.

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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by Stirling Bartholomew » December 7th, 2017, 3:30 pm

Matthew Longhorn wrote:
December 7th, 2017, 2:24 pm
I am reticent to ascribe meaninglessness to something where an author had a choice to use it or not. Not sure whether the mantra of choice=meaning is a valid one, but the author here has used a more complex phrase than he needed to if it were simply meaningless.
I believe this was something like a central dogma of SFL[1] as it was taught at the Roehampton Institute in the '90s.

Compare:

Luke 11:3 τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δίδου ἡμῖν τὸ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν·

Ex. 16:4 εἶπεν δὲ κύριος πρὸς Μωυσῆν Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ὕω ὑμῖν ἄρτους ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ἐξελεύσεται ὁ λαὸς καὶ συλλέξουσιν τὸ τῆς ἡμέρας εἰς ἡμέραν, ὅπως πειράσω αὐτοὺς εἰ πορεύσονται τῷ νόμῳ μου ἢ οὔ·

Ex. 16:5 καὶ ἔσται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἕκτῃ καὶ ἑτοιμάσουσιν ὃ ἐὰν εἰσενέγκωσιν, καὶ ἔσται διπλοῦν ὃ ἐὰν συναγάγωσιν τὸ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν εἰς ἡμέραν.

[1]Stanley Porter's take on Systemic Functional Linguistics.
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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by Matthew Longhorn » December 7th, 2017, 3:37 pm

Hi Stirling, I may be slanted towards the SFL approach as I am taking SFL sessions with someone. Also, I am in the Porter camp on the question of verbal aspect, although more tentatively now than in the past

Each of your examples use the article, are you arguing that it is therefore not meaningful? I admit to not having done the work to see if καθ ημεραν is ever used without it

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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by Stirling Bartholomew » December 7th, 2017, 3:40 pm

Stirling Bartholomew wrote:
December 7th, 2017, 3:30 pm


Compare:

Luke 11:3 τὸν ἄρτον ἡμῶν τὸν ἐπιούσιον δίδου ἡμῖν τὸ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν·

Ex. 16:4 εἶπεν δὲ κύριος πρὸς Μωυσῆν Ἰδοὺ ἐγὼ ὕω ὑμῖν ἄρτους ἐκ τοῦ οὐρανοῦ, καὶ ἐξελεύσεται ὁ λαὸς καὶ συλλέξουσιν τὸ τῆς ἡμέρας εἰς ἡμέραν, ὅπως πειράσω αὐτοὺς εἰ πορεύσονται τῷ νόμῳ μου ἢ οὔ·

Ex. 16:5 καὶ ἔσται τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἕκτῃ καὶ ἑτοιμάσουσιν ὃ ἐὰν εἰσενέγκωσιν, καὶ ἔσται διπλοῦν ὃ ἐὰν συναγάγωσιν τὸ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν εἰς ἡμέραν.
Last edited by Stirling Bartholomew on December 7th, 2017, 4:06 pm, edited 1 time in total.
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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by Stirling Bartholomew » December 7th, 2017, 3:44 pm

Matthew Longhorn wrote:
December 7th, 2017, 3:37 pm
Hi Stirling, I may be slanted towards the SFL approach as I am taking SFL sessions with someone. Also, I am in the Porter camp on the question of verbal aspect, although more tentatively now than in the past

Each of your examples use the article, are you arguing that it is therefore not meaningful? I admit to not having done the work to see if καθ ημεραν is ever used without it
I think it is meaningful. I generally operate as if the SFL dogma is viable. Is typical in text-linguistics to adopt what is valuable from a variety of frameworks without adopting the framework in total.

"καθ ημεραν is ever used without it" it is used without it, frequently.
Matt. 26:55 Ἐν ἐκείνῃ τῇ ὥρᾳ εἶπεν ὁ Ἰησοῦς τοῖς ὄχλοις· ὡς ἐπὶ λῃστὴν ἐξήλθατε μετὰ μαχαιρῶν καὶ ξύλων συλλαβεῖν με; καθ᾿ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ ἐκαθεζόμην διδάσκων καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με.

Mark 14:49 καθ᾿ ἡμέραν ἤμην πρὸς ὑμᾶς ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ διδάσκων καὶ οὐκ ἐκρατήσατέ με· ἀλλ᾿ ἵνα πληρωθῶσιν αἱ γραφαί.

Luke 9:23 Ἔλεγεν δὲ πρὸς πάντας· εἴ τις θέλει ὀπίσω μου ἔρχεσθαι, ἀρνησάσθω ἑαυτὸν καὶ ἀράτω τὸν σταυρὸν αὐτοῦ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν καὶ ἀκολουθείτω μοι.

Luke 16:19 Ἄνθρωπος δέ τις ἦν πλούσιος, καὶ ἐνεδιδύσκετο πορφύραν καὶ βύσσον εὐφραινόμενος καθ᾿ ἡμέραν λαμπρῶς.

Luke 22:53 καθ᾿ ἡμέραν ὄντος μου μεθ᾿ ὑμῶν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ οὐκ ἐξετείνατε τὰς χεῖρας ἐπ᾿ ἐμέ, ἀλλ᾿ αὕτη ἐστὶν ὑμῶν ἡ ὥρα καὶ ἡ ἐξουσία τοῦ σκότους.

Acts 2:46 καθ᾿ ἡμέραν τε προσκαρτεροῦντες ὁμοθυμαδὸν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ, κλῶντές τε κατ᾿ οἶκον ἄρτον, μετελάμβανον τροφῆς ἐν ἀγαλλιάσει καὶ ἀφελότητι καρδίας 47 αἰνοῦντες τὸν θεὸν καὶ ἔχοντες χάριν πρὸς ὅλον τὸν λαόν. ὁ δὲ κύριος προσετίθει τοὺς σῳζομένους καθ᾿ ἡμέραν ἐπὶ τὸ αὐτό.

Acts 3:2 καί τις ἀνὴρ χωλὸς ἐκ κοιλίας μητρὸς αὐτοῦ ὑπάρχων ἐβαστάζετο, ὃν ἐτίθουν καθ᾿ ἡμέραν πρὸς τὴν θύραν τοῦ ἱεροῦ τὴν λεγομένην Ὡραίαν τοῦ αἰτεῖν ἐλεημοσύνην παρὰ τῶν εἰσπορευομένων εἰς τὸ ἱερόν·

Acts 16:5 Αἱ μὲν οὖν ἐκκλησίαι ἐστερεοῦντο τῇ πίστει καὶ ἐπερίσσευον τῷ ἀριθμῷ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν.

Acts 17:11 οὗτοι δὲ ἦσαν εὐγενέστεροι τῶν ἐν Θεσσαλονίκῃ, οἵτινες ἐδέξαντο τὸν λόγον μετὰ πάσης προθυμίας καθ᾿ ἡμέραν ἀνακρίνοντες τὰς γραφὰς εἰ ἔχοι ταῦτα οὕτως.

Acts 19:9 ὡς δέ τινες ἐσκληρύνοντο καὶ ἠπείθουν κακολογοῦντες τὴν ὁδὸν ἐνώπιον τοῦ πλήθους, ἀποστὰς ἀπ᾿ αὐτῶν ἀφώρισεν τοὺς μαθητὰς καθ᾿ ἡμέραν διαλεγόμενος ἐν τῇ σχολῇ Τυράννου.

1Cor. 15:31 καθ᾿ ἡμέραν ἀποθνῄσκω, νὴ τὴν ὑμετέραν καύχησιν, [ἀδελφοί,] ἣν ἔχω ἐν Χριστῷ Ἰησοῦ τῷ κυρίῳ ἡμῶν.

2Cor. 11:28 χωρὶς τῶν παρεκτὸς ἡ ἐπίστασίς μοι ἡ καθ᾿ ἡμέραν, ἡ μέριμνα πασῶν τῶν ἐκκλησιῶν.

Heb. 7:27 ὃς οὐκ ἔχει καθ᾿ ἡμέραν ἀνάγκην, ὥσπερ οἱ ἀρχιερεῖς, πρότερον ὑπὲρ τῶν ἰδίων ἁμαρτιῶν θυσίας ἀναφέρειν ἔπειτα τῶν τοῦ λαοῦ· τοῦτο γὰρ ἐποίησεν ἐφάπαξ ἑαυτὸν ἀνενέγκας.

Heb. 10:11 Καὶ πᾶς μὲν ἱερεὺς ἕστηκεν καθ᾿ ἡμέραν λειτουργῶν καὶ τὰς αὐτὰς πολλάκις προσφέρων θυσίας, αἵτινες οὐδέποτε δύνανται περιελεῖν ἁμαρτίας,
Last edited by Stirling Bartholomew on December 7th, 2017, 3:56 pm, edited 3 times in total.
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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by S Walch » December 7th, 2017, 3:46 pm

For the NT, καθʼ ἡμέραν without neuter article:

Matt 26:55; Mark 14:49; Luke 9:23, 16:19, 22:53; Acts 2:46, 47, 3:2, 16:5, 19:9; 1 Cor 15:31; Heb 7:27, 10:11

With neuter article:

Luke 11:3, 19:47; Acts 17:11

Needless to say, the places without outnumber those with more than 4:1, plus is peculiar to the Lucian corpus :)

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Re: Καὶ ἦν διδάσκων τὸ καθʼ ἡμέραν ἐν τῷ ἱερῷ

Post by Matthew Longhorn » December 7th, 2017, 3:55 pm

Thanks both for the replies

A previous reply failed to post for some reason, but thanks for doing the work for me in finding the examples. I got round to logging into Logos and doing the search but you had beaten me to it.

So the question then is
1. Whether there is a fundamental rule that governs the presence or omission of the article. Could Luke have omitted it in Luke 19:47
2. Whether the article retains a deictic sense (if you believe that it is a deictic indicator) in these examples where it is present
3. How does this affect the meaning of the text of Luke 19:47

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