Isaiah Chapter 9

This is a B-Greek reading Group for the LXX Isaiah. This reading group is going through two chapters of the LXX Isaiah per week. Ken Penner, the B-Greek moderator for the "Septuagint and Pseudepigrapha Forum" is writing a commentary on the LXX Isaiah and is sharing his notes with those who wish to read the Isaiah LXX. Dive in, if you dare!
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Isaiah Chapter 9

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 10th, 2011, 9:57 am

49. The yoke removed (9:1-5)
9.1 Τοῦτο πρῶτον πίε, ταχὺ ποίει, χώρα Ζαβουλων, ἡ γῆ Νεφθαλιμ καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ οἱ τὴν παραλίον καὶ πέραν τοῦ Ιορδάνου, Γαλιλαία τῶν ἐθνῶν, τὰ μέρη τῆς Ιουδαίας. 2 ὁ λαὸς ὁ πορευόμενος ἐν σκότει, ἴδετε φῶς μέγα· οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν χώρᾳ σκιᾷ θανάτου, φῶς λάμψει ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς. 3 τὸ πλεῖστον τοῦ λαοῦ, ὃ κατήγαγες ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ σου, καὶ εὐφρανθήσονται ἐνώπιόν σου ὡς οἱ εὐφραινόμενοι ἐν ἀμήτῳ καὶ ὃν τρόπον εὐφραίνονται οἱ διαιρούμενοι σκῦλα. 4 διότι ἀφῄρηται ὁ ζυγὸς ὁ ἐπ’ αὐτῶν κείμενος καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος ἡ ἐπὶ τοῦ τραχήλου αὐτῶν· τὴν γὰρ ῥάβδον τῶν ἀπαιτούντων διεσκέδασεν Κύριος ὡς τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἐπὶ Μαδιάμ. 5 ὅτι πᾶσαν στολὴν ἐπισυνηγμένην δόλῳ καὶ ἱμάτιον μετὰ καταλλαγῆς ἀποτείσουσιν καὶ θελήσουσιν εἰ ἐγενήθησαν πυρίκαυστοι.

50. A son is given (9:6-7)
6 Ὅτι παιδίον ἐγεννήθη ἡμῖν, υἱὸς καὶ ἐδόθη ὑμῖν, οὗ ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐγενήθη ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ, καὶ καλεῖται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος· ἐγὼ γὰρ ἄξω εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας, καὶ ὑγίειαν αὐτῷ. 7 μεγάλη ἀρχὴ αὐτοῦ, καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν ὅριον ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον Δαυεὶδ καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ κατορθῶσαι καὶ ἀντιλαβέσθαι αὐτῆς ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματι ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν καὶ ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνος· ὁ ζῆλος Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ ποιήσει ταῦτα.

51. Building a new tower (9:8-10)
8 Λόγον ἀπέστειλεν Κύριος ἐπὶ Ἰακώβ, καὶ ἦλθεν ἐπὶ Ἰσραήλ, 9 καὶ γνώσονται πᾶς ὁ λαὸς τοῦ Ἐφράιμ καὶ οἱ ἐγκαθήμενοι ἐν Σαμαρείᾳ ἐν ὕβρει καὶ ὑψηλῇ καρδίᾳ λέγοντες 10 Πλίνθοι πεπτώκασιν,

Ἀλλὰ δεῦτε λαξεύσωμεν λίθους καὶ ἐκκόψομεν συκαμίνους καὶ οἰκοδομήσωμεν ἑαυτοῖς πύργον.

52. God disperses Sion’s enemies (9:11-13)
11 Καὶ ῥάξει ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἐπανιστανομένους ἐπὶ Ιερουσαλημ, ἐπὶ ὄρος Σιὼν ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς καὶ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς αὐτῶν διασκεδάσει, 12 Συρίαν ἀφ’ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀφ’ ἡλίου δυσμῶν τοὺς κατεσθίοντας τὸν Ισραηλ ὅλῳ τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν. ἐπὶ τούτοις πᾶσιν οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή. 13 καὶ ὁ λαὸς οὐκ ἀπεστράφη, ἕως ἐπλήγη, καὶ τὸν κύριον οὐκ ἐζήτησαν.

53. Lord removes head and tail (9:14-17)
14 Καὶ ἀφεῖλεν Κύριος ἀπὸ Ἰσραὴλ κεφαλὴν καὶ οὐράν, μέγαν καὶ μικρὸν ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ, 15 πρεσβύτην καὶ τοὺς τὰ πρόσωπα θαυμάζοντας αὕτη ἡ ἀρχή καὶ προφήτην διδάσκοντα ἄνομα οὗτος ἡ οὐρά. 16 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ μακαρίζοντες τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον πλανῶντες καὶ πλανῶσιν ὅπως καταπίνωσιν αὐτούς. 17 διὰ τοῦτο ἐπὶ τοὺς νεανικοὺς αὐτῶν οὐκ εὐφρανθήσεται ὁ θεὸς καὶ τοὺς ὀρφανοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς χήρας αὐτῶν οὐκ ἐλεήσει, ὅτι πάντες ἄνομοι καὶ πονηροί, καὶ πᾶν στόμα λαλεῖ ἄδικα.

54. Lord’s wrath burns everything (9:17-21)
Ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή.

18 Καὶ καυθήσεται ὡς πῦρ ἡ ἀνομία καὶ ὡς ἄγρωστις ξηρὰ βρωθήσεται ὑπὸ πυρός· καὶ καυθήσεται ἐν τοῖς δάσεσι τοῦ δρυμοῦ, καὶ συγκαταφάγεται τὰ κύκλῳ τῶν βουνῶν πάντα. 19 διὰ θυμὸν ὀργῆς Κυρίου συγκέκαυται ἡ γῆ ὅλη, καὶ ἔσται ὁ λαὸς ὡς ὑπὸ πυρὸς κατακεκαυμένος· ἄνθρωπος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐλεήσει, 20 ἀλλὰ ἐκκλινεῖ εἰς τὰ δεξιά, ὅτι πεινάσει, καὶ φάγεται ἐκ τῶν ἀριστερῶν, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἐμπλησθῇ ἄνθρωπος ἔσθων τὰς σάρκας τοῦ βραχίονος αὐτοῦ. 21 φάγεται γὰρ Μανασσὴ τοῦ Ἐφράιμ καὶ Ἐφράιμ τοῦ Μανασσή, ὅτι ἅμα πολιορκήσουσιν τοι Ἰούδαν. ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή.
Ken M. Penner
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Notes on Isaiah 9:1-5

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 10th, 2011, 1:57 pm

49. The yoke removed (9:1-5)
9.1 Τοῦτο πρῶτον πίε, ταχὺ ποίει, χώρα Ζαβουλών, ἡ γῆ Νεφθαλίμ καὶ οἱ λοιποὶ οἱ τὴν παραλίον κατοικοῦντες καὶ πέραν τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, Γαλιλέα τῶν ἐθνῶν, τὰ μέρη τῆς Ιουδαίας. 2 ὁ λαὸς ὁ πορευόμενος ἐν σκότει, ἴδετε φῶς μέγα· οἱ κατοικοῦντες ἐν χώρᾳ σκιᾷ θανάτου, φῶς λάμψει ἐφ’ ὑμᾶς. 3 τὸ πλεῖστον τοῦ λαοῦ, ὃ κατήγαγες ἐν εὐφροσύνῃ σου, καὶ εὐφρανθήσονται ἐνώπιόν σου ὡς οἱ εὐφραινόμενοι ἐν ἀμήτῳ καὶ ὃν τρόπον εὐφραίνονται οἱ διαιρούμενοι σκῦλα. 4 διότι ἀφῄρηται ὁ ζυγὸς ὁ ἐπ’ αὐτῶν κείμενος καὶ ἡ ῥάβδος ἡ ἐπὶ τοῦ τραχήλου αὐτῶν· τὴν γὰρ ῥάβδον τῶν ἀπαιτούντων διεσκέδασεν Κύριος ὡς τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἐπὶ Μαδιάμ. 5 ὅτι πᾶσαν στολὴν ἐπισυνηγμένην δόλῳ καὶ ἱμάτιον μετὰ καταλλαγῆς ἀποτείσουσιν καὶ θελήσουσιν εἰ ἐγενήθησαν πυρίκαυστοι.
Two differences of division appear at the boundary between chapters 8 and 9. One is the division of the last verses of chapter 8; the other is where chapter 9 begins. Rahlfs follows the MT. Ziegler follows Swete. The English versions follow the MT for verse division, but not for chapter division, and consequently not for verse numbering.
The MT begins verse 23 with the words corresponding to καὶ οὐκ ἀπορηθήσεται and English versions begin chapter 9 here, but Swete keeps these words in verse 22. Swete begins chapter 9 beginning with Τοῦτο πρῶτον, which is partway through the MT’s 8:23. Rahlfs begins a new paragraph there, but doesn’t start chapter 9 until ὁ λαὸς, following the MT. Therefore the verse numbering in the rest of chapter 9 is one less in the MT and Rahlfs than in Swete, Ziegler, and the English versions. The numbering in Brenton and both Ottley’s translations (Heb. and LXX) agree with Swete’s. Silva’s numbering follows Ziegler.
8.23-9.1 division.jpg
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1
πίε] with A, B; Rahlfs Ziegler ποίει, following a marginal note in Q. Just what is to be drunk is not specified. Ottley conjectures that the original reading was a literal translation of the Hebrew:

Code: Select all

ΠΡΩΤΟΝΤΑΧΥΕΠΕΙΤΑΠΑΧΥΠΟΙΕΙ which by scribal error became
ΠΡΩΤΟΝ     ΠΙΕ  ΤΑΧΥΠΟΙΕΙ
Matthew 4.15 is not much help because its quotation begins after this difficulty. As it is, we have two singular imperatives addressed to the inhabitants of Zaboulon, Nephthalim, the seaside, the trans-Jordan, Galilee, and Judea: drink this, and do it quickly!
Νεφθαλίμ] with B (Swete); changed by ca to Νεφθαλιμ ὁδὸν θαλάσσης, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler).
παραλίον] with A; B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) has παραλίαν. Both declensions are precedented; Diodorus Siculus has ἡ παράλιος, e.g., in 3.15.
κατοικοῦντες] added by ca, with A. Without this participle, the sentence has a nominative and accusative with no verb.
τὰ μέρη τῆς Ἰουδαίας] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); lacking in B (Swete).
2
σκιᾷ] with Swete; changed by ca to καὶ σκιᾷ, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler). In S, without the conjunction, it is in apposition with χώρᾳ.
3
εὐφραίνονται] with A; lacking in B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler). In this verse in S there are three instances of the verb εὐφραίνομαι, and another of the cognate noun, εὐφροσύνη. The MT has three words from the root שׂמח and one other verb of rejoicing, יָגִילוּ.
κατήγαγες] The MT has לֹא הִגְדַּלְתָּ; G either read (with the Qere) the negative “not”, or confused the consonants of the verbs, apparently reading הרגלת.
ἀμήτῳ] harvest, whether as a time, or a product.
ὃν τρόπον] see comment at 5:24.
διαιρούμενοι] διαιρέω means divide up or distribute.
4
ἀφῄρηται] with B (Rahlfs, Swete); A (Ziegler) has ἀφαιρεθήσεται. There is no corresponding Hebrew word here.
ἀπαιτούντων] ἀπαιτέω as a translation appears mainly in Isaiah, rendering נגשׂ here and in 14:4, נשים in 3:12 (probably a misreading), and תפת in 30:3.
διεσκέδασεν] διασκεδάννυμι means scatter, disperse.
τῇ ἡμέρᾳ τῇ ἐπὶ Μαδιάμ] This might have been understood as a day in which Madiam was punished. See note on 2:12.
ἐπισυνηγμένην] perfect participle of ἐπισυνάγω
καταλλαγῆς] καταλλαγή is generally an exchange; in NT usage, it is a change from enmity to friendship, i.e., reconciliation.
5
ἀποτείσουσιν] Swete spells it ἀποτίσουσιν. ἀποτίνω is to make compensation for damages. On the form, see B-D-F §23.
ἐγενήθησαν] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has ἐγένοντο.
θελήσουσιν εἰ ἐγενήθησαν πυρίκαυστοι] The Hebrew hereוהיתה ל‍שׂרפה מאכלת אשׁ, means “and it will be for burning – fire fuel.” Although Ottley’s judgement is overstated, that “the rest of the verse seems to have been beyond the translators’ knowledge,” G did apparently struggle with this clause, recognizing the ideas “be” “fire” and “burn,” but failing to make sense of them.

Comment: Contemporization
Seeligmann perceived in chapter nine “the historical atmosphere of Palestine in Hellenistic times” in “the hostility of the Greek cities on the west coast towards the Jewish population of Palestine.” He based this on three cases of updating: the first is in verse one, with the addition of παραλία, “the technical name for one of the parts of Palestine under Seleucid rule”, the second is τὰ μέρη τοῦ Ἰορδάνου, and the third is the rendering of Aram by Συρία, and Pilistim by Ἕλληνες.
In the same chapter, Robert Hanhart perceived three other indications of contemporization: the first is the translation of הקל as an imperative in verse two, “hurry: do quickly,” the second is the translation of ראו (in the MT pointed as a perfect) with the imperative ἴδετε. The third is the change from past to future in verse three, where Hebrew perfects are rendered with a Greek aorist then a future, so that the Lord brought down the people (that is, in the past), but their joy will come when he liberates them, as predicted in the next verse. Hanhart found a specific date for this liberation: December 14, 164 BCE.
However, there is a simpler explanation for these differences. In the absence of a tradition of vocalization, הקל could easily be read as an imperative, “hurry: do quickly.” Once the translator had this read this word as an imperative, a vocative could be expected, and therefore that is how he took the land of Zebulun and Naphtali. He updated the reference to the way of the sea with a more up-to-date name, the παραλίαν, but the referent remains unchanged. He reasonably continued the vocative with ‍האחרון as οἱ λοιποὶ, but given this context he was unsure what to do with הִכְבִּיד so he guessed at a verb that fit the context: inhabit. Subsequently, in 9:1(2) the MT’s perfect רָאוּ was naturally read also as an imperative ראו, resulting in the Greek ἴδετε. In the next verse, the MT’s verb הִרְבִּיתָ “you made numerous” is read as a noun from that root, “the numerous part.” Where the MT hasלֹא הִגְדַּלְתָּ , the translator wrote ὃ κατήγαγες, either reading (with the Qere) the negative “not”, or confusing the consonants of the verbs, apparently reading הרגלת. To fit the context he had created so far, and showing a typical lack of concern about the presence or absence of yod, he translated one of the perfects in verse two with a future.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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Notes on Isaiah 9:6-7

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 10th, 2011, 2:45 pm

50. A son is given (9:6-7)
6 Ὅτι παιδίον ἐγεννήθη ἡμῖν, υἱὸς καὶ ἐδόθη ὑμῖν, οὗ ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐγενήθη ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ, καὶ καλεῖται τὸ ὄνομα αὐτοῦ Μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος· ἐγὼ γὰρ ἄξω εἰρήνην ἐπὶ τοὺς ἄρχοντας, καὶ ὑγίειαν αὐτῷ. 7 μεγάλη ἀρχὴ αὐτοῦ, καὶ τῆς εἰρήνης αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἔστιν ὅριον ἐπὶ τὸν θρόνον Δαυὶδ καὶ τὴν βασιλείαν αὐτοῦ κατορθῶσαι αὐτὴν καὶ ἀντιλαβέσθαι ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματι ἀπὸ τοῦ νῦν καὶ ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνος· ὁ ζῆλος Κυρίου Σαβαὼθ ποιήσει ταῦτα.
6
καὶ ἐδόθη] with A; B (Swete) lacks καὶ. Since the καὶ is not at the beginning of the clause, it must be adverbial, which would be unexpected in an otherwise parallel set of statements. But in S (the first hand, at least; see the following note) we do not have close parallelism, since the pronoun changes from first to second person.
ὑμῖν] changed to ἡμῖν by ca & cb3, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler).
οὗ ἡ ἀρχὴ ἐγενήθη ἐπὶ τοῦ ὤμου αὐτοῦ] At first glance, the genitive relative pronoun appears to modify ἡ ἀρχὴ (“whose beginning”), but by the end of the clause it appears that we have a genitive personal pronoun resuming the genitive relative pronoun (“on whose shoulders”).
ἄγγελος] generally means a messenger; in biblical usage often refers to an divine (angelic) messenger. Here, a messenger from a council might be termed an envoy.
Μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος] Corrector ca added θαυμαστὸς σύμβολος θεὸς ἰσχυρός ἐξουσιαστής, ἄρχων εἰρήνης πατὴρ τοῦ μέλλοντος αἰῶνος, matching the Hebrew. Corrector cb added the cross signs (+), and d added red dots seen here:
9.6.jpg
Addition to Isaiah 9:6 in Sinaiticus
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Ziegler indicates that this section is marked by a obelus in 88 and the Syrohexapla. The words θαυμαστος συμβουλος θεος ισχυρος εξουσιαστης αρχων ειρηνης πατηρ του μελλοντος αιωνος are included in the manuscripts Alexandrinus, 106, 26, Venetus, 109, 736, the full Lucianic family of manuscripts (albeit with an asterisk in 22, 48, 51, 231, and 763) including 46, 233, 456 , the corrector to 764, 87, 91, 309, 490, 377, 564, 565, 403, 613, 407, 538, 770, except that Alexandrinus and 26 omit θεος, 109 and 736 transpose θαυμαστος συμβουλος with θεος ισχυρος They are also added in the Syropalestinian translation, Eusebius (Demonstratio Evangelica), Athanasius, Chrysostom, and possibly Theodoret. Clement has the slightly shorter θαυμαστος συμβουλος θεος δυναστης πατηρ αιωνιος αρχων ειρηνης. Other manuscripts not listed here do not include these words.
9.6 B.jpg
Isaiah 9:6 in Vaticanus
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Aquila has θαυμαστος συμβουλος ισχυρος δυνατος πατηρ ετι αρχων ειρηνης.
Symmachus has παραδοξασμος βουλευτικος ισχυρος δυνατος πατηρ αιωνος αρχων ειρηνης.
Theodotion has θαυμαστος βουλευων ισχυρος δυναστης πατηρ αιωνιος αρχων ειρηνης.
Most but not all of the words in the addition to S can be traced to interpolation from the Three; the exceptions are εξουσιαστης and του μελλοντος.
Ottley (2:155-156) summarized why these words are not “part of the true LXX. text:” they are not in the earliest manuscripts S* and B (or Q); they are largely a duplicate rendering of Μεγάλης βουλῆς ἄγγελος; the wording is close (but not identical) to that of the Three (Aquila, Symmachus, Theodotion). Otlley proposed that these words came from the version Theodotion revised (known from Daniel).

ἐγὼ] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); lacking in B (Swete).
γὰρ ἄξω] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has ἄξω γὰρ, probably because the ἐγὼ is absent, so that γὰρ falls in the second position in the sentence.
καὶ ὑγίειαν] with B (Swete); changed by cb1, cb2 to εἰρήνην καὶ ὑγίειαν, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler).
7
ἀρχὴ] changed by ca to ἡ ἀρχὴ, with A, B (Swete, Ziegler, Rahlfs).
κατορθῶσαι αὐτὴν καὶ ἀντιλαβέσθαι] The infinitives most simply would be understood as expressing purpose. ἀντιλαμβάνω usually takes its object in the genitive; here (in S) it shares its (accusative) object αὐτὴν with κατορθῶσαι. Manuscript A does not have this problem, since it includes αὐτῆς, as does the Hebrew.
ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματι] B (Swete) has ἐν κρίματι καὶ ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ, following the Hebrew order; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has αὐτῆς ἐν δικαιοσύνῃ καὶ ἐν κρίματι.
ἕως τοῦ αἰῶνος] A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα χρόνον; B (Swete) has εἰς τὸν αἰῶνα.
ζῆλος] means “intense positive interest,” according to BDAG, hence “eagerness.”
ταῦτα] presumably refers to the birth of the child, and the peace that comes from his just government.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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Notes on Isaiah 9:8-10

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 10th, 2011, 2:56 pm

51. Building a new tower (9:8-10)
8 Λόγον ἀπέστειλεν Κύριος ἐπὶ Ἰακώβ, καὶ ἦλθεν ἐπὶ Ἰσραήλ, 9 καὶ γνώσονται πᾶς ὁ λαὸς τοῦ Ἐφράιμ καὶ οἱ καθήμενοι ἐν Σαμαρείᾳ ἐν ὕβρει καὶ ὑψηλῇ καρδίᾳ λέγοντες 10 Πλίνθοι πεπτώκασιν,

Ἀλλὰ δεῦτε λαξεύσωμεν λίθους καὶ ἐκκόψομεν συκαμίνους καὶ οἰκοδομήσωμεν ἑαυτοῖς πύργον.
8
Λόγον] changed to Θάνατον by ca, cb3, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler).
ἐπὶ] earlier instances of ἐπὶ in G have carried a hostile sense, which would certainly be the case if the reading in the above note is Θάνατον.
ἦλθεν] the parallelism suggests the subject is the word, not Lord.
9
καθήμενοι] with B (Swete), changed to ἐνκαθήμενοι by ca; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has ἐγκαθήμενοι.
ἐν] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) have ἐφ’.
10
πλίνθοι πεπτώκασιν] These words belong with the preceding paragraph, in S. However, they make more sense with the following paragraph.
ἐκκόψομεν] a future in the middle of other subjunctives; A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has the subjunctive ἐκκόψωμεν; B (Swete) has a subjunctive without the preposition: κόψωμεν.
συκαμίνους καὶ] A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler) add another tree species; they have συκαμίνους καὶ κέδρους καὶ.
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Notes on Isaiah 9:11-13

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 10th, 2011, 4:08 pm

52. God disperses Sion’s enemies (9:11-13)
11 Καὶ ῥάξει ὁ θεὸς τοὺς ἐπανιστανομένους ἐπὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ, ἐπ’ ὄρος Σιὼν, ἐπ’ αὐτοὺς, καὶ τοὺς ἐχθροὺς αὐτῶν διασκεδάσει, 12 Συρίαν ἀφ’ ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν καὶ τοὺς Ἕλληνας ἀφ’ ἡλίου δυσμῶν τοὺς κατεσθίοντας τὸν Ἰσραὴλ ὅλῳ τῷ στόματι αὐτῶν. ἐπὶ τούτοις πᾶσιν οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή. 13 καὶ ὁ λαὸς οὐκ ἀπεστράφη, ἕως ἐπλήγη, καὶ τὸν κύριον οὐκ ἐζήτησαν.
11
ἐπανιστανομένους ἐπὶ Ἰερουσαλήμ, ἐπ’] A and B do not mention Jerusalem: A (Rahlfs, Ziegler) has ἐπανιστανομένους ἐπ’; B (Swete) has ἐπανισταμένους ἐπὶ. The verb ἐπανίστημι denotes hostile uprising.
Σιὼν] Swete spells it Σειὼν.
αὐτοὺς] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler), changed by ca to αὐτόν, with B, and back to αὐτοὺς by cb2. The singular form would refer to God; the plural would match the upcoming αὐτῶν. Silva has “And God will strike those who rise up against them on Mount Sion,” but the ἐπὶ immediately after the verb that also begins with ἐπὶ would more naturally be taken as the object of the verb, rather than the location at which the ῥάξει takes place.
αὐτῶν] with A (Rahlfs); lacking in B (Swete, Ziegler). Note the difference between Rahlfs and Ziegler.
12
Συρίαν] the Hebrew is ארם. This is a case of non-interpretive updating, since there is no change of referent. For another case, see the river in 27:12, which is called the “River of Egypt” in Hebrew, but the “Rhinokorouron” in Greek, with no difference in meaning.
αὐτῶν] lacking in A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler).
ἡλίου ἀνατολῶν] East
Ἕλληνας] The Hebrew is פלשׁתים. This is a case of interpretive updating, since there is a change of referent (the Philistines are not the same as the Greeks), but not enough to be considered actualization. Those inhabiting Philistia in the translator’s time would have been Greek-speakers. Syria and the Greeks are presented as enemies of Israel, attacking it from both sides.
ἡλίου δυσμῶν] West
In 5:25 we had ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή; the expression appears again in 9:17 and in chapter 10. In 5:25, the preposition is unique; here the order τούτοις πᾶσιν is unique.
ὁ θυμός] It is not stated here whose the wrath is.
13
ἀπεστράφη] with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler); B (Swete) has ἐπεστράφη. Note the singular form, repeated from the preceding verse.
τὸν κύριον] a rare case of the article preceding κύριος.
ἐζήτησαν] with B (Swete), changed by cb2 to ἐξεζήτησαν, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler). Note the plural form, despite the singular ὁ λαὸς, ἀπεστράφη, and ἐπλήγη.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
Posts: 718
Joined: May 12th, 2011, 7:50 am
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Notes on Isaiah 9:14-17

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 10th, 2011, 4:09 pm

53. Lord removes head and tail (9:14-17)
14 Καὶ ἀφεῖλεν Κύριος ἀπὸ Ἰσραὴλ κεφαλὴν καὶ οὐράν, μέγαν καὶ μικρὸν ἐν μιᾷ ἡμέρᾳ, 15 πρεσβύτην καὶ τοὺς τὰ πρόσωπα θαυμάζοντας, αὕτη ἡ ἀρχή, καὶ προφήτην διδάσκοντα ἄνομα, οὗτος ἡ οὐρά. 16 καὶ ἔσονται οἱ μακαρίζοντες τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον πλανῶντες καὶ πλανῶσιν ὅπως καταπίνωσιν αὐτούς. 17 διὰ τοῦτο ἐπὶ τοὺς νεανικοὺς αὐτῶν οὐκ εὐφρανθήσεται ὁ θεὸς, καὶ τοὺς ὀρφανοὺς αὐτῶν καὶ τὰς χήρας αὐτῶν οὐκ ἐλεήσει, ὅτι πάντες ἄνομοι καὶ πονηροί, καὶ πᾶν στόμα λαλεῖ ἄδικα.
Rahlfs, following the MT, places the division between 9:14 and 15 (his 9:13 and 14) after ἡμέρᾳ. Swete and Ziegler divide the verses after ἀρχή. S matches Swete and Ziegler; it has a raised dot after ἀρχή, but not after ἡμέρᾳ.
14
οὐράν] an animal’s tail
15
πρεσβύτην … προφήτην] these are still the objects of ἀφεῖλεν, in apposition to κεφαλὴν καὶ οὐράν as well as μέγαν καὶ μικρὸν.
αὕτη ἡ ἀρχή] in brackets in Rahlfs. ἀρχή here translates ראשׁ, as did κεφαλὴν.
τοὺς τὰ πρόσωπα θαυμάζοντας] πρόσωπα is a literal translation, but θαυμάζοντας is an unusual translation of נשׂא “lift.”
οὗτος ἡ οὐρά] in brackets in Rahlfs
16
τὸν λαὸν τοῦτον] this phrase carries negative connotations, since it was used to refer to the rebellious people of Israel in 6:8 and 8:6.
καταπίνωσιν] present subjunctive, with B (Swete), matching the earlier present indicative πλανῶσιν; changed by ca, cb3 to the aorist καταπίωσιν, with A (Rahlfs, Ziegler).
νεανικοὺς] changed to νεανίσκους by scribe B himself, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler).
εὐφρανθήσεται] recalls 9:3.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

Ken M. Penner
Posts: 718
Joined: May 12th, 2011, 7:50 am
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Notes on Isaiah 9:17-21

Post by Ken M. Penner » August 10th, 2011, 4:30 pm

54. Lord’s wrath burns everything (9:17-21)
Ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή.

18 Καὶ καυθήσεται ὡς πῦρ ἡ ἀνομία καὶ ὡς ἄγρωστις ξηρὰ βρωθήσεται ὑπὸ πυρός· καὶ καυθήσεται ἐν τοῖς δάσεσι τοῦ δρυμοῦ, καὶ συγκαταφάγεται τὰ κύκλῳ τῶν βουνῶν πάντα. 19 διὰ θυμὸν ὀργῆς Κυρίου συγκέκαυται ἡ γῆ ὅλη, καὶ ἔσται ὁ λαὸς ὡς ὑπὸ πυρὸς κατακεκαυμένος· ἄνθρωπος τὸν ἀδελφὸν αὐτοῦ οὐκ ἐλεήσει, 20 ἀλλὰ ἐκκλινεῖ εἰς τὰ δεξιά, ὅτι πεινάσει, καὶ φάγεται ἐκ τῶν ἀριστερῶν, καὶ οὐ μὴ ἐμπλησθῇ ἄνθρωπος ἔσθων τὰς σάρκας τοῦ βραχίονος αὐτοῦ. 21 φάγεται γὰρ Μανασσὴ τοῦ Ἐφράιμ καὶ Ἐφράιμ τοῦ Μανασσή, ὅτι ἅμα πολιορκήσουσιν τοι Ἰούδαν. ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή.
Ἐπὶ πᾶσιν τούτοις οὐκ ἀπεστράφη ὁ θυμός, ἀλλ’ ἔτι ἡ χεὶρ ὑψηλή] see note on 9:12.
18
ἄγρωστις] LSJ identifies this as dog’s-tooth grass, Cynodon Dactylon.
δάσεσι] δάσος is a thicket or copse.
συγκαταφάγεται] B (Swete) spells it συνκαταφάγεται
τῶν βουνῶν] partitive genitive
19
θυμὸν ὀργῆς] these two words are indistinguishable in G.
συγκέκαυται] the tense is perfect, a literal rendering of the Hebrew qatal form, but the time reference is future.
20
ἐκκλινεῖ εἰς τὰ δεξιά] a literal translation of the Hebrew; the meaning in Greek is obscure.
φάγεται ἐκ τῶν ἀριστερῶν] again, a literal translation of the Hebrew, with the resulting Greek obscure. The meaning in Hebrew is that they although they devour everything left and right, they are not satisfied. G mangles it by his choice of conjunctions: ἀλλά, and ὅτι.
21
τοῦ] genitive rather than accusative, probably partitive.
πολιορκήσουσιν] πολιορκέω means beseige.
τοι] changed by ca to τὸν, with A, B (Swete, Rahlfs, Ziegler). Τοι is used for emphasis.
πᾶσιν τούτοις] A, B (Rahlfs, Ziegler) have τούτοις πᾶσιν. See the note on 9:12.
Ken M. Penner
St. Francis Xavier University

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