Jonathan Robie wrote:So what would you do as a second step?
The best thing to do now is to march through the segments, one at time, and build a picture of what the author is saying.
They should be small enough to grasp easily in terms of syntax but also independent enough to identify their discourse function in relation to discourse entities.
Let's step through Gal 1:1ff. I'll be rather brief, but we can expand upon them if need be.
Nominative name. As an initial segment/colon, it is a topic frame to establish Paul as the topic for the following segments. It promises a finite verb for a prediction, which we won't quite get (cf. 2b
Another noun, also in the nominative. But Paul is already toplicalized, so it is in apposition to 1a
, and it tells us (comments) something about Paul: that he's an apostle.
1c οὐκ ἀπ’ ἀνθρώπων
A negated prepositional phrase. It is still telling us something about the topic, Paul: that he's not from (a group of) people.
1d οὐδὲ δι’ ἀνθρώπου
Another negative prepositonal. It is a thematic addition (οὐδέ), adding another denial: that he's not any person's agent.
1e ἀλλὰ διὰ Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ καὶ θεοῦ πατρὸς
The initial element ἀλλά signals a counterpoint to the previous point(s), viz. 1c 1d
, correcting some notion about his apostle.
1f τοῦ ἐγείραντος αὐτὸν ἐκ νεκρῶν,
A participial phrase in the genitive. The case shows that it is is now commenting upon God in 1e
2a καὶ οἱ σὺν ἐμοὶ πάντες ἀδελφοί,
Another nominative noun phrase, introduced by a marker of addition. This adds all the fellow Christians with Paul to the topical frame. Now it's about Paul and his fellow Christians.
2b ταῖς ἐκκλησίαις τῆς Γαλατίας·
This is where we should get the verb but all we have is a dative. Epistolary conventions would have us mentally supply an appropriate and predicable verb, like γράφουσι. With the verb so deemphasized as to be ellipsed, all we have left of this predication is the focus.
3a χάρις ὑμῖν καὶ εἰρήνη ἀπὸ θεοῦ πατρὸς καὶ κυρίου ἡμῶν Ἰησοῦ Χριστοῦ,
This is the greeting. Paul and crew wishes grace and peace from God the Father and Jesus Christ to the recipients.
4a τοῦ δόντος ἑαυτὸν ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν
A participial phrase in the genitive. The case shows that it is is now commenting upon Christ in 3a
. God was already commented upon in 1f
4b ὅπως ἐξέληται ἡμᾶς ἐκ τοῦ αἰῶνος τοῦ ἐνεστῶτος πονηροῦ
A purpose clause, explaining why Jesus gave himself, possibly to clarify the obscure ὑπὲρ τῶν ἁμαρτιῶν ἡμῶν. Christ is the active topic, so it can used as the implied subject of the verb. The structure of the noun phrase is fairly complex and may merit additional commentary.
4c κατὰ τὸ θέλημα τοῦ θεοῦ καὶ πατρὸς ἡμῶν,
An adverbial adjunct, elaborating about the nature of Jesus's purposed action.
5a ᾧ ἡ δόξα εἰς τοὺς αἰῶνας τῶν αἰώνων·
Relative clause. Its antecendent is the active topic, Jesus, and tells us more about him. An appropriate form of εἶναι should be suppled for this verbless clause, probably ἔστω.
An interjection that terminates the greeting.