Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

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Vladislav Kotenko
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Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by Vladislav Kotenko » November 9th, 2015, 11:15 am

Matthew 24:3 says: Καθημένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους τῶν ἐλαιῶν προσῆλθον αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ κατ᾽ ἰδίαν λέγοντες• εἰπὲ ἡμῖν, πότε ταῦτα ἔσται καὶ τί τὸ σημεῖον τῆς σῆς παρουσίας καὶ συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος.

Strong’s Greek Dictionary shows that the noun συντέλεια (which appears at Matthew 24:3) is formed from the verb συντελέω. The verb συντελέω (which appears at Mark 13:4) is shown to be formed from the preposition συν and the verb τελέω. The verb τελέω is shown to be formed from the noun τέλος. (The word τέλος appears at Matthew 24:6, 14.)

Thus, it can be said that the word συντέλεια is derived from the word τέλος.

Does there exist the word συντέλος? If not, would it be correct to form such a word by the combination of the preposition συν and the noun τέλος?

What would be the meaning of such a word?
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cwconrad
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Re: Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by cwconrad » November 9th, 2015, 11:40 am

Vladislav Kotenko wrote:Matthew 24:3 says: Καθημένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους τῶν ἐλαιῶν προσῆλθον αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ κατ᾽ ἰδίαν λέγοντες• εἰπὲ ἡμῖν, πότε ταῦτα ἔσται καὶ τί τὸ σημεῖον τῆς σῆς παρουσίας καὶ συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος.

Strong’s Greek Dictionary shows that the noun συντέλεια (which appears at Matthew 24:3) is formed from the verb συντελέω. The verb συντελέω (which appears at Mark 13:4) is shown to be formed from the preposition συν and the verb τελέω. The verb τελέω is shown to be formed from the noun τέλος. (The word τέλος appears at Matthew 24:6, 14.)

Thus, it can be said that the word συντέλεια is derived from the word τέλος.

Does there exist the word συντέλος? If not, would it be correct to form such a word by the combination of the preposition συν and the noun τέλος?

What would be the meaning of such a word?
i have found no evidence that such a word exists, nor does it surprise me. There's a whole slew of words associated with the verb συντελέω: συντελέθω, συντέλεια, συντελειόω, συντελείωσις, συντελεσιουργία, συντέλεσις,συντέλεσμα, συντελεστής, συντελεστικός, συντελέστρια -- every one of them derived from the verb συντελεῖν and extending over the range of meanings associated with the compounded verb stem συντελε(σ)- in its verbal form. Why speculate on the meaning of a noun the existence of which is not in evidence?
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οὔτοι ἀπ’ ἀρχῆς πάντα θεοὶ θνητοῖς ὑπέδειξαν,
ἀλλὰ χρόνῳ ζητέοντες ἐφευρίσκουσιν ἄμεινον. (Xenophanes, Fragment 16)

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics, Washington University (Retired)

Stephen Hughes
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Re: Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by Stephen Hughes » November 9th, 2015, 2:15 pm

cwconrad wrote:i have found no evidence that such a word exists
"Such a word". Let me bemumble that quotation and say "no such words", that is to say; third declension neuter nouns in -ος with a prefixed preposition? I think this question should be turned around and ask as the formation of third declension neuter nouns in -ος with prepositions.

So far as I can see - and my resources and skill at searching are limited - there are no such words used in the New Testament, nor very many (two in fact) in Modern Greek. Looking at the etymologies of the Modern Greek words neuters in -ος that have been formed as compounds, there are only two παρακράτος (< English "parastate") and υπερκέρδος “super profit" (concept of "extra-Mehrwert" introduced by Marx in the late 19th century). Besides those two etymolgies (the first stated in the dictionary and the other supplied by me), the etymologies of some of the Modern Greek compounds (with elements other than prepositions) are explicitly stated as being calques from English and French, and, it seems to me that at least some of the others could plausibly be so too.

Me own feeling, and perhaps not greatly worth stating, about third declension neuter nouns in -ος is that they are somehow primal and unchanging units of the language. (That last statement is of course a fairly subjective one) - similar to our grunted four-letter words in English, which supply a traceable lineage of the language from ancient times till modern.
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Stirling Bartholomew
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Re: Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by Stirling Bartholomew » November 10th, 2015, 12:46 am

Vladislav Kotenko wrote:
Does there exist the word συντέλος? If not, would it be correct to form such a word by the combination of the preposition συν and the noun τέλος?

What would be the meaning of such a word?
I would take a look at all the adjectives and nouns in the list provided by Carl. For example συντέλεια, ἡ choosing the most generic usage of the term: consummation, completion, end, full realization. You can do this online using Perseus LSJ.
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Re: Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by Stephen Hughes » November 10th, 2015, 3:17 am

Stirling Bartholomew wrote:online using Perseus LSJ
Well, searching Perseus LSJ, it seems that the only time when one New Testament words of this declensional pattern is combined with a prefixed preposition is τεῖχος "wall" which has περίτειχος "surrounding wall" (4Kings 25:1). Perhaps, it was formed on analogy from the pair τεῖχος "wall", τειχίζειν "build a wall", and the verb περιτειχίζειν (1Maccabees 13:33 & Hosea 10:14).

In addition to that form with a prefixed preposition, γλεῦκος "sweet wine" (Acts 2:13) forms a contact in ἀειγλεῦκος "unfermented wine", while μέγεθος "magnitude" (Ephesians 1:19) has αὐτομέγεθος "abstract magnitude", πλῆθος "multitude has αὐτόπληθος "abstract plurality", and τάχος "velocity" has αὐτόταχος "abstract velocity" - that set presumably means "in and of itself", rather than a measured value.
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Γελᾷ δ' ὁ μωρός, κἄν τι μὴ γέλοιον ᾖ
(Menander, Γνῶμαι μονόστιχοι 108)

Vladislav Kotenko
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Re: Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by Vladislav Kotenko » November 10th, 2015, 5:28 pm

i have found no evidence that such a word exists, nor does it surprise me. There's a whole slew of words associated with the verb συντελέω: συντελέθω, συντέλεια, συντελειόω, συντελείωσις, συντελεσιουργία, συντέλεσις,συντέλεσμα, συντελεστής, συντελεστικός, συντελέστρια -- every one of them derived from the verb συντελεῖν and extending over the range of meanings associated with the compounded verb stem συντελε(σ)- in its verbal form. Why speculate on the meaning of a noun the existence of which is not in evidence?
I want to know how the words from the “tellos group” are formed and what specific meanings they have in different contexts. Some students of the Greek Scriptures say that synteleia must mean “conclusion” (which lasts some time) and cannot mean “end” in some instances where it occurs in the Bible. (E.g. Matthew 13:39, 49; 24:3.) But I have seen enough instances in LXX where synteleia is used with the meaning “end” and cannot mean “conclusion” which spans some time. So the context must determine the meaning of the word.
I would take a look at all the adjectives and nouns in the list provided by Carl. For example συντέλεια, ἡ choosing the most generic usage of the term: consummation, completion, end, full realization. You can do this online using Perseus LSJ.
There are some useful tools to be used in research. I have tried to use Perseus LSJ (for the first time), but it has not produced results, and I do not fully understand how to use it. Perseus LSJ converts an entered Greek word into some unrecognizable characters and says that no results are found.



Matthew 24:3 uses the phrase συντελεία τοῦ αἰῶνος. The word synteleia at Mt 24:3 is usually rendered as “end” in Bible translations, implying the point at which the age ends.

From the point of view of Greek linguistics, can the word synteleia at Matthew 24:3 refer to the same thing as the word telos at Matthew 24:6, 14? In what way does the synteleia of Matthew 24:3 differ from the telos of Matthew 24:6, 14?
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Stirling Bartholomew
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Re: Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by Stirling Bartholomew » November 10th, 2015, 7:46 pm

Vladislav Kotenko wrote: Matthew 24:3 uses the phrase συντελεία τοῦ αἰῶνος. The word synteleia at Mt 24:3 is usually rendered as “end” in Bible translations, implying the point at which the age ends.

From the point of view of Greek linguistics, can the word synteleia at Matthew 24:3 refer to the same thing as the word telos at Matthew 24:6, 14? In what way does the synteleia of Matthew 24:3 differ from the telos of Matthew 24:6, 14?
I think the question you are asking could be addressed by looking at how Louw&Nida deals with the both the compound συντελείας and τὸ τέλος in eschatological contexts. The meaning is certainly not identical.
Matt. 24:3 Καθημένου δὲ αὐτοῦ ἐπὶ τοῦ ὄρους τῶν ἐλαιῶν προσῆλθον αὐτῷ οἱ μαθηταὶ κατ᾿ ἰδίαν λέγοντες· εἰπὲ ἡμῖν, πότε ταῦτα ἔσται καὶ τί τὸ σημεῖον τῆς σῆς παρουσίας καὶ συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος;

Matt. 24:3   As he sat on the Mount of Olives, the disciples came to him privately, saying, “Tell us, when will this be, and what will be the sign of your coming and of the close of the age?”

Matt. 24:6 μελλήσετε δὲ ἀκούειν πολέμους καὶ ἀκοὰς πολέμων· ὁρᾶτε μὴ θροεῖσθε· δεῖ γὰρ γενέσθαι, ἀλλ᾿ οὔπω ἐστὶν τὸ τέλος.

Matt. 24:6 And you will hear of wars and rumors of wars; see that you are not alarmed; for this must take place, but the end is not yet.

Matt. 24:14 καὶ κηρυχθήσεται τοῦτο τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας ἐν ὅλῃ τῇ οἰκουμένῃ εἰς μαρτύριον πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, καὶ τότε ἥξει τὸ τέλος.

Matt. 24:14 And this gospel of the kingdom will be preached throughout the whole world, as a testimony to all nations; and then the end will come.
As you can see from RSV renderings, συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος is a process not a point. It is the consummation of all things. On the other hand τὸ τέλος is a point, which is why it is combined with the future verb ἥξει "will come."

Louw&Nida 2nd ed
67.66 τέλοςa, ους n; συντέλεια, ας f: a point of time marking the end of a duration — ‘end.’
τέλοςa: κηρυχθήσεται τοῦτο τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας … πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσιν, καὶ τότε ἥξει τὸ τέλος ‘this good news about the kingdom will be preached … to all mankind, and then the end will come’ Mt 24:14; ἔφθασεν δὲ ἐπ᾿ αὐτοὺς ἡ ὀργὴ εἰς τέλος ‘and in the end wrath has come down on them’ or ‘and wrath has at last come down on them’ 1Th 2:16. There are serious problems involved in rendering τέλοςa in Mt 24:14 and in similar contexts. In a number of languages one simply cannot say ‘the end will come’; rather, it may be necessary to say ‘that is the finish’ or ‘everything is finished.’ In the context of Mt 24:14, however, it may be best to translate ‘God will finish everything.’ The phrase εἰς τέλος in 1Th 2:16 may also be understood as an idiomatic expression involving a degree of completeness (see 78.47).
συντέλεια: οὕτως ἔσται ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος ‘so it will be at the end of the age’ Mt 13:40. As in the case of a number of expressions involving ‘end,’ it may be important to use a verb meaning ‘to finish,’ for example, ‘so it will be like that when the age finishes’ or ‘… when there isn’t any more of the age.’


61.17 τὸ τέλος: (an idiom, literally ‘the end’) a marker of a conclusion to what has preceded, but not necessarily the conclusion of a text — ‘finally, in conclusion.’ τὸ δὲ τέλος πάντες ὁμόφρονες ‘finally, all should be of the same mind’ 1Pe 3:8.
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Scott Lawson
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Re: Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by Scott Lawson » November 11th, 2015, 2:54 am

Vlad,

You may find these comments
from NIDNTTE under the entry τέλος to be of interest:

"...Among the rabbis, the eschat. use of קֵץ (Dan 8:19 et al., where the OG uses συντέλεια) is taken up. It refers chiefly to the days of the Messiah’s coming, which were ordained before the end of the world (cf. Str-B 1:671; 3:416)."

"... In Jesus’ eschat. discourse, τὸ τέλος, “the end,” is used as a technical term for the end of the world (Matt 24:6 par. Mark 13:7; Luke 21:9; also Matt 24:14; cf. the expression συντέλεια (τοῦ) αἰῶνος in 13:39–40, 49; 24:3; 28:20)..."

Scott Lawson
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Vladislav Kotenko
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Re: Formation of Words with the Preposition Συν

Post by Vladislav Kotenko » November 12th, 2015, 4:14 pm

Stirling Bartholomew wrote:
As you can see from RSV renderings, συντελείας τοῦ αἰῶνος is a process not a point. It is the consummation of all things. On the other hand τὸ τέλος is a point, which is why it is combined with the future verb ἥξει "will come."
Since the synteleia is mentioned along with the “coming” (parousia) at Mt 24:3 and is thus put on the same level with it in its timing, then does the parosuia span decades in its fulfillment? Or will the parousia occur at the telos?

Timothy quoted:
"... In Jesus’ eschat. discourse, τὸ τέλος, “the end,” is used as a technical term for the end of the world (Matt 24:6 par. Mark 13:7; Luke 21:9; also Matt 24:14; cf. the expression συντέλεια (τοῦ) αἰῶνος in 13:39–40, 49; 24:3; 28:20)..."
Since the dictionary mentions the eschatological word telos and then directs the reader to compare Mt 13:39–40, 49; 24:3; 28:20, does this show that the compiler of the entry applied the synteleia to the same time as the telos in its fulfillment?
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