Louw & Nida 67.66 - συντέλεια, τέλος

Semantic Range, Lexicography, and other approaches to word meaning - in general, or for particular words.
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Jonathan Robie
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Louw & Nida 67.66 - συντέλεια, τέλος

Post by Jonathan Robie » August 25th, 2018, 8:14 pm

Bernd Strauss wrote:
August 24th, 2018, 11:51 am
Similarly, to show that the word συντελεία does not only mean “conclusion” (as a long concluding period) but also has the simple meaning “end” in some contexts, it is helpful to consider contexts in ancient Greek writings where it is used interchangeably with the word τέλος.
Louw & Nida 67.66 covers this usage. Shall we discuss the evidence for this semantic domain?

In Louw & Nida, it covers the following usages of two words:
συντέλεια end 67.66
τέλος a end 67.66
The following verses are cited as evidence.

The Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament Based on Semantic Domains defines συντέλεια as a synonym for the first sense of τέλος.
Time (67) ‎- Point of Time with Reference to Duration of Time: Beginning, End (67.65-67.72)
τέλος

(a) (ους n) ‎+ συντέλεια (ας f)

67.66 a point of time marking the end of a duration ‎- end

τέλος[a]: κηρυχθήσεται τοῦτο τὸ εὐαγγέλιον τῆς βασιλείας ... πᾶσιν τοῖς ἔθνεσινκαὶ τότε ἥξει τὸ τέλος this good news about the kingdom will be preached ... to all mankind, and then the end will come Matthew 24:14; ἔφθασεν δὲ ἐπ᾽ αὐτοὺς ἡ ὀργὴ εἰς τέλος and in the end wrath has come down on them or and wrath has at last come down on them 1 Thessalonians 2:16. There are serious problems involved in rendering τέλος[a] in Matthew 24:14 and in similar contexts. In a number of languages one simply cannot say the end will come; rather, it may be necessary to say that is the finish or everything is finished. In the context of Matthew 24:14, however, it may be best to translate God will finish everything. The phrase εἰς τέλος in 1 Thessalonians 2:16 may also be understood as an idiomatic expression involving a degree of completeness (see 78.47).

συντέλεια: οὕτως ἔσται ἐν τῇ συντελείᾳ τοῦ αἰῶνος so it will be at the end of the age Matthew 13:40. As in the case of a number of expressions involving end, it may be important to use a verb meaning to finish, for example, so it will be like that when the age finishes or ... when there isn't any more of the age.
The Septuagint has some sentences that illustrate this usage, see Katabiblon:

Kata Biblon: συντέλεια

And here's Mounce:

Mounce: συντέλεια

Where else should we go to explore this question?

I can't cut and paste from BDAG, maybe Barry or someone else can ...
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Bernd Strauss
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Re: Louw & Nida 67.66 - συντέλεια, τέλος

Post by Bernd Strauss » August 26th, 2018, 7:34 am

BDAG defines the word συντελεία:

µ συντέλεια, ἡ, (συντελέω ii) joint contribution for the public burdens, χρημάτων σ. ποιῆσαι D.18.237; σ. φόρου D.C.42.6; εἰς σ. ἄγειν τὰς χορηγὶας, i. e. to leave the choregia to be defrayed by subscription, not by a single person, D.20.23; μικρᾶς σ. ἑκάστῳ γιγνομένης ibid.; πρὸς σ. χρημάτων Arist.Rh.Al.1423b1.
2. metaph., Pl.Lg.905b; ἡ παρὰ τοῦ διδασκάλου σ., i.e. instruction, Aristid.2.226 J.
3. = collatio, (compulsory) provision of recruits, εἰς τὴν τῶν τειρώνων σ. Keil-Premerstein Premerstein Dritter Bericht p.87 (inc. loc.); συντελείας βουργαρίων. . ἄνεσιν prob. in SIG880.52 (Pizus, iii a.d., cf. JRS 8.26 sqq.).
II. at Athens, a body of citizens who contributed jointly to bear public burdens (cf. συντελής I), Antipho Fr.56; αἱ σ. τῶν τριηράρχων Decr. ap. D.18.105, cf. 106.
2. generally, company, ὦ ξυντέλεια (sc. θεῶν), of the gods, who separately were called τέλειοι, A.Th.251, cf. Sch. ad loc.
3. union of communities grouped together or united to a larger state, Plb.5.94.1, D.S.5.80, Plu.Comp.Phil.Flam. 1, Paus.7.15.2, OGI565.13 (Oenoanda).
III. the consummation of a scheme, opp. ἐπιβολή, Plb.1.3.3, cf. 3.1.5; σ. ἐπιτεθεικὼς τοῖς ἔργιος Id.11.33.7; σ. σχεῖν, λαμβάνειν, Id.1.4.3, 4.28.3, cf. SIG695.13 (Magn. Mae., ii B.C.), Plu.Per.13; εἰς σ. ἐλθεῖν Plb.2.40.6; ἡ σ. τῆς ἐπιβολῆς Id.5.32.3; ἡ σ. τοῦ ἀγῶνος IG7.2712.78, 82 (Acraephia); τοῦ πολέμου OGI327.6 (Pergam., ii B.C.), Plb.4.28.5; τῶν ἔργων PPetr.3p.109 (iii B.C.); τὰν τῶν μυστηρίων καὶ τᾶν θυσιᾶν σ. IG5(1).1390.184 (Andania, i B.C.); καταθύμιος λογισμῶν συντέλεια Vett.Val.173.11; completion, end, τοῦ ἐνιαυτοῦ Lxx De.11.12; τοῦ διεληλυθότος ἔτους POxy.1270.42 (ii a.d.); αἰῶνος Ev.Matt. 13.39; ποιῆσαι εἰς σ. make an end of, LxxEz.20.17; ἀνέβη σ. τῆς πόλεως εἰς οὐρανόν ib.Jd.20.40; full realization, τῶν τελῶν Phld.Rh.2.86S.
IV. unjust gain, Lxx 1Ki8.3; = κακία, Hsch.
V. in Grammar, completed action, Demetr.Eloc.214, A.D.Synt.205.14, EM 472.23.
VI. = ἐντελέχεια, reality, Ocell.2.3. [pg 1725]

Jonathan Robie wrote:
August 25th, 2018, 8:14 pm
Bernd Strauss wrote:
August 24th, 2018, 11:51 am
Similarly, to show that the word συντελεία does not only mean “conclusion” (as a long concluding period) but also has the simple meaning “end” in some contexts, it is helpful to consider contexts in ancient Greek writings where it is used interchangeably with the word τέλος.
Louw & Nida 67.66 covers this usage. Shall we discuss the evidence for this semantic domain?
The evidence can be discussed. There is enough evidence which shows that the words are used interchangeably in some contexts, which helps to see that they are also used synonymously in Matthew chapter 24, where the word τέλος in vss. 6, 14 refers back to the same end (συντελεία) in vs 3.

Why would the writer choose to use the word συντελεία in vs. 3 while using the word τέλος in vss. 6, 14?

Where else should we go to explore this question?
The words συντελεία and τέλος occur together in many ancient texts.

Polybius, Histories, book 3, chapter 1, sections 4-5: “Ὄντος γὰρ ἑνὸς ἔργου καὶ θεάματος ἑνὸς τοῦ σύμπαντος, ὑπὲρ οὗ γράφειν ἐπικεχειρήκαμεν, τοῦ πῶς καὶ πότε καὶ διὰ τί πάντα τὰ γνωριζόμενα μέρη τῆς οἰκουμένης ὑπὸ τὴν Ῥωμαίων δυναστείαν ἐγένετο, [5] τούτου δ᾿ ἔχοντος καὶ τὴν ἀρχὴν γνωριζομένην καὶ τὸν χρόνον ὡρισμένον καὶ τὴν συντέλειαν ὁμολογουμένην, χρήσιμον ἡγούμεθ᾿ εἶναι καὶ τὸ περὶ τῶν μεγίστων ἐν αὐτῷ μερῶν, ὅσα μεταξὺ κεῖται τῆς ἀρχῆς καὶ τοῦ τέλους, κεφαλαιωδῶς ἐπιμνησθῆναι καὶ προεκθέσθαι.”
Loeb Classical Library, W. R. Paton and F. W. Walbank’s translation (2010 revision), volume 2: “As what I have undertaken to treat is a single action and a single spectacle, the how, when, and wherefore all the known parts of the world came under the domination of Rome, and since this has a recognized beginning, a fixed duration, and an end which is not in dispute, I think it best to give a brief preparatory survey of the chief points of this whole from the beginning to the end.”
The text in section 5 mentions the end of the historical account and uses the word synteleia. Then the text again mentions the same end and uses the word telos. The words synteleia and telos are used interchangeably.

John Chrysostom, Homilies on the Epistle to the Hebrews, homily ΚΑʹ (21), excerpt from section γʹ (3): “Εἶπεν ὅτι ὅταν κηρυχθῇ τὸ Εὐαγγέλιον ἐν πᾶσι τοῖς ἔθνεσι, τότε ἥξει τὸ τέλος· καὶ ἰδοὺ πρὸς τὸ τέλος λοιπὸν ἐφθάσαμεν. Τὸ γὰρ πλέον τῆς οἰκουμένης κατηγγέλη· λοιπὸν οὖν τὸ τέλος ἐνέστηκε. Φρίξωμεν, ἀγαπητοί. Τί δὲ, εἰπέ μοι; περὶ συντελείας σὺ μεριμνᾷς; Καὶ αὕτη μὲν γὰρ ἐγγὺς πάρεστιν, ἡ δὲ ἑκάστου ζωὴ ἐγγυτέρα πολλῷ καὶ ἡ τελευτή. Αἱ ἡμέραι γὰρ τῶν ἐτῶν ἡμῶν, φησὶν, ἐν αὐτοῖς ἑβδομήκοντα ἔτη· ἐὰν δὲ ἐν δυναστείαις, ὀγδοήκοντα ἔτη. Ἐγγὺς ἡ ἡμέρα τῆς κρίσεως· κἂν οὕτω φοβηθῶμεν.”
Translation from Philip Schaff’s Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 1, Volume 14: “He said that “when the Gospel should have been preached among all the nations, then the end [telos] shall come”; lo! now ye have arrived at the end [telos]: for the greater part of the world hath been preached to, therefore the end [telos] is now at hand. Let us tremble, beloved. But what, tell me? Art thou anxious about the end [synteleia]? It indeed is itself near, but each man’s life and death is nearer. For it is said, “the days of our years are seventy years; but if [one be] in strength, fourscore years.” The day of judgment is near. Let us fear.”
The text states that the end (telos) is at hand and that persons should tremble. Then the text again states the end (synteleia) is near and that persons should fear. The words synteleia and telos are used interchangeably.

John Chrysostom, Homilies on the Gospel of John, homily ΛΔʹ (34), excerpt from section γʹ (3): “Οὐδὲ γὰρ πολὺς λείπεται τῆς συντελείας ὁ χρόνος, ἀλλὰ πρὸς τὸ τέλος λοιπὸν ὁ κόσμος ἐπείγεται. Τοῦτο οἱ πόλεμοι δηλοῦσι, τοῦτο αἱ θλίψεις, τοῦτο οἱ σεισμοὶ, τοῦτο ἡ ἀγάπη ψυγεῖσα. Καθάπερ γὰρ σῶμα ψυχοῤῥαγοῦν, καὶ ἐγγὺς ὂν τῆς τελευτῆς, μυρίας ἐπισπᾶται κακώσεις· καὶ οἰκίας μελλούσης καταπίπτειν, πολλὰ προπίπτειν εἴωθε καὶ ἀπὸ τῆς ὀροφῆς καὶ ἀπὸ τῶν τοίχων· οὕτω καὶ τῆς οἰκουμένης ἐγγὺς καὶ ἐπὶ θύραις ἕστηκεν ἡ συντέλεια.”
Translation from Philip Schaff’s Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, Series 1, Volume 14: “No long time now remains until the consummation [synteleia], but the world is hastening to its end [telos]; this the wars declare, this the afflictions, this the earthquakes, this the love which hath waxed cold. For as the body when in its last gasp and near to death, draws to itself ten thousand sufferings; and as when a house is about to fall, many portions are wont to fall beforehand from the roof and walls; so is the end [synteleia] of the world nigh and at the very doors.”
The text uses the words synteleia and telos with reference to the same end, or consummation.

Eusebius, Commentary on the Book of Isaiah, book 1, extract from section 73 (comments on Isa 18:5): “Μετὰ δὲ τὸν θερισμὸν καὶ τὴν συντέλειαν τοῦ παρόντος βίου καὶ αὐτῆς τῆς ἀκράτου θεότητος τοῦ λόγου μεθέξουσιν οἱ καταξιωθησόμενοι ἐκείνου τοῦ τέλους, ὅτε ἐπιστάσης τῆς συντελείας ἄλλῃ εἰκόνι παραβληθήσεται ἡ τῆς ἐκκλησίας τοῦ θεοῦ καρποφορία, δι' ἧς εἰκόνος τὴν γενομένην διάκρισιν τῶν ἐν τῇ ἐκκλησίᾳ τοῦ θεοῦ συναγομένων παρίστησιν.”
Jonathan Armstrong’s translation from Ancient Christian Texts: Commentary on Isaiah: “After the harvest, at the end of the present life, those who are deemed worthy of the height of the divine Word will take part in that end. Then, to apply another image for the end—that of the fruitfulness of the church—the fruit borne by everyone who has been gathered into the church of God will be separated out.”
The text mentions the end by using the word synteleia. Then the text again mentions the same end by using the word telos. (Notice that the text uses the phrase ἐκείνου τοῦ τέλους (“that end”), referring back to the end (synteleia) mentioned in the first part of the statement.) Then the text once again mentions the same end by using the word synteleia. The words synteleia and telos are used interchangeably.
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Bernd Strauss
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Re: Louw & Nida 67.66 - συντέλεια, τέλος

Post by Bernd Strauss » September 2nd, 2018, 8:19 am

Since the words συντελεία and τέλος are used interchangeably in some contexts, as is evident from the above examples, is there a particular reason why the writer of Matthew chapter 24 chose to use the word συντελεία in vs. 3 while using the word τέλος in vss. 6, 14? Is some distinction made between these words in the chapter?
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