ὁ καὶ ...

Biblical Greek morphology and syntax, aspect, linguistics, discourse analysis, and related topics
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Jacob Rhoden
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ὁ καὶ ...

Post by Jacob Rhoden » September 1st, 2019, 6:32 am

This is the first time I have come across και occurring in this position.

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ὁ καὶ δηλώσας ἡμῖν τὴν ὑμῶν ἀγάπην ἐν πνεύματι. (Colossians 1:8)
The sentence seems perfectly readable, however I am curious about the grammar. Is καὶ still simply acting as a coordinating conjunction?
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MAubrey
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Re: ὁ καὶ ...

Post by MAubrey » September 1st, 2019, 5:15 pm

Jacob Rhoden wrote:
September 1st, 2019, 6:32 am
This is the first time I have come across και occurring in this position.

Code: Select all

ὁ καὶ δηλώσας ἡμῖν τὴν ὑμῶν ἀγάπην ἐν πνεύματι. (Colossians 1:8)
The sentence seems perfectly readable, however I am curious about the grammar. Is καὶ still simply acting as a coordinating conjunction?
It is, for the lack of a better term, "adverbial". In lexicons, this is one of the usages that gets glossed 'also' rather than 'and.'
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Mike Aubrey, Linguist
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MAubrey
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Re: ὁ καὶ ...

Post by MAubrey » September 1st, 2019, 5:18 pm

Here are a few more examples in the NT:

Matthew 10:4 Σίμων ὁ Καναναῖος καὶ Ἰούδας ὁ Ἰσκαριώτης ὁ καὶ παραδοὺς αὐτόν.
Acts 13:9 Σαῦλος δέ, ὁ καὶ Παῦλος, πλησθεὶς πνεύματος ἁγίου ἀτενίσας εἰς αὐτὸν
2 Corinthians 1:21–22 ὁ δὲ βεβαιῶν ἡμᾶς σὺν ὑμῖν εἰς Χριστὸν καὶ χρίσας ἡμᾶς θεός, ὁ καὶ σφραγισάμενος ἡμᾶς καὶ δοὺς τὸν ἀρραβῶνα τοῦ πνεύματος ἐν ταῖς καρδίαις ἡμῶν.
1 Thessalonians 4:8 τοιγαροῦν ὁ ἀθετῶν οὐκ ἄνθρωπον ἀθετεῖ ἀλλὰ τὸν θεὸν τὸν καὶ διδόντα τὸ πνεῦμα αὐτοῦ τὸ ἅγιον εἰς ὑμᾶς
1 Peter 5:1 Πρεσβυτέρους οὖν ἐν ὑμῖν παρακαλῶ ὁ συμπρεσβύτερος καὶ μάρτυς τῶν τοῦ Χριστοῦ παθημάτων, ὁ καὶ τῆς μελλούσης ἀποκαλύπτεσθαι δόξης κοινωνός
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Mike Aubrey, Linguist
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Jacob Rhoden
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Re: ὁ καὶ ...

Post by Jacob Rhoden » September 1st, 2019, 5:40 pm

MAubrey wrote:
September 1st, 2019, 5:15 pm
It is, for the lack of a better term, "adverbial". In lexicons, this is one of the usages that gets glossed 'also' rather than 'and.'
Thanks Mike, that is how it naturally read to me, but I just needed some confirmation that I wasn't getting it wrong here. Much appreciated.

(I couldn't find this mentioned in Wallace or BDF, not to say its not discussed there, just that I couldn't see it with a quick scan)
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Jacob Rhoden
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Re: ὁ καὶ ...

Post by Jacob Rhoden » September 1st, 2019, 6:33 pm

A little more digging and I did find this helpful summary:
Καί is a polyfunctional word in Ancient Greek that can function both as a copulative
conjunction and as an additive adverb. On the one hand,it is one of the most important
copulative conjunctions in Ancient Greek (see, for instance, Bonifazi 2016, IV.2.4). On
the other hand, the usage of καί as an adverb is similar to that of the English additive
focus particles ‘also’ and ‘even’ (Jiménez 2014).
https://www.academia.edu/35857671/Ancie ... l_uses.pdf
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daveburt
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Re: ὁ καὶ ...

Post by daveburt » September 2nd, 2019, 10:11 am

BDAG divides the word into two broad meanings (of course subdividing each many times):
① marker of connections, and ...
② marker to indicate an additive relation that is not coordinate to connect clauses and sentences, also, likewise, funct. as an adv.
It also notes:
since it is not only used much more commonly here than in other Gk. lit. but oft. in a different sense, or rather in different circumstances, it contributes greatly to some of the distinctive coloring of the NT style. ... The vivacious versatility of κ. ... can easily be depressed by the tr. ‘and’, whose repetition in a brief area of text lacks the support of arresting aspects of Gk. syntax.
This adjectival placement must be part of the word's "vivacious versatility!"

William Arndt, Frederick W. Danker, and Walter Bauer, A Greek-English Lexicon of the New Testament and Other Early Christian Literature (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2000), 494-95.
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