Lesson 27: Verbs/Indicative Mood, Secondary Tenses

B. Conjugation of the Secondary Tenses (continued)
3. The Pluperfect Active and Middle-Passive

0415. Although the pluperfect active and the pluperfect middle-passive are formed on different principal parts (§303) , the infrequency of the tense makes it appropriate to consider them together, and in an abbreviated fashion. Only twenty-two verbs in the New Testament exhibit any pluperfect forms at all.

415. Pluperfect active. Like the perfect active (§§385-3880), the pluperfect active may take the form of either a 'first' ('weak') pluperfect, or a 'second' ('strong') pluperfect; the only distinction is that the tense formative κ is omitted in the 'strong' form (§3850). The pluperfect active is formed by augmenting (usually, see §340.1) the perfect stem, and suffixing the tense formative -κει- (or -ει-) plus secondary active endings:

  First Pluperfect Active Second Pluperfect Active
  λύω, (ἐ) λελύκειν γράφω, (ἐ) γεγράφειν
Sg. 1.    (ἐ) λελύκειν (ἐ) γεγράφειν
2.    (ἐ) λελύκεις (ἐ) γεγράφεις
3.    (ἐ) λελύκει (ν) (ἐ) γεγράφει (ν)
Pl. 1.    (ἐ) λελύκειμεν (ἐ) γεγράφειμεν
2.    (ἐ) λελύκειτε (ἐ) γεγράφειτε
3.    (ἐ) λελύκεισαν (ἐ) γεγράφεισαν

4150. Notes:

4150.1 Except for possible augment, the pluperfect active will look like the perfect active, with the substitution of the tense formative -κει- (-ει-) for -κα- (-α-), and -ν for -α in the 1. sg. and -σαν for -σι(ν) in the 3. pl. (cf. §386).

↓ 4150.2 The pluperfect active was conjugated differently in Attic Greek: -κη, -κης, -κει (ν), -κεμεν, -κετε, -κεσαν. The -ει- of the third singular spread to the other forms and the paradigm simplified (Smyth §701).

416. Pluperfect middle-passive. As in the perfect middle-passive (§389), the pluperfect middle-passive is formed by adding the personal endings directly to the reduplicated base. The perfect (reduplicated) base is, of course, usually (§340.1) augmented, and the personal endings employed are secondary middle-passive endings.

    Pluperfect Middle-Passive
         λύω, (ἐ)λελύμην
Sg. 1.    (ἐ)λελύμην Pl. 1.    (ἐ)λελύμεθα                                              
2.    (ἐ)λέλυσο 2.    (ἐ)λέλυσθε
3.    (ἐ)λέλυτο 3.    (ἐ)λέλυντο

417. Phonetic changes. The paradigm in §416 serves for all verbs with perfect stems ending in a vowel. Verbs with perfect stems ending in a liquid (λ, ρ) or nasal (μ, ν) undergo the same phonetic changes as verbs in the perfect middle-passive (§391), and verbs with stems ending in a stop likewise (§§392-3922).

4170. Third person plural. The third plural of verbs with stems ending in a consonant is formed periphrastically, i.e. ἦσαν plus the perfect participle, nominative masculine plural; cf . the perfect form (§3910).

↓ 4171. Paradigms for the pluperfect middle-passive of verbs with consonant stems may be set down for reference:

Stems in a liquid Stems in π, β, φ Stems in κ, γ, χ
ἐστάλμην (ἐ) γεγράμμην (ἐ) τετάγμην
ἔσταλσο (ἐ) γέγραψο (ἐ) τέταξο
ἔσταλτο (ἐ) γέγραπτο (ἐ) τέτακτο
ἐστάλμεθα (ἐ) γεγράμμεθα (ἐ) τετάγμεθα
ἔσταλθε (ἐ) γέγραφθε (ἐ) τέταχθε
ἦσαν ἐσταλμένοι ἦσαν γεγραμμένοι ἦσαν τεταγμένοι
Stems in τ, δ, θ
(ἐ) πεπείσμην
(ἐ) πέπεισο
(ἐ) πέπειστο
(ἐ) πεπείσμεθα
(ἐ) πέπεισθε
ἦσαν πεπεισμένοι

↓ 4172. On the insertion of σ in the perfect middle-passive stem, s. §3922.

↓ 418. The pluperfect in the New Testament. Pluperfect forms for the following verbs occur in the New Testament (listed in alphabetical order). The list is exclusive of periphrastic formations.

ἁρπάζω -ηρπάκειν δίδωμι (ἐ) δεδώκειν
βάλλω βεβλήκειν [εἴωθα] εἰώθειν
γίνομαι (ἐ) γεγόνειν λέγω εἰρήκειν
γινώσκω ἐγνώκειν ἔρχομαι ἐληλύθειν
δέομαι -εδεδέμην θεμελιόω τεθμελιώμην
-θνῄσκω ἐτεθνήκειν οἰκοδομέω ᾠκοδομήμην
ἵστημι (ε) ἱστήκειν ὁράω ἑωράκειν
καλέω (ἐ) κεκλήμην πείθω ἐπεποίθειν
κρίνω κεκρίκειν πιστεύω πεπιστεύκειν
μένω μεμενήκειν ποιέω πεποιήκειν
[οἶδα] ᾔδειν τίθημι -ετεθείμην

The middle-passive form is given where the active does not occur. The perfect active is given in [ ] where there is no present form of the verb in use.

4. The Aorist Passive

0419. A preliminary account of the formation of the aorist passive tense stem was given in §393, in connection with the future passive.

419. There are two types of aorist passive, again called 'first' and 'second.' The difference between them lies solely in the tense formative attached to the aorist passive stem: first aorist passive, add -θη-; second aorist passive, add -η- (this is, of course, also the sole difference between first and second future passives, §393).

420. The aorist passive indicative is formed, consequently, by (1) augmenting the aorist passive base, (2) suffixing the tense formative -θη- (or -η-), and (3) joining active secondary endings directly to the resultant stem:

Sg. 1. ἐ----θην (-ην) Pl. 1. ἐ­----θημεν (-ημεν)
2. ἐ­----θης (-ης) 2. ἐ­----θητε (-ητε)
3. ἐ­----θη (-η) 3. ἐ­----θησαν (-ησαν)

4200. Notes:

4200.1 Observe that the endings are active endings. The aorist passive is a hybrid tense formation, created to distinguish the aorist and future passive from the corresponding middle forms (in the present, imperfect, perfect and pluperfect the middle and passive forms are identical). The second aorist passive, in fact, was originally an active athematic formation, which came to be used to express the passive voice (cf. Smyth §§802ff.).

4200.2 There is no thematic vowel: the endings are joined directly to the tense stem.

4200.3 The endings are identical with those attached to the 'root' aorist active (§411), and those employed in the athematic conjugation of the imperfect active (§4040), i.e. the third plural ending is -σαν rather than -ν (used in thematic conjugations of the imperfect and second aorist).

421. First aorist passive. The first aorist passive of verbs having vowel stems is readily created on the basis of the sketch in §§420-4200.

  πιστεύω, ἐ-πιστευ-θη-ν
Sg. 1. ἐπιστεύθην Pl. 1. ἐπιστεύθημεν
2. ἐπιστεύθης 2. ἐπιστεύθητε
3. ἐπιστεύθη 3. ἐπιστεύθησαν

4210. Phonetic change occasioned by the juxtaposition of certain final stem consonants and the θ of the first aorist passive tense formative is readily explicable:

4210.1 π or β before θ is aspirated (§928.1), i.e. becomes φ:

λείπω, -ελείφθην
λαμβάνω, ἐλήμφθην

4210.2 κ or γ before θ is also aspirated (§928.1), i.e. becomes χ:

ἄγω, ἤχθην
διώκω, ἐδιώχθην

This change applies to all verbs of Class III.1b, -ζω verbs with stems ending in γ (Appendix III).

4210.3 A dental (τ, δ, θ) before θ (a dental) becomes σ:

πείθω, ἐπείσθην

This change applies to all verbs of Class III.1a, -ζω verbs with stems ending in δ (Appendix III).

4210.4 In the verb θύω, the θ of the stem is deaspirated, i.e. changed to τ, before the tense formative in -θη-: ἐτύθην (cf. deaspiration in reduplication, §343.3).

↓ 422. The insertion of σ before the tense formative takes place in a large number of verbs (cf. §3922 for general discussion and the same phenomenon in the perfect middle):

ἀκούω, ἠκούσθην
τελέω, ἐτελέσθην

Catalogue of verbs showing an inserted σ. The following verbs show a σ inserted in the perfect middle-passive tense stem and/or in the aorist passive tense stem. Excluded are verbs which have σ in one or both of these tense stems by virtue of an original verb stem ending in σ, or by virtue of phonetic change (cf. §3922). The catalogue covers all verbs represented in Bauer. The catalogue is arranged in accordance with the categories of Appendix III; the participle or other form is given where the indicative does not occur.

  Present Perfect Mid.-Pass. Aorist Passive
I.1a ἀκούω   ἠκούσθην
  θραύω τεθραυσμένος ἐθραύσθην
  κλείω κέκλεισμαι ἐκλείσθην
  κυλίω -κεκύλισμαι ἐκυλίσθην
  λούω λελουμένος
  πτύω   -πτυσθήσομαι
  ῥύομαι   ἐ(ρ)ρύσθην
  σείω   ἐσείσθην
  χρίω   ἐχρίσθην
I.1b ἀγαλλιάω   ἠγαλλιάθην
  ἐράω   ἠράσθην
  θλάω   -θλασθήσομαι
  κλάω   -εκλάσθην
  σπάω -εσπάσθαι (inf.) -εσπάσθην
  χαλάω   -εκλάσθην
I.2a μνάομαι μεμνησμένη
I.5d αἰδέομαι   ᾐδέσθην
  ἀρκέω   ἀρκεσθήσομαι
  τελέω τετέλεσμαι ἐτελέσθην
I.6 δύναμαι   ἠδυνήθην
I.7b πίμπλημι -πέπλησμαι ἐπλήσθην
  πίμπρημι   πρησθείς
IV.4 ἀμφιέννυμι ἠμφιεσμένος
  ζώννυμι -εσζωσμένος
  κεράννυμι κεκερασμένος
  κορέννυμι κεκερασμένος ἐκορέσθην
  κεράννυμι   ἐκρεμάσθην
  σβέννυμι   σβεσθήσομαι
V. ἱλάσκομαι   ἱλάσθητι (impera.)
  μεθύσκω   ἐμεθύσθην
  γινώσκω ἔγνωσμαι ἐγνώσθην
  μιμνῄσκομαι   ἐμνήσθην

423. Second aorist passive. The second aorist passive is also readily constructed from the sketch given in §§420-4200, where the aorist passive base is known:

    γράφω, ἐ-γραφ-η-ν
Sg. 1. ἐγράφην Pl. 1. ἐγράφημεν
2. ἐγράφης 2. ἐγράφητε
3. ἐγράφη 3. ἐγράφησαν

424. It was noted that the second aorist passive was originally an athematic active formation (§4200.1). This accounts for the similarities in the form-sets:

  'Root' aorist active (§411) Second aorist passive
Sg. 1. ἀνέβην ἐκρύβην
2. ἀνέβης ἐκρύβης
3. ἀνέβη ἐκρύβη
Pl. 1. ἀνέβημεν ἐκρύβημεν
2. ἀνέβητε ἐκρύβητε
3. ἀνέβησαν ἐκρύβησαν

Fortunately, the number of 'root' aorists is very small (a complete list is given in §411). Moreover, as a general rule, verbs which show second (§4070) or 'root' aorists will not show a second aorist passive. Confusion is possible, consequently, on the basis of individual forms, but not in relation to the elaboration of a particular verb, e.g. ἔστην might be identified as a second aorist passive on the basis of form, but not if the first aorist passive of the same verb is known: ἐστάθην. Conversely, ἐκρύβην has a first aorist active: ἔκρυψα (present: κρύπτω).

4240. Confusion is also possible among the first-second aorist passive, the 'root' aorist and the athematic conjugation of the imperfect (§4040), e.g. ἐτίθην is imperfect, ἐτέθην aorist passive; ἴστην is imperfect, ἔστην aorist active (these examples are both μι-verbs); ἐλύθην (λύω) is first aorist passive, but its form parallels that of ἐτίθην (imperfect). Such forms and form-sets in isolation may be confusing, but modest familiarity with the principal parts of verbs exhibiting 'root' aorists, second aorist passives and the like, together with a grammatical context, make identification less difficult.

↓ 4241. Catalogue of second aorist passives. The following is a complete catalogue of verbs showing a second aorist passive as represented in the literature covered by Bauer. Verbs are given in the order in which they appear in Appendix III. Where the aorist passive indicative does not occur, the future passive or other form built on the sixth principal part is given. The first aorist active, where it exists, is given for comparison:

I.1 -δύω ἔδυσα ἐδύην*
  παύω ἔπαυσα -επαύθην
  φύω   ἐφύην
I.5a ῥέω   -ῥυήσομαι
I.3 γράφω ἔγραψα ἐγράφην
  θλίβω   ἐθλίβην
  στρέφω ἔστρεψα ἐστράπην
  τρέπω ἔθρεψα ἐτράπην
  τρέφω ἔθρεψα -ετράφην
  -τρίβω -έτριψα -ετρίβην
  ἀνοίγω ἀνέῳξα ἀνεῴχθην
  πλέκω ἔπλεξα -επλάκην
  πνίγω ἔπνιξα ἐπνίγην
  τήκω   τακήσομαι
  ψύχω -έψυχα ψυγήσομαι
I.4 δέρω ἔδειρα δαρήσομαι
  φύρω   -εφύρην
II. θάπτω ἔθαψα ἐτάφην
  κλέπτω ἔκλεψα ἐκλάπην
  κόπτω ἔκοψα ἐκόπην
  κρύπτω ἔκρυψα ἐκρύβην
  ῥίπτω ἔ(ρ)ριψα -ε(ρ)ρίφην
  σκάπτω ἔσκαψα ἐσκάφην
III.1a ἁρπάζω ἥρπασα ἡρπάσθην
III.1b σφάζω ἔσφαξα ἐσφάγην
III.2 ἀλλάσσω ἤλλαξα -ηλλάγην
  νύσσω ἔνυξα -ενύγην
  ὁρύσσω ὥρυξα ὡρύγην
  πλήσσω -έπληξα ἐπλήγην
  τάσσω ἔταξα -ετάχθην
  φράσσω ἔφραξα ἐφράγην
III.3 ἀγγέλλω ἤγγειλα ~ηγγέλην
  στέλλομαι -έστειλα -εστάλην
  σφάλλω   σφαλήσομαι
III.4 σπείρω ἔσπειρα ἐσπάρην
  φαίνω ἔφανα ἐφάνην
  φθείρω ἔφθειρα ἐφθάρην
  χαίρω   ἐχάρην
III.5 καίω ἔκαυσα ἐκαύθην
  -άγνυμι -έαξα -εάγην
  μείγνυμι ἔμειξα ἐμίγην
  ῥήγνυμι ἔ(ρ)ρηξα -ε(ρ)ράγη

*The appearance of a second aorist passive alongside a 'root' aorist active is an exception to the rule given in §424. But ἐδύην is a new formation in the process of replacing ἔδυν (Bl-D §76(2)); the classical aor. pass. was ἐδύθην.