Lesson 31: Verbs/Tense Base Formation


475.The inflection of the Greek verb has been treated in relation to six tense systems, at the head of each of which stands the principal part of the verb upon which all the forms in that system are built (§303). The tenses were divided into primary and secondary tenses, owing to the distinction between primary and secondary endings (§317), and the association of augment exclusively with the latter (§0335). The primary tenses were presented first in the order in which the principal parts on which they are built are normally listed in grammars and lexica (§§366-395): I. Present, active/middle-passive; II. Future, active/middle; IV. Perfect, active; V. Perfect, middle-passive; VI. Future, passive. The secondary tenses were then treated in the same order (§§400-4241): I. Imperfect, active/ middle-passive; III. Aorist, active/middle; IV. Pluperfect, active; V. Pluperfect, middle-passive; VI. Aorist, passive.

In addition, types of inflection were recognized within several of the tense systems. E.g. there were three inflectional subdivisions in the present system (including the imperfect): ω-verbs that do not contract, ω-verbs that do contract, and μι-verbs (§366). A summary of such inflectional subcategories follows.

4750.Inflectional Categories in the Verb System (Indicative Mood)

I. Present II. Future
Present active/middle-passive Future active/middle
1. ω-verbs uncontracted 1. regular (§§373-3750)
2. ω-verbs contracted (§§368-3691) 2. liquid (§§376, 377)
3. μι-verbs (§§370-3712)      -ίζω verbs (§3760)
Imperfect active/middle-passive 3. Doric (§3761)
1. ω-verbs uncontracted (§§401-4010) 4. Without tense
2. ω-verbs contracted (§§402-4031)      formant (§3763)
3. μι-verbs (§§404-4050)  
III. Aorist IV. Perfect
Aorist active/middle Perfect active
1. second aorist (§§407-4070) 1. first perfect (§§385, 386-3860)
2. first aorist (§§408-409) 2. second perfect (§§3850, 387-3880)
3. liquid aorists (§410)  
4. 'root' aorists (§411) Pluperfect active
5. κ-aorists (§§412-4121) 1. first pluperfect (§§415-4150)
6. mixed (§4122) 2 . second pluperfect (§§415-4150)
V. Perfect middle-passive VI. Aorist passive
Perfect middle-passive (§§389-3922) Aorist passive
Pluperfect middle-passive (§§416-418) 1. first aorist passive (§§421-422)
  2. second aorist passive (§§423-4241)
  Future passive
  1. first future passive (§§393-3940)
  2. second future passive (§§393-3940)

0476.Attention thus far has been devoted primarily to the reading down the columns of the graphic sketch of the verb given in §303, aside from §§0346-3500, 355-361, where some preliminary account was given of the formation of the tense bases or principal parts of the verb. The next and final step in the mastery of the Greek verb system is to learn to read across the columns in §303, i.e. to learn the patterns by which the tense bases or principle parts are formed. In this exercise, one is only considering the same fundamental set of variables, e.g. augment, reduplication, tense suffix, from a different point of view.

476.Variety in the formation of principal parts falls under two major headings:

476.1Phonetic change in the verb base occasioned by the juxtaposition of tense formatives and verb bases ending in certain vowels and consonants: variety of this type can be reduced to patterns, and the patterns cover the great majority of verbs.

476.2The formation of the present base or tense stem: in a large number of verbs the same verb base is employed in forming all of the principal parts, but there are five additional categories of verbs (some also quite large) in which the present base is significantly different from that employed in forming the other principal parts.


1. Tense Stems: Patterns of Formation

477.In lesson 23 (§§355-361) some of the more common patterns of tense stem development were noted. These patterns may now be expanded and systematized.

477.1There are three basic patterns of tense stem development corresponding to the three types of verb stems: pattern A for verbs whose stems end in a vowel; pattern B for verbs whose stems end in a stop consonant; pattern C for verbs whose stems end in a liquid or nasal.

477.2Pattern A may be divided into two sub-types, the only difference between them being whether the final stem vowel is constant (A1 ) , or a short stem vowel in the present base is lengthened before the tense formant in the remaining tenses (A2) (§358). Pattern B is divided into three sub-categories in relation to the phonetic changes occasioned by the nature of the final stop consonant: labials (π, β, φ) constitute pattern B1, palatals (κ, γ, χ) pattern B2 , dentals (τ, δ, θ) pattern B3 . The C pattern varies slightly between verb stems ending in a liquid (λ, ρ) (C1), and those ending in a nasal (μ, ν) (C2).

Variety in tense stem development is thus occasioned largely by differences in the way the verb stem ends.

478.Patterns of tense stem formation. In accordance with the remarks in §477, seven patterns of tense stem development may be distinguished:

A1 : -σω ἐ­ - - - σα  πε - - - κα πε - - - μαι ἐ­ - - - θην
  -άω -άσω ἐ ­- - - ασα  πε - - - ακα πε - - - αμαι ἐ - - - άθην
A2 : -άω, -έω -ήσω ἐ - - - ησα  πε - - - ηκα πε - - - ημαι ἐ - - - ήθην
  -όω -ώσω ἐ - - - ωσα  πε - - - ωκα πε - - - ωμαι ἐ - - - ώθην
B1 : -πω -ψω ἐ - - - ψα  πε - - - πα
(πε - - - φα)
πε - - - μμαι ἐ - - - φθην
B2 : -κω -ξω ἐ - - - ξα  πε - - - κα
(πε - - - γα)
(πε - - - χα)
 πε - - - γμαι ἐ - - - χθην
B3 : -δω -σω ἐ - - - σα  πε - - - κα πε - - - σμαι ἐ - - - σθην
C1 : -λω -λῶ ἐ - - - λα  πε - - - λκα πε - - - λμαι ἐ - - - λθην
C2 : -νω -νῶ ἐ - - - να  πε - - - γκα πε - - - μμαι ἐ - - - νθην

In the schematic outline above, ἐ represents any form of augment, πε- any form of reduplication. The final element of the verb base is given in every instance, except in the case of regular vowel verbs (i.e. A1 first line).

4780.Notes on pattern A.

4780.1Regular vowel verbs develop their principal parts in accordance with the model given in §347.2 (πιστεύω is used as the model verb) : A1.

4780.2 Some contract verbs in -άω retain α (rather than lengthening it to η : A2) in the formation of the remaining tenses (§358.1). In the stems of these verbs α usually follows ε, ι or ρ (cf. first declension nouns, §1321.1). The pattern of these verbs is thus indistinguishable from that of regular vowel verbs:

4780.3 The majority of contract verbs in -άω, -έω and -όω lengthen the final stem vowel to η and ω, respectively, before the tense formatives or suffixes (§358.2-3): A2.

4780.4 A few verbs in -έω irregularly retain the short final ε before the tense suffixes (cf. §4780.2, verbs in -άω). These verbs therefore follow the regular vowel verb pattern: A1.

4781. Notes on pattern B.

Verbs with stems ending in a stop exhibit three closely related patterns in the development of their principal parts, depending on whether the verb stem ends in a labial (π, β, φ), a palatal (κ, γ, χ), or a dental (τ, δ, θ). These patterns may be designated B1, B2, and B3 respectively.

4781.1 Verbs with stems ending in a labial (π, β, φ) undergo regular phonetic change when the final stem consonant is juxtaposed with the tense suffix: π, β, φ, + σ = ψ (future, aorist) ; π, β, φ before μ > ν (perf. mid.-pass.); π, β before θ is aspirated, i.e. > φ (aor. pass.): B1.

4781.2 Verbs with stems ending in a palatal (κ, γ, χ) undergo regular phonetic change when the final stem consonant is juxtaposed with the tense suffix: κ, γ, χ + σ = ξ. (future, aorist); κ, χ before μ > γ (perf. mid.-pass.); κ, γ before θ is aspirated, i.e. > χ (aor. pass.): B2.

4781.3 Verbs with stems ending in a dental (τ, δ, θ) undergo comparable phonetic changes: τ, δ, θ + σ =σ (future, aorist); τ, δ, θ before κ disappears (perf. Act.); τ, δ, θ before μ, θ > σ (perf. mid.-pass., aor. pass.): B3.

N. B3 is virtually identical with A, except that the dental is retained as σ in the perfect middle-passive and the aorist passive.

4782. Notes on pattern C.

Verbs with stems ending in a liquid (λ, ρ) or nasal (μ, ν) also undergo certain phonetic changes, some of which primarily affect the tense suffix:

4782.1 Verbs with bases ending in a liquid or nasal regularly have liquid futures (§376), i.e. "contract" futures in -ῶ; they also regularly have liquid aorists (§410), i.e. the σ of the tense formative is lost.

4782.2 Verbs with bases ending in a liquid are subject to no further modification, but verbs with stems in ν (μ does not come into consideration here) show two other modifications: ν before κ > γ (perf. act.); ν before μ > μ (perf. mid.-pass.). Since there is a slight difference between liquids and nasals with respect to the perfect active and perfect middle-passive tense bases, the liquid pattern may be designated C, , and the nasal pattern C1. Where this difference is not relevant, the pattern may be designated simply C.


2. The Formation of the Present Tense Stem

479.1 Where an identical verb base persists through all tense systems, any particular form of the verb can be inferred from the general rules governing the formation of principal parts (patterns A, B, C). Unfortunately, the verb base is not constant in every case. Where the verb base is modified, it is usually the present tense base that is modified by expansion.

479.2 Verb base and present base. In §§3550f. and again in §479.1 reference was made to the verb base. The verb base is the actual or hypothetical base from which all the actual forms of the verb, including the tense bases or stems, are presumably derived. As an illustration, the base of δίδωμι is δω-/δο- (the base exhibits both long and short vowels), from which the present base is formed by reduplication (§345.2); the remaining tense bases then appear (in view of the verb base) to be perfectly regular: δώ-σω, ἔ-δω-κα (κ-aorist, §412), δέ-δω-κα, δέ-δο-μαι, ἐ-δό-θην. The base of ἑτοιμάζω is ἑτοιμαδ- (§359), from which the present base is formed by the addition of the suffix ι̯ : ἑτοιμαδ-ι̯ω > ἑτοιμάζω. Since ἑτοιμάζω has a base in a dental, the remaining principal parts follow pattern B3: ἑτοιμάσω, ἡτοίμασα, ἡτοίμακα, ἡτοίμασμαι, ἡτοιμάσθην.

480. The reasons for gaining a clear picture of the ways in which the present tense stem is formed from the verb stem are two:

480.1 Where the base of the verb is basically modified at all (i.e. where it is modified other than by augment, reduplication, phonetic change occasioned by tense suffixes, vowel gradation) , it is the present base that is customarily modified by expansion. Application of the patterns of tense base formation will therefore depend upon knowledge of the verb base rather than of the present tense stem, which is the one usually given in lexica and grammars.

480.2 In moving from text to lexicon or grammar (to learn the meaning or syntax of a verb), in the case of a form that does not belong to the present tense system, it will be necessary to be able to estimate the present tense base.

Since the student needs to be able to move with facility in either direction—from lexical to any particular form, and from any particular form to lexical entry—he needs to acquire a precise range of expection regarding the relation of verb base and present base. It is not necessary, indeed not entirely desirable, to learn principal parts by rote if one is thoroughly familiar with the limited range of possibilities. And a modest amount of practice with actual verb forms in the text will turn educated guesses into native responses.

481. The formation of the present tense stem from the verb base. The ways in which the present tense stem is formed from the verb base can be reduced to a highly simplified, yet for most purposes quite adequate, schema consisting of five major divisions:

I. Present base = verb base
II. Present base = verb base + τ
III. Present base = verb base + ι̯
IV. Present base = verb base + ν, αν, νε, νυ (ννυ), υι̯
V. Present base = verb base + σκ, ισκ

Reduplication of the present base (§345.2) is not taken into account in this schema, but the phenomenon is found in verbs of classes I and V. In addition, a complete catalogue of verbs will include a class VI consisting of a very small number of "irregular" verbs which require two or more dissimilar verb bases or "roots" to make up a full complement of principal parts.

This schema is elaborated in §§482-487; the discussion may serve as a commentary on the catalogue of verbs to be found as Appendix III.

482. Class I: The present base = the verb base. In this class the present base is identical with the verb base, except for possible vowel gradation and reduplication. Verbs of class I that reduplicate the verb stem to form the present stem have been collected into subclass 1.7 to make their presence conspicuous .

482.1 Verbs may be conjugated in the present tense with thematic vowel (ω-verbs) or without thematic vowel (μι-verbs) (§§366-3661). Although few in number, μι-verbs of class I are often of high frequency. For that reason they have been collected into category 1.6. Some class I μι-verbs reduplicate the present stem: these are to be found in I.7b. (Other μι-verbs add -νυ-or -ννυ- to the verb base to form the present base and so belong to class IV: ν-class.)

482.2 Subclasses I.1-1.4 refer, insofar as possible, to patterns of tense base formation (§§476-4782): I.I = A1;1.2 = A2; 1.3 = B; 1.4 = C.

482.3 Verbs with vowel stems (ω-verbs) are divided between I.I. and 1.2. Subclass 1.2 contains contract verbs that lengthen the final stem vowel before the tense formant or ending in tenses other than the present (pattern A2) (in the present tense, the stem vowel contracts with the thematic vowel, §§368ff.). Subclass I.lb contains contract verbs in -άω that retain α in the elaboration of principal parts; there is thus no difference in pattern between these contract verbs and regular vowel bases in class I (I.la) (pattern A1).

↓       482.30 Verbs requiring special notice in subclasses 1.1-4 are rare.

The principal parts of ἕλκω (I.la) are derived from ἑλκύω so that the only aberration is an alternate spelling of the present base.

The common verb ἔχω (I.3b) is derived from a hypothetical verb base *σεχ-: the second aorist, ἔ-σχ-ον, shows the base with a zero form of the base vowel; initial σ before a vowel often becomes rough breathing, as in the future form ἕξω. The imperfect is εἶχον, indicating the former presence of σ (§3371). The perfect, ἔσχηκα, is from a base, σχη-.

ψύχω (I.3b) has a second future passive, ψυγήσομαι, although the base is ψυχ-. New hellenistic second aorist (future) passives, with bases ending in stops, prefer a voiced stop even where it is not original (Bl-D §76 (1)).

κλίνω and κρίνω (1.4) represent a small group of verbs that lose ν from the verb base in the perfect active, perfect middle-passive, and aorist passive (Smyth §491).

482.4 Into subclass 1.5 are collected verbs of class I that show some minor variation in forming the present base from the verb base: I.5a, verbs with vowel stems in ευ that lose υ before the thematic vowel in the present tense (= pattern A1); I.5b, verbs with vowel stems in ε that lose ε before the thematic vowel in the present tense (they will thus follow pattern A2 in developing the remaining principal parts); I.5c, verbs with consonant stems that add ε to form the present base (they follow a B pattern in the remaining tense bases); I.5d, verbs in -έω (contract verbs) that retain ε before the tense formant (cf. I.lb), but do so irregularly. The number of verbs in these subcategories is very small.

482.5 ῥέω and χέω (I.5a) are both derived from bases in ευ-: ῥευ-, χευ-. χέω no longer shows the base χευ-, but exhibits only bases with a weak grade of the original base vowel: χε-, χυ- (§911.3) .

4820. The structure of class I may be summarized:

1.1. Vowel stems (pattern A1)
  1.1a. Vowel stems in ι, υ, αυ, ευ, (ει, ου) (uncontracted)
  1.1b. Vowel stems in α (contract verbs)
1.2. Vowel stems (pattern A2)
  1.2a. Vowel stems in α (contract verbs)
  1.2b. Vowel stems in ε (contract verbs)
  1.2c. Vowel stems in ο (contract verbs)
1.3. Consonant stems in a stop (pattern B)
  I.3a. Consonant stems in a labial (π, β, φ) (B1)
  I.3b. Consonant stems in a palatal (κ, γ, χ) (B2)
  I.3c. Consonant stems in a dental (τ, δ, θ) (B3)
1.4. Consonant stems in a liquid or nasal (λ, ρ; μ, ν) (C)
1.5. Verbs related to classes 1.1-4 but showing some irregularity
  I.5a. Vowel stems in ευ which lose υ
  I.5b. Vowel stems in ε which lose ε
  I.5c. Consonant stems which add ε
  I.5d. Vowel stems in -έω showing some irregularity (cf. I.2b)
1.6. Μι-verbs
1.7. Verbs of class I which reduplicate the verb base to form the present base
  I.7a. Ω-verbs
  I.7b. Μι-verbs

483. Class II: The present base = the verb base + τ. In this class τ is added to the verb base to form the present base. All class II verbs have labial stems so they will follow pattern pattern B1 in the elaboration of principal parts.

484. Class III: The present base = the verb base + ι̯ . To form the present base in this class ι̯ (consonantal u) is added to the verb base, occasioning a variety of phonetic changes. The rather large class is subdivided on the basis of these changes.

484.1 Subclass III.l is comprised of verbs with present tenses in -ιζω. The ζ is produced by the juxtaposition of ι̯ with δ or γ. Since verbs with verb bases ending in γ will follow B3, in distinction from verb bases ending in γ (a palatal) , they are collected into III.la; verb bases ending in γ, with present tenses in -ζω, are entered in Ill.lb, and follow pattern B2.

↓       484.10 Many of the verbs in III.la have bases that do not actually end in δ, but these same verbs elaborate their principal parts for the most part as though they did. This class was being enlarged by analogy and the verbal system simplified at the same time. Of the 168 verbs listed in III.la, only two show any deviation from pattern B3 (the pattern for dentals) : ἁρπάζω has a second aorist passive ἁρπάγην, indicating a verb base in -γ; σῴζω has an aorist passive ἐσώθην, indicating a verb base σω-. All other verbs in this category have come to conform to the dental pattern. Cf. Bl-D §71.

↓       484.11 As in the case of III. la, not all the verbs in Ill.lb have stems ending in γ. However, only one verb shows any deviation from the palatal pattern (B2): στηρίζω has a by-form of the first aorist, ἐστήρισα (a dental form); the dominant form has become ἐστήριξα (palatal). Cf. Bl-D §71.

484.2 Subclass III.2 is comprised of verbs with present tenses in -σσω. The -σσ- is produced by the juxtaposition of ι̯ with κ or κ and, by analogy, with γ or τ. Since verbs in this class have verb bases ending in a palatal, they will follow pattern B2 in the elaboration of principal parts.

>↓       484.20 The only verb showing any deviation from pattern EU in III.2 is πλάσσω. It has a first aorist ἔπλασσα, and a first aorist passive ἐπλάσθην (dental pattern).

484.3 Subclass III.3 is comprised of verbs with present tenses in -λλω. The -λλ- is produced by the juxtaposition of ι̯ with λ (assimilation, §932.4). Since these verbs have verb bases in a liquid (λ) , they follow pattern C1, in the elaboration of principal parts.

484.4 Subclass III. 4. is comprised of verbs with verb bases ending in αν, αρ; εν, ερ. When ι̯ is added to the verb base to form the present base, it affects the preceding vowel: αν, αρ > αιν, αιρ; εν, ερ > ειν, ειρ. Since the verb bases end in ρ (a liquid) or ν (a nasal), these verbs follow patterns C1 or C2 in the elaboration of principal parts.

↓       484.40 For practical purposes the account of the phonetic change in verbs of III.4 is entirely adequate. To be more exact but no more illuminating, in the case of ανι ̯, ερι ̯, iota is inserted after the preceding vowel (called epenthesis [ἐπένθεσις]) and ι̯ dropped (actually an assimilation of the stem vowel to the following consonantal ι). Whereas in ενι ̯, ερι ̯, the preceding vowel is lengthened in compensation for the loss of ι ̯, (compensatory lengthening, §914).

484.5 Subclass III. 5 is comprised of two verbs with verb bases ending in αυ, of which υ represents an original ϝ. When ι ̯ is added to form the present base, υ (ϝ) is lost, with αι as the result. The υ (ϝ) is retained in the remaining tense bases, so that these verbs follow pattern A1. Except for the present tense, they look like verbs of class I.la.

4840. The structure of class III may be summarized: III. Present base = verb base + ι ̯

III.1. -ζω verbs
          III. la. δ-stems producing -ζω verbs (B3)
          III.lb. γ-stems producing -ζω verbs (B2)
III.2. -σσω verbs (palatal stems in κ, χ) (pattern B2)
III.3. -λλω verbs (stems in λ) (pattern C1)
III.4. Liquid and nasal stems in which ι is added to the stem vowel (patterns C1 , C2)
III.5. Vowel stems in αυ in which ι replaces υ in the present base (pattern A1)

485. Class IV: The present base = the verb base + ν (αν, νε, νυ or ννυ). The subclasses are determined by the type of suffix added to form the present base. Since a variety of verb bases is involved, no pattern of tense formation can be said to predominate.

485.1 In subclass IV.1 ν is added to the verb base to form the present base.

485.2 In subclass IV.2 αν is added to the verb base to form the present base.

↓       485.20 In IV. 2, if the last vowel of the stem is short, another nasal is inserted after this vowel: μ before a labial, ν before a dental, γ before a palatal. Thus,

λαμβ-αν-ω (λαβ-);
λανθ-αν-ω (λαθ-), μανθ-αν-ω (μαθ-), πυνθ-αν-ομαι (πυθ-);
θιγγ-αν-ω (θιγ-), λαγχ-αν-ω (λαχ-), τυγχ-αν-ω (τυχ-).

485.3 In subclass IV.3 νε is added to the verb base to form the present base, thus producing a contract verb in the present tense.

485.4 In subclass IV.4 νυ or ννυ is added to the verb base to form the present base. This group contains both ω-verbs and μι-verbs (§482.1).

↓       485.40 ἐλαύνω is derived from *ἐλα-νυ-ω by metathesis (Smyth §128).

↓        485.41 ὄλλυμι is derived from *ολ-νυ-μι by assimilation (§929.3).

↓       485.42 ὀμνύω has a verb base ὀμν-, which is augmented in the aorist tense by the addition of ο. This phenomenon is analogous to adding νι ̯ to verb bases (§439).

485.5 Subclass IV.5 contains two verbs which form the present tense by adding νι ̯ to the verb base (combination of class III and class IV). As in III.4 (§484.4), the ι ̯ affects the preceding vowel, i.e. ι is added to the preceding vowel and ι ̯ is lost.

4850. The structure of class IV may be summarized:

IV. Present base = verb base + ν (αν, νε, νυ or ννυ)
  IV.1. Present base = verb base + ν
  IV.2. Present base = verb base + αν
  IV.3. Present base = verb base + νε (contract verbs)
  IV.4. Present base = verb base + νυ or ννυ
  IV.5. Present base = verb base + νι ̯ (combination of classes III and IV)

486. Class V: The present base = the verb base + σκ (vowel stems) or ισκ (consonant stems).

486.1 A number of verbs in this class reduplicate the verb

base to form the present base (§345). Cf. class 1.7.

↓       486.2 The verb base of διδάσκω is διδαχ- (aorist ἐδίδαξα): a stop is lost before -σκω (Smyth §99).

↓       486.3 The iota-subscript in θνῄσκω and μιμνῄσκομαι is the result of adding -ισκω to a vowel base, contrary to the general rule.

↓       486.4 ὀφλισκάνω has a verb base ὀφλ-, to which is added ισκ (class V) and αν (class IV) to form the present base. Cf. the two verbs in class IV.5.

487. Class VI: mixed class. This class includes verbs that are irregular in the sense that one set of principal parts is developed from two or more verb bases.

487.1 The tense bases for αἱρέω, choose, are developed from two verb bases: αἱρε- and ἑλ-. The principal parts based on αἱρέω follow pattern A2 (cf. I.2b, verbs in -έω). A by-form of the future, -ελῶ, and the second aorist, -εῖλον (§§3371f.), are derived from ἑλ-.

487.2 Tense bases for the verb meaning, say, are derived from three verb bases: λεγ-, εἰπ-, ἐρ- (ῥη-) . λέγω is used for the present system only. εἰπ- provides the second aorist: εἶπον (< *ϝεπ-, §§3371f.). The remaining tenses are built on ἐρ- (ῥε-): ἐρῶ, εἴρηκα, εἴρηται, ἐρρέθην (< ϝερ, *ϝρη-). For reduplication s. §3430.1; for the augment of the aorist passive, s. §3360.1.

487.3 The principal parts of ἔρχομαι, come, are built on two verb bases: ἐρχ-, ἐλυθ-, ἐλυθ-, ἐλθ- (vowel gradation). In the future, ἐλεύσομαι , the dental (θ) is lost before the tense formant (σ) §375). For reduplication of the perfect base, ἐληλυθα, s. §344.

487.4 ἐσθίω (or -έσθω), eat, has a future, φάγομαι, and a second aorist, ἔφαγον, from the verb base, φαγ-. The future has no tense formant (§3736). A by-form of the future, ἔδομαι, is from ἐδ-, which is also the ultimate base of the present tense base: ἐσ-θι-ω < ἐδ- plus θι, or θ¸ (a rare way of forming a present base from the verb base; a dental before another dental often becomes σ).

487.5 οἶδα, know, is a second perfect used as a present tense. The subjunctive is εἰδῶ, infinitive εἰδέναι, participle εἰδώς. These forms are derived from bases οιδ- and *ϝιδ-; from the latter is also derived εἶδον (s.v. ὁράω). From ειδ- a future, εἰδήσω, was developed (Attic εἴσομαι).

487.6 ὁράω, see, is being replaced in the present tense by βλέπω, θεωρέω (Bl-D §101) , and by a new present, ὀπτάνομαι, formed from the aorist passive tense base, ὤφθην. From ὁρα- (*ϝορα-) is derived the perfect active, ἑώρακα (on reduplication, s. §3430.4). ὄψομαι, ὠψάμην, and ὤφθην are derived from a base ὀπ-; these forms follow the pattern B1. The common second aorist, εἶδον, is derived from *ϝιδ- (§3371); cf. video.

487.7 Strictly speaking, πάσχω belongs to class V (σκω-verbs). The present base is derived from παθ-σκω: θ becomes σ before σ (§927.2), and the aspiration is transferred from θ to κ (§928.4): πασ-σχω; σσ is then simplified: πά-σκω. The second aorist, ἔπαθον, is derived from the same base (παθ-). The future παθεῖται (one occurrence in the literature covered by Bauer), is a back formation from the aorist, perhaps on the analogy of βαλῶ ἔβαλον (Bl-D §74(3)). The perfect active reflects an alternate stem, πονθ-.

487.8 πίνω is derived from the base πι- by the addition of ν (class IV.1). The future, πίομαι (without tense formant, §3763), and aorist, ἔπιον, are built on the same base. πέπωκα reflects a base πω-, and ἐπόθην a base πο-.

487.9 The two principal parts (present, aorist) of τρέχω, run, are built on two bases: τρεχ- and δραμ-.

487.10 The principal parts for φέρω are derived from three bases: φερ- (present), οἰ- (future), and ἐνεκ- (the remainder). The aorist, ἤνεγκα, is derived from ἐνκ- (vowel gradation), with reduplication εν-ενκ (§3440.2), assimilation of ν to κ (§929.2), and augment: ἤνεγκα. The perfect active shows vowel gradation (ἐνοκ-), reduplication of the first syllable (§344), and aspiration (§491): ἐνένοχα. The aorist passive, ἠνέχθην, is the base, ἐνεκ-, with augment and assimilation of κ to θ (§925.1).

3. Other Factors Affecting Variety in Tense Base Formation

488. In addition to patterns of tense base formation (§§477-4782) and the types of present tense base formation (§§479-487), there are other factors affecting variety in tense base formation. Most of these involve minor aberrations of regular patterns, and most of them have already been discussed exhaustively.

Consideration of these additional factors may be continued with comments on the system of notations employed in the Catalogue of Verbs (Appendix III).

489. Vowel gradation. The base vowel of a verb may vary from tense base to tense base, as in the English verb, sing sang sung. Cf. §§348, 3550.3, and 907-911 (Appendix I); §911 contains a catalogue of patterns of vowel gradation in Greek verbs appearing in Bauer.

Verbs showing any vowel gradation, other than the lengthening or shortening of a final base vowel, or the addition or loss of ε(η) at the end of the base (s. below, §493), are marked with (ǂ) in the left margin in the Catalogue.

490. Aberrations in augment, reduplication. Some verbs exhibit aberrations in augment (§§3371-3374, 339) and/or reduplication (§§3430-3440).

4900. Reduplication other than in the perfect tense is found occasionally in the present tense (classes I.7 and V), and in the aorist (two examples) (§345).

491. Aspirated second perfect. Verbs with bases ending in π, β or κ, γ sometimes showed the correlative aspirated stop (φ or χ) (§3871).

492. σ added to the tense base is to be observed in some tense bases in the perfect middle-passive and/or aorist passive. S. §§3922, 422 for discussion and catalogue.

493. The addition or deletion of ε (η). ε(η) may be added to the verb base to form one or more of the tense bases. Class I.5c (Appendix III) contains two verbs which add ε to form the present base; the examples for other tense bases are much more numerous. Final ε may also be deleted from the verb base to form the tense base, e.g. γαμέω, aorist ἔγημα (liquid aorist, §410). Class I.5b contains a number of verbs that delete final ε to form the present base. Some verbs show alternative present bases with and without ε, e.g. ῥίπτω or ῥιπέω (class II).

494. Deaspiration and transfer of aspiration. Deaspiration occurs when two aspirates appear in successive syllables (§928.2). Occasionally aspiration is transferred from one stop to another in an adjoining syllable (§928.4).

4940. The aberrations discussed in §§489-494 are noted in the Catalogue (Appendix III) by a raised number placed to the left of the tense base in question. For the notational system s. the introduction to Appendix III.

4. Type of Inflection and the Organization of the Catalogue of Verbs

495. The patterns of tense base formation (§§477-4782) are suitable only for 'weak' (regular) verbs. In the discussion of the future, aorist active/middle, perfect active, and aorist passive tense systems, it was noted, however, that there are alternative ways of forming and conjugating these tenses. Unfortunately, 'strong1 tense formation and inflection is not confined to verbs that are 'strong' across the board; 'strong' tenses may appear in a set of principal parts that is otherwise regular or 'weak.' Nor can 'strong' tenses be correlated with classes of verbs (i.e. the way they form their present bases from verb bases). Take, for example, the catalogue of second (strong) aorists in §4070: verbs of most classes are represented; in addition, these same verbs may have regular or weak futures, perfects, or aorist passives. It is therefore necessary in the Catalogue to take notice of strong tenses by special means. This has been done by a series of raised numbers that appear to the right of the tense base in question (s. the introduction to Appendix III for particulars). In this way it has been possible to specify the predominate pattern of tense base formation in the left-hand margin, while noting that some tenses may constitute exceptions to the pattern.

496. Recapitulation. It is now appropriate to recapitulate the predominant features of the organization of the Catalogue of Verbs, and thus to rehearse the factors that affect tense base formation in the Greek verb.

496.1 Patterns of tense base formation (§§477-4782) are correlated with subclasses of class I verbs insofar as possible (§482.2), and noted in the left hand margin for each verb elsewhere (except where a whole class or subclass follows one pattern, e.g. class II = pattern B1).

496.2 The Catalogue is divided into five major classes, depending on the way the present tense base is formed from the verb base (§§479-487). To these has been added a sixth or mixed class of verbs (§487).

496.3 If the verb manifests vowel gradation in the development of principal parts, that fact is noted by (ǂ) in the left-hand margin (§489).

496.4 Minor aberrations in the elaboration of principal parts, such as unusual augment or reduplication, the addition of σ or ε to the base, etc., are noted by a series of raised numbers to the left of the tense base manifesting that aberration. References to the discussion are provided in the key.

496.5 Deviations from regular or 'weak' tense formation and inflection (= the patterns of tense base formation) are noted by a series of raised numbers to the right of the tense base. References to the discussion are provided in the key.