Lesson 51: Nominal Word Clusters/Determiners


740.1 Πᾶς (ἅπας) appears in both simple and complex nominal word clusters, and alone as a grammatical item in the sentence. Like the demonstratives (§730), πᾶς (ἅπας) appears predominantly in predicate position in relation to arthrous nouns (§684.3), but it may also appear in attributive position (§684.1) as a means of expressing contrast.

Πᾶς serves the declension model for all active participles (§§231, 246). The Attic use of ἅπας after consonants and πᾶς after vowels is no longer observed; ἅπας is consequently on the decline.

740.2 Πᾶς (ἅπας) means every, any, all (the), the whole, depending on context and whether it is singular or plural. It is therefore a high frequency word with a variety of English counterparts.

741. Πᾶς appears in simple nominal word clusters, with nouns and adjectives as head terms, with a pronoun as head term, with other pronominal adjectives as head term, and with itself as head term.

741.1 With a noun or adjective as head term, πᾶς most often takes predicate position when the head is articular:

(1) πᾶς [γὰρ] ὁ ὄχλος Mk 11:8
the whole multitude
(2) πάντες οἱ προφῆται. Acts 10:43
all the prophets
(3) πάσῃ τῇ περιχώρῳ Lk 7:17
in all the surrounding country
(4) τὴν κρίσιν πᾶσαν Jn 5:22
all judgment
(5) τὰ ἴδια πάντα Jn 10:4
all his own (sheep)

Note: When πᾶς is in second predicate position ((4) and (5) above), the nominal head receives special emphasis: Bl-D §275(5).

741.2 The head may be anarthrous, especially when singular:

(6) πάντα ἄνθρωπον Jn 1:9
every man
(7) πᾶσα σάρξ 1 Cor 1:29
all flesh (= everyone)

741.3 The cluster may include a demonstrative, which is also in predicate position (§729):

(8) πάντα τὰ ῥήματα ταῦτα Lk 1:65
all these things
(9) πᾶσαν τὴν ὀφείλην ἐκείνην Mt 18:32
all that debt

742.1 Πᾶς occasionally appears in attributive position (with an articular noun), in which case it denotes the whole regarded as a sum of its parts:

(10) ἤμεθα δὲ αἱ πᾶσαι ψυχαὶ ἐν τῷ πλοίῳ
διακόσιαι ἐβδομήκοντα ἕξ
Acts 27:37
We were in all two hundred and seventy-six
souls in the boat
(11) ἦσαν δὲ oἱ πάντες ἄνδρες ὡσεὶ δώδεκα Acts 19:7
There were about twelve men in all

742.2 The whole (as a sum of its parts) may be contrasted with its individual parts:

(12) ὁ γὰρ πᾶς νόμος ἐν ἑνὶ λόγῳ Gal 5:14
For the whole law is fulfilled in one word

743.1 Πᾶς appears in simple nominal word clusters with a pronoun as head term, and comes either before or after the pronoun:

(13) πάντες ἡμείς Acts 10:33
we all
(14) ἡμεῖς πάντες Jn 1:16
we all
(15) ἐπὶ πάντας αὐτούς Acts 4:33
upon them all

743.2 Though such clusters with pronoun as head term are normally anarthrous, the article may be used for emphasis (cf. §742):

(16) τοὺς γὰρ πάντας ἡμᾶς φανερωθῆναι δεῖ 2 Cor 5:10
For all of us must appear

744. Πᾶς is also used with a demonstrative as head term, and again in either order (§743.1):

(17) ταῦτα [γὰρ] πάντα Lk 12:30
all these things
(18) πάντες [γὰρ] οὗτοι Lk 21:4
they all
(19) τούτων ἀπάντων Mt 6:32
of all those things
(20) καὶ ἐν πᾶσι τούτοις Lk 16:26
and besides all these things

745.1 Simple nominal clusters with πάς as head term consist of the article plus πας. The most common cluster is τὰ πάντα, either in an absolute sense:

(21) ἐξ οὗ τὰ πάντα 1 Cor 8:6
from whom are all things (= the whole creation)

or in a relative (restricted) sense:

(22) ἐν παραβολαῖς τὰ πάντα γίνεται Mk 4:11
everything (= all teaching) is in parables

The reference may also be to persons:

(23) oἱ γὰρ πάντες ἐκ τοῦ ἑνὸς ἄρτου μετέχομεν 1 Cor 10:17
For we all partake of the one bread
(24) τοῖς πᾶσιν γέγονα πάντα 1 Cor 9:22
I have become all things to all men

745.2 The function of the article in these clusters (§745.1) is comparable to the use of πάς in attributive position (§742). Bl-D §275(7).

746. Πάς may be used alone as a grammatical item in the sentence (note πάντα in (24) , §745).

(25) ἵνα πάντες πιστεύσωσυν Jn 1:7
in order that all (everyone) might believe (subject)
(26) πάντα σὺ οἶδας Jn 21:17
You know all things (object)
(27) διεμέριζον αὐτὰ πᾶσιν Acts 2:45
They distributed them to all (indirect object)
(28) ἔσεσθε μισούμενοι ὑπὸ πάντων Lk 21:17
(with preposition) You shall be hated by all

Like the demonstratives (§733), πᾶς may serve any of the grammatical functions served by pronouns.

747.1 Πᾶς is frequently used with an articular participle, in first predicate position:

(29) πᾶς ὁ πιστεύων Jn 3:15
everyone who (whoever) believes
(30) πᾶν τὸ ὀφειλόμενον Mt 18:34
everything that is owed
(31) πάντας τοὺς κακῶς ἔχοντας Mt 18:16
all those who were sick (lit., all those having it badly)
(32) πάντα τὰ γεγραμμένα Lk 21:22
all that is written

747.2 Πᾶς is also frequently followed by a relative clause, which is the equivalent of an articular participle (§773):

(33) πάντα ἃ ἐποίησα Jn 4:29
everything that I did
(34) πᾶς ὃς ἐρεῖ λόγον Lk 12:10
everyone who speaks a word
(35) παντὶ [δὲ] ᾧ ἐδόθη πολύ Lk 12:48
of everyone to whom much is given

Note: παντί is here attracted to the case of the relative (inverse attraction, cf. §670).

The relative pronoun may be an indefinite or quantitative relative:

(36) καὶ πᾶς ὅτις ἀφῆκεν οἰκίας Mt 19:29
and everyone who has forsaken houses
(37) πάντες ὅσοι ἤλθον πρὸ ἐμοῦ Jn 10:8
all who came before me

748. In complex nominal word clusters, πᾶς appears alone as a subcluster, as an element in a simple subcluster, and in complex clusters with the article as head term. These clusters utilize, within a more complex structure, simpler uses of πᾶς.

748.1 Πᾶς alone (cf. §746) as a subcluster, most often as a modifying genitive:

(38) οὗτος ἐστιν πάντων / κύριος Acts 10:36
He is lord of all
(39) ἄχρι χρόνων / ἀποκαταστάσεως / πάντων Acts 3:21
until the time of the restoration of all things
(40) ἔσχατον [δὲ] / πάντων 1 Cor 15:8
last of all

748.2 Πᾶς as an element in a simple subcluster (cf. §§741-745) that is itself a part of a complex cluster:

(41) διὰ στόματος / πάντων τῶν προφητών Acts 3:18
through the mouth of all the prophets
(42) πάντα τὰ ρήματα / αὐτοῦ Lk 7:1
all his sayings

With the modifying genitive subcluster in first attributive position:

(43) τὴν / πάντων ὑμῶν / ὑπακοήν 2 Cor 7:15
the obedience of you all

With two modifying genitives separating πᾶς from its head:

(44) αἱ τρίχες / τῆς κεφαλῆς / ὑμῶν / πᾶσαι, Lk 12:7
all the hairs of your head

748.3 Πᾶς in complex clusters with the article as head term (cf. §§705.2, 715.3):

(45) σὺν πᾶσιν τοῖς / ἐν τῇ οἰκία / αὐτοῦ Acts 16:32
with all those in his house

With the attributive p-phrase in first attributive position:

(46) οἱ / σὺν ἐμοὶ / πάντες ἀδελφοί Gal 1:2
all the brethren with me

With an attributive p-phrase, followed by a relative (cf. §749.2 (37)):

(47) καὶ πᾶσιν τοῖς / εἰς μακράν / ὅσους ... Acts 2:39
and to all that are far off, as many as ...

749. Πᾶς may be negated by oὺ, which normally precedes:

(48) οὐ πᾶς ὁ λέγων μοι, κύριε κύριε Mt 7:21
not everyone who says to me, 'lord, lord'
(49) oὐ πάντες ὑπήκουσαν τῷ ἐυαγγελίῳ Rom 10:16
They have not all heeded the gospel