Lesson 52: Nominal Word Clusters/Determiners



750. Ἕκαστος, each, every, appears in simple nominal word clusters, in complex clusters, and by itself as a grammatical item in the sentence.

750.1 In classical Greek ἕκαστος took predicate position in simple clusters, but the article was often omitted (Smyth §1179). In hellenistic Greek the article rarely appears in simple clusters, in the New Testament never. Ἕκαστος is therefore regularly used with anarthrous nominal heads in simple clusters. Cf. Bl-D §275.

750.2 The plural of ἕκαστος (e.g. ἕκαστοι) is rare. One reason for this is that the singular is used with the plural of pronouns and verbs (s. §751.2-4 below).

751. In simple word clusters ἕκαστος appears with nouns, pronouns, and with εἷς.

751.1 Modifying a noun:

(1) ἕκαστον γὰρ δένδρον ἐκ τοῦ ἰδίου καρποῦ
Lk 6:44
For each tree is known by its own fruit
(2) ἑκάστῳ στρατιώτῳ μέρος Jn 19:23
to each soldier a part

751.2 Ἕκαστος occasionally appears with the plural of a personal pronoun, e.g.

(3) ἡμεῖς ἀκούομεν ἕκαστος τῇ ἰδίᾳ, διαλέκτῳ ἡμῶν Acts 2:8
we each hear in our own dialect

In (3) pronoun and adjective are separated by the verb; in (4) the two appear together:

(4) δώσω ὑuῖv ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὰ ἔργα ὑμῶν Rev 2:23
I shall give to each of you according to your deeds

751.3 Ἕκαστος may also appear alone with a plural verb:

(5) ἐάν μὴ ἀφῆτε ἕκαστος τῷ ἀδελφῷ αὐτοῦ Mt 18:35
unless each of you forgives his brother

Note: The number of the verb in English depends on which is made head term, the plural pronoun or each: we each hear, but each of us hears.

751.4 Ἕκαστος may appear with πάντες (plural):

(6) καὶ ἐπορεύοντο πάντες ἀπογράφεσθαι,
ἕκαστος εἰς τὴν ἑαυτοῦ πόλιν
Lk 2:3
And all went to be enrolled, each to his own city

751.5 Εἶς ἕκαστος. The uses of ἕκαστος in §751.2-4 involve the juxtaposition of singular and plural. A more common cluster is the use of ἕκαστος with the singular pronominal adjective εἷς, one (a cardinal numeral; declension in §268.2). Εἷς ἕκαστος is a slightly strengthened form of ἕκαστος (or εἷς), corresponding roughly to the difference between English each and each one.

(7) ἤκουσεν εἷς ἕκαστος τῇ ἰδίᾳ διαλέκτῳ Acts 2:6
each one heard in his own dialect

The pair also appears in the p-cluster, καθ' ἓν ἕκαστον, one by one, i.e. in detail:

(8) ἐξηγεῖτο καθ' ἓν ἕκαστον ὧν ἐποίησεν
ὁ θεός
Acts 21:19
He related one by one the things God had done

752.1 In complex word clusters, ἕκαστος appears most often with a modifying partitive genitive:

(9) ἕκαστος ὑμῶν λέγει 1 Cor 1:12
each of you says
(10) βαπτισθήτω ἕκαστος ὑμῶν Acts 2:38
let each of you be baptized

752.2 Ἕκαστος may itself serve as a modifying genitive:

(11) κατὰ τὸ ἑκάστου ἔργον 1 Pet 1:17
according to the work of each

752.3 Ἕκαστος may appear as an element in a simple sub-cluster that is part of a complex cluster.

(12) ἑνὶ δὲ ἑκάστῳ ἡμῶν ἐδόθη ἡ χάρις Eph 4:7
But grace was given to each one of us
(13) πλεονάζει ἡ ἀγάπη ἑνὸς ἑκάστου πάντων ὑμών
εἰς ἀλλήλους
2 Thess 1:3
The love of each one of you all for one
another is increasing

753. Ἕκαστος, alone, may serve any of the grammatical functions served by pronouns, like the demonstratives (§733) and πᾶς (§746).

As subject:

(14) ἕκαστος δὲ τὸν ἴδιον μισθὸν λήμψεται 1 Cor 3:8
And each shall receive his wages

As indirect object:

(15) τότε ἀποδώσει ἑκάστῳ κατὰ τὴν πρᾶξιν αὐτοῦ Mt 16:27
Then he will repay every man for what he has done
S. §751.3 for ἕκαστος alone with a plural verb.
Ἄλλος and Ἕτερος

0755. Ἄλλος and Ἕτερος, another, other, are virtually synonymous in hellenistic Greek. Ἕτερος was originally a dual pronominal adjective, referring to the other of two parts, but it is no longer used with precision. Ἄλλος, moreover, has encroached upon the domain of ἕτερος. Cf. Bl-D §306. As a consequence, the two pronominal adjectives may conveniently be considered together.

The patterns characteristic of determiners have now been firmly established (§§710-753). For the most part they need only to be illustrated for ἄλλος and ἕτερος.

755. Ἄλλος and ἕτερος may be used attributively in simple nominal word clusters, with a noun or adjective as head, with or without the article, with or without another modifier. When the article is present in the cluster, ἄλλος and ἕτερος always take attributive position (§684), in contrast to the demonstratives (§729) and some uses of πᾶς (§740).

(1) πρὸς τὸν ἄλλον μαθητήν Jn 20:2
to the other disciple
(2) ἐν τῷ ἑτέρῳ πλοίῳ Lk 5:7
in the other boat
(3) ἄλλην παραβολήν Mt 13:33
another parable
(4) ἐν ἑτέρῳ σαββάτῳ Lk 6:6
on another sabbath
(5) ἄλλα πέντε τάλαντα ἐκέρδησα Mt 20:20
I have made another five talents (= five talents more)
(6) ἑπτά ἕτερα πνεύματα Mt 12:45
seven other spirits

756. Ἄλλος and ἕτερος may be used with other pronominal adjectives in simple clusters, with or without a noun as head:

(7) ἄλλον τινὰ ὅρκον Ja 5:12
any other oath
(8) τις ἑτέρα ἐντολή Rom 13:9
any other commandment
(9) οὐκ οἶδα εἴ τινα ἄλλον ἐβάπτισα 1 Cor 1:16
I do not know whether I baptized any one else
(10) καὶ εἴ τι ἕτερον τῇ ὑγιαινούσῃ διδασκαλίᾳ
1 Tim 1:10
and whatever else is contrary to sound doctrine
(11) οὐδεὶς ἄλλος Jn 15:24
no one else
(12) εἰς οὐδὲν ἕτερον ... ἢ Acts 17:21
at nothing other than

757. Ἄλλος and ἕτερος are used as heads of simple clusters (with the article).

(13) στρέψον αὐτῷ καὶ τὴν ἄλλην Mt 5:39
turn to him the other [cheek] also
(14) οἱ ἄλλοι διακρινέτωσαν 1 Cor 14:29
let the others judge
(15) φεύγετε εἰς τὴν ἑτέραν Mt 10:23
flee to the next [town]

Note: A variant reading for this text is εἰς τὴν ἄλλην, indicating that the two terms are virtually interchangeable.

(16) ἐν ᾧ γὰρ κρίνεις τὸν ἕτερον Rom 2:1
for when you judge another

758. Ἄλλος and ἕτερος also appear in a variety of complex clusters, occasionally alone as a subcluster, but more often as an item in a simple cluster that belongs to a complex cluster.

758.1 Alone as a subcluster:

(17) ἀλλὰ διὰ τῆς ἑτέρων σπουδῆς 2 Cor 8:8
but through the earnestness of others
(18) ἕτερον δὲ τῶν ἀποστόλων οὐκ εἶδον Gal 1:19
but another of the apostles I did not see

758.2 As an item in a simple subcluster belonging to a complex cluster:

(19) καὶ ἄλλοι ἐκ τῶν μαθητών αὺτοῦ δύο Jn 21:2
and two others of his disciples

Note: The p-cluster with modifying genitive separates ἄλλος and δύο.

(20) καὶ τινας ἄλλους ἐξ αὐτῶν Acts 15:2
and some of the others (some others of them)
(21) μηδεὶς τὀ ἐαυτοῦ ζητείτω ἀλλὰ τὸ τοῦ ἑτέρου 1 Cor 10:24
Let no one seek his own [good], but the [good]
of the other

759. Alone ἄλλος and ἕτερος may serve any of the grammatical functions served by pronouns, as can either with the article (§757). Once again, this is a characteristic shared with other determiners (cf. §§733, 746, 753).

759.1 Subject:

(22) ἄλλοι, δὲ ἔλεγον, οὔ Jn 7:12
Others said, "No"
(23) εἶπεν δὲ καὶ ἕτερος, ἀκολουθήσω σοι Lk 9:61
And another said, "I will follow you"

759.2 Object:

(24) ἄλλους ἔσωσεν Mt 27:42
He saved others
(25) ἤ ἕτερον προσδοκῶμεν; Mt 11:3
Or shall we look for another?

759.3 Indirect object:

(26) καὶ δώσει τὸν ἀμπελῶνα ἄλλοις Mk 12:9
And he will give the vineyard to others
(27) ἔπειτα ἑτέρῳ εἶπεν ... Lk 16:7
Then he said to another ...

As a variation on the indirect object in S-IV compare

(28) εἶπεν δὲ πρὸς ἕτερον ... Lk 9:59
And he said to another ...

where προς with the accusative functions as indirect object (§602).

760. Ἄλλος and ἕτερος are sometimes used correlatively, but without fixed pattern. For example, in the sequence

(29) οἱ μεν ... ἄλλοι δὲ ... ἕτεροι δὲ ... Mt 16:14

ἄλλοι and ἕτεροι are alternated, it seems, only for the sake of variety. Similar alternation is found in a longer sequence:

(30) ᾧ μὲν ... ἄλλῳ δὲ ... ἑτέρῳ ... ἄλλῳ δὲ ...
    ἄλλῳ δὲ ... ἄλλῳ δὲ ... ἄλλῳ δὲ ... ἑτέρῳ ...
    ἄλλῳ δὲ ...
1 Cor 12:8-10

Note: μέν followed by δέ is a further clue to the correlation (§635.2).

An established correlation appears to be:

(31) ὁ εἶς ... ὁ δὲ ἕτερος ... Lk 7:41

Cf. Mt. 6:24 (two examples). But in Rev 17:10 we find:

(32) ὁ εἶς ... ὁ ἄλλος ... Rev 17:10

Ἄλλος or ἕτερος may also be used consistently, apart from the first item, in a series:

(33) οἱ δὲ ... καὶ ἄλλοι ... ἄλλοι δὲ ... Mk 8:28
(34) ὅ μὲν ... καὶ ἕτερον ... καὶ ἕτερον ...
καὶ ἕτερον
Lk 8:5-8


0765.1 The indefinite pronominal adjective τις, τι is identical in form to the interrogative pronominal adjective τίς, τί, except for accent (§§151, 153: τίς, τί serves as the inflectional model for the third declension). The interrogative always has an acute accent; the indefinite form either has no accent (as an enclitic, §074) , or it is accented on the ultima in the case of dissyllabic forms, e.g. τινός, τινές, τινῶν, whereas the dissyllabic forms of the interrogative receive an acute accent on the penult, e.g. τίνος, τίνες, τίνων.

0765.2 Τις, τι corresponds to a number of expressions in English: a, any, anyone, anything, some, someone, somebody, something, one, certain, a certain one, person, man, or thing, many a, several. Since it embraces a wide range of indefinite terms and phrases in English, it is often subject to more than one translation in a given context.

765. Τις appears in a variety of simple and complex word clusters:

(1) ἄνθρωπος τις ἐποίει δεῖπνον μέγα Lk 14:16
A certain man gave a great banquet
(2) μετάπεμψαι Σίμωνά τινα Acts 10:5
Bring one Simon
(3) ἠρώτησαν αὐτὸν ἐπιμεῖναι ἡμέρας τινάς Acts 10:48
They asked him to remain for some days
(4) ἤλπιζέν τι σημεῖον ἰδεῖν Lk 23:8
He was hoping to see some sign
(5) τυφλός τις ἐκάθητο παρὰ τὴν ὁδόν Lk 18:35
A blind man was sitting beside the road
(6) εἶδεν δὲ τινα χήραν πενιχράν Lk 21:2
And he saw a poor widow
(7) περὶ ἑαυτοῦ ἢ περὶ ἑτέρου τινός; Acts 8:34
Concerning himself or concerning someone else?
(8) ἐάν τινος ἀδελφός ἀποθανῇ ... Mk 12:19
If the brother of someone dies ...
(9) τινὲς δὲ τῶν Φαρισαίων εἶπαν ... Lk 6:2
But some of the Pharisees said ...
(10) ἔλεγον οὖν ἐκ τῶν Φαρισαίων τινές ... Jn 9:16
Then some of the Pharisees said ...
(11) ἀνέστησαν δὲ τινες τῶν ἐκ τῆς συναγωγῆς
τῆς λεγομένης Λιβερτίνων
Acts 6:9
Then some of those from the synagogue called
Libertine stood up

766.1 Examples (1)-(7) illustrate the use of τις in simple word clusters: (1)-(4) and (6) have nouns as heads, (5) has an adjective as head term, and (7) another pronominal adjective as head term. (6) includes an adjective modifier along with τις.

766.2 Examples (8)-(11) exhibit complex word clusters with τις. Note that the simple partitive genitive in (9) is agnate to the p-phrase with ἐκ in (10). The partitive genitive in (11) is signaled only by the article τῶν, which is followed by a long attributive p-phrase.

766.3 For other examples of τις modifying another pronominal adjective (d-words) in simple clusters, s. §756 (9), (10); for simple clusters with noun head and two attributive d-words, one of which is τις, s. §756 (7), (8).

767. Alone τις may serve any of the grammatical functions served by pronouns (cf. §§733, 746, 753, 759).

(12) ἐὰν μή τις γεννηθῇ ἄνωθεν ... Jn 3:3
Unless one is born anew ...
(13) εἴ τι ἔχετε κατά τινος ... Mk 11:25
If you have anything against anyone ...
(14) ὁρᾶτε μή τις κακὸν ἀντὶ κακοῦ τινι ἀποδῷ 1 Thess 5:15
See that no one repays anyone evil for evil
(15) εἴδομέν τινα ἐν τῷ ὀνόματί σου ἐκβάλλοντα
Mk 9:38
We saw a man casting out demons in your name

Τις appears as subject in (12) and (14) (first occurrence), as direct object in (13), and as indirect object in (14) (second occurrence). In (15) τινα is an object (going with the participle, ἐκβάλλοντα).