From: Dale M. Wheeler (
Date: Sat Apr 27 1996 - 15:49:46 EDT

>From: "Carl W. Conrad" <>
>Date: Fri, 26 Apr 1996 20:44:54 -0500
>Subject: Re: EUQUS
>Ideas? Oh yes. No facts, of course, but ideas/theories? Certainly.
>I'm wondering about the history of adverbial endings, and I have no
>reference works at hand. Everyone knows that you form adverbs from
>adjectives by adding -WS to adjective stem; hence: KALWS, TAXEWS from
>KAL- and TAXEf-. And indeed, the older form of the adverb of EUQUS, at
>least in Attic, is EUQEWS, although it seems to me (back of my memory) that
>EUQUS and perhaps EUQU may be used adverbially in Homer and Hesiod, i.e.,
>in Epic dialect, which is to say, probably, in the Ionic dialectal form.
>Now we know that there are variantssuch as hOUTWS and hOUTW that mean the
>same thing; I think in reality PWS and PW (the enclitic adverb meaning
>"somehow" are really identical. This makes me SUSPECT that the form in -W
>(hOUTW, PW) or -U (EUQU) is older, the one perhaps being an old
>instrumental ending, the other the neuter accusative singular of the
>adjective, and that the -S is, in fact, a movable sigma added where
>appropriate for euphonic reasons, and then becoming regular for most
>There's no knowing whether this is right or not, but it seems plausible.
>Makes me wonder whether BDF arrived at it by the same logic?

Thanks for the, once again, valuable insights....

I would guess that BDF followed the same line of thinking (though I doubt
they were able to do it off the top of their collective heads as you were,
as evidence by the fact that Bauer and his entourage of researchers couldn't)
since in par 21 they discuss the movable sigma with OUTW/OUTOS (as well
as with AXRI/AXRIS, MEXRI/MEXRIS; though they don't mention the PW/PWS
thing.) and point out that it gradually became standard for the word. BDF
seemed to me to have the most plausible case as well, esp., since it is
normal to build the adverb off of the neut. acc. form and that form, EUQU,
does occur side by side with EUQUS.
Dale M. Wheeler, Th.D.
Chair, Biblical Languages Dept Multnomah Bible College
8435 NE Glisan Street Portland, OR 97220
Voice: 503-251-6416 FAX:503-254-1268 E-Mail:

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