Date: Mon Jun 17 1996 - 17:05:56 EDT
>>As Dan Wallace points out in his forthcoming grammar, .... In order
for the two substantives to be considered as referring to the same
person in an article-substantive-kai-substantive construction, there
are three specific criterion which must be met:
1. Neither should be impersonal.
2. Neither should be plural.
3. Neither should be a proper name.<<
I am not familiar with Dan Wallace's upcoming grammar, but a fourth
criterion would be in order. It would read:
4. Neither should refer to a different, distinct person.
This would capture the exceptions to his existing rule.
2 Peter 1:1,2 tou theou hemon kai soteros hemon is often used as an
example of Sharp's rule. But in the very next verse (v.2), a clear
distinction is made between God and Jesus.
1 Tim 6:13 is another type of article-noun-kai-noun construction where
the second noun is clearly a distinct person from the first, although
it fits 1, 2, and 3 above.
Prov 24:21 LXX "fear [the] God and king" leaves Sharp's rule
indefensible. Once again, the second noun is clearly distinct from
An additional criterion would be in line with these examples and the
comments by C.F.D. Moule in his book "An Idiom Book of New Testament
Greek", 1971, p. 109 regarding Titus 2:13:
"of the great God, and of our Savior Jesus Christ ... is possible in
koine Greek even without the repetition [of the article]."
See also "The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel and Other Critical
Essays", by Ezra Abbot, Boston, 1888, pp. 439-457 (esp. p.452) for
more exceptions and commentary on the exceptions.
Without an additional criterion, Sharp's rule (as it stands) should
have this exception criterion noted:
"When two distinct persons are connected by kai, if the first person
is preceeded by the article, it is not NECESSARY to repeat the article
before the second person."
Sincerely and respectfully,
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