Sharp's Rule Extension/ Exceptions

Date: Mon Jun 17 1996 - 17:05:56 EDT

>>As Dan Wallace points out in his forthcoming grammar, .... In order
     for the two substantives to be considered as referring to the same
     person in an article-substantive-kai-substantive construction, there
     are three specific criterion which must be met:
     1. Neither should be impersonal.
     2. Neither should be plural.
     3. Neither should be a proper name.<<
     I am not familiar with Dan Wallace's upcoming grammar, but a fourth
     criterion would be in order. It would read:
     4. Neither should refer to a different, distinct person.
     This would capture the exceptions to his existing rule.
     2 Peter 1:1,2 tou theou hemon kai soteros hemon is often used as an
     example of Sharp's rule. But in the very next verse (v.2), a clear
     distinction is made between God and Jesus.
     1 Tim 6:13 is another type of article-noun-kai-noun construction where
     the second noun is clearly a distinct person from the first, although
     it fits 1, 2, and 3 above.
     Prov 24:21 LXX "fear [the] God and king" leaves Sharp's rule
     indefensible. Once again, the second noun is clearly distinct from
     the first.
     An additional criterion would be in line with these examples and the
     comments by C.F.D. Moule in his book "An Idiom Book of New Testament
     Greek", 1971, p. 109 regarding Titus 2:13:
     "of the great God, and of our Savior Jesus Christ ... is possible in
     koine Greek even without the repetition [of the article]."
     See also "The Authorship of the Fourth Gospel and Other Critical
     Essays", by Ezra Abbot, Boston, 1888, pp. 439-457 (esp. p.452) for
     more exceptions and commentary on the exceptions.
     Without an additional criterion, Sharp's rule (as it stands) should
     have this exception criterion noted:
     "When two distinct persons are connected by kai, if the first person
     is preceeded by the article, it is not NECESSARY to repeat the article
     before the second person."
     Sincerely and respectfully,
     Wes Williams

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