Date: Thu Oct 24 1996 - 13:58:39 EDT
David J. Rising wrote:
>I have a question from James 3:6 by the connection of hO >KOSMOS THS ADIKIAS
with the surrounding clauses. Zerwick's >_Gram Analysis_ offers the
suggestion of either apposition to >GLWSSA (as punctuation and others
suggest) or as predicate >to KAQISTATAI. I favor the former suggestion, but
wondered >if the latter had any merits.
Don't overlook the textual variant which places "outws" or "outws kai" after
"melos", supplying the connection of "a world of injustice/unrighteousness"
with the phrase that follows and supporting taking "o kosmos . . ." as being
in apposition to the second "glwssa" in the verse, which functions as the
subject of the verb "kaQistatai". The inclusion of "outws" clarifies the
connection with "glwssa" in lew of an acceptable verb for a predicate
nominative (eimi, ginomai, uparxw) (given that the use of "isthmi" as a
linking/connective verb could be argued, nevertheless such a usage would not
be the common practice, IMO), and avoids possible misunderstandings of
linking the phrase with the beginning of the verse. Although the variant
readings are unlikely to be original, they do show fairly early
interpretations of the text that take the first of your choices (if I've
understood you correctly as referring of the second occurrence of "glwssa" in
the verse). In this case, the reading shown in NA-27 and UBS-4 follows the
shorter text, but most interpretations, including the punctuation in NA-27
adn UBS-4, are nevertheless in sync with the understanding/interpretation
indicated in the other variant readings.
I hope this is helpful.
Professor of New Testament and Greek
New Orleans Baptist Theological Seminary
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