Re: Syntax of Eph. 4:11

From: James H. Vellenga (
Date: Tue Nov 12 1996 - 15:14:34 EST

> From: Rod Decker <>
> I'm interested in the syntactical series of Eph. 4:11 (MEN... DE... DE...
> DE... KAI). I don't find this pattern elsewhere in the NT (even with fewer
> KAIs). Is anyone aware of it outside the NT?
> The significance lies, of course, in whether the last two elements are
> equal, parallel members with the first three, or if they are to be treated
> as a joint (hyphenated?) member. (Granville Sharp rule does NOT apply here,
> BTW, since the nouns are plural).
> apostles or apostles
> prophets prophets
> evangelists evangelists
> pastors pastors-teachers [or: pastors, even teachers]
> teachers

Not that this answers the syntax question, but I've been reflecting
on this a little lately. This has always looked like a list of
people with leading offices in the church, and it has seemed strange
to me that there were no "elders" or "overseers" in the list. But
recently I put this together with some indications that elders/overseers
are supposed to be pastors (1 Pet 5.1-2) and teachers (1 Tim 3.2, 5.17),
and it seems likely to me that the "pastors KAI teachers" category is a
reference to what the NT elsewhere calls "elders" or "overseers" --
some of whom taught, but all of whom shepherded.

Jim V.

James H. Vellenga |
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