NUN + Indicative Aorist = Perfect?

From: Jonathan Robie (
Date: Tue Apr 08 1997 - 12:11:39 EDT

I have found 5 examples of NUN + Indicative Aorist Verb in the New
Testament, and I've tentatively reached the conclusion that this combination
functions much like a perfect: it calls attention to a current state
resulting from a past action. However, I'd like to see if my interpretation
of these passages matches that of others. For those who missed it, yesterday
I also found two NUN+Aorist examples in Homer, cited by Smyth. Both were
inceptive aorist, and these seemed to be equivalent to perfects, but it was
difficult to conclude much from them. All in all, I still have only 7
examples, which is a small data set - does anybody know other examples worth
looking at?
Matt 26:65 tote o arciereus dierrhxen ta imatia autou legwn: eblasfhmhsen:
ti eti creian ecomen marturwn; ide *nun* *hkousate* thn blasfhmian:
Matt 26:65 (NASU) Then the high priest tore his robes and said, "He has
blasphemed! What further need do we have of witnesses? Behold, you have now
heard the blasphemy;

The current status: they have heard the blasphemy (and no longer need witnesses)

Roma 11:31 outws kai outoi *nun* *hpeiqhsan* tw umeterw eleei, ina kai autoi
(*nun*) *elehqwsin*.
Roma 11:31 (NASU) so these also now have been disobedient, that because of
the mercy shown to you they also may now be shown mercy.

The current state: having been disobedient (and being capable of receiving

The second example of an aorist here, ELEHQWSIN, is passive subjunctive, not
indicative, but it is very interesting because of its parallelism to the
first aorist (especially if the second NUN is accepted as genuine), and
because it is almost impossible to give it a past referent.

Ephe 3:5 o eterais geneais ouk egnwrisqh tois uiois twn anqrwpwn ws *nun*
*apekalufqh* tois agiois apostolois autou kai profhtais en pneumati,
Ephe 3:5 (NASU) which in other generations was not made known to the sons of
men, as it has now been revealed to His holy apostles and prophets in the

The current state: it has now been revealed

1Pet 1:12 ois apekalufqh oti ouc eautois umin de dihkonoun auta, a *nun*
*anhggelh* umin dia twn euaggelisamenwn umas (en) pneumati agiw apostalenti
ap ouranou, eis a epiqumousin aggeloi parakuyai.
1Pet 1:12 (NASU) It was revealed to them that they were not serving
themselves, but you, in these things which now have been announced to you
through those who preached the gospel to you by the Holy Spirit sent from
heaven--things into which angels long to look.

The current state: these things have now been announced to you

John 13:31 Ote oun exhlqen, legei Ihsous: *nun* *edoxasqh* o uios tou
anqrwpou kai o qeos *edoxasqh* en autw:
John 13:31 (NASU) Therefore when he had gone out, Jesus ^said, "Now is the
Son of Man glorified, and God is glorified in Him; 32 if God is glorified in
Him, God will also glorify Him in Himself, and will glorify Him immediately.

This is the one example where translations differ. For consistency with the
other examples, I think I would prefer the translation "Now the Son of Man
has been glorified, and God has been glorified in him". The force of the
second EDOXAQH (and the first in verse 32) is very interesting; note that
the NASU translates all three with English present tense: "is glorified". I
would be more inclined to translate all three with "has been glorified".



Jonathan Robie
POET Software, 3207 Gibson Road, Durham, N.C., 27703
Ph: 919.598.5728 Fax: 919.598.6728
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