Re: Does the NT contain evident that Jesus was worshipped?

From: Rolf Furuli (
Date: Wed Jun 24 1998 - 10:01:26 EDT

Edgar Foster wrote:
>(1.) The Hebrew equivalent of PROSKEUNEW is SHACHAH. SHACHAH is
>utilized to describe the acts of prostration, obeisance, humble
>imploration, and worship. But note, SHACHAH does NOT primarily mean
>"worship." Foremost, SHACHAH is used in the OT to delineate Joseph's
>brother's bowing down to him (Gen. 37:5, 9, 10). Ruth also performs an
>act of SHACHAH toward Boaz, as does David before Saul (Ruth 2:10; 1
>Sam. 24:8). Kings and princes are also 'bowed down to'; but SHACHAH is
>also demonstrated toward God (Gen. 22:5; 1 Sam. 1:3). A very
>significant point vis-a'-vis SHACHAH is that it could also be
>performed WITHOUT bowing the body (Gen. 47:31; 1 Kings 1:47). Based on
>these thoughts and other considerations (note the Akkadian cognate
>term), I would say that the Greek equivalent PROSKENEW does not (in
>the first sense) denote worship.

Dear Edgar,

Your analysis of PROSKEUNEW was very fine, but I have one remark regarding
the Hebrew equivalent, where your presentation of the form evidently buildt
on older sources. The Hebrew equivalent of PROSKEUNEW is HAWA (het, waw,
he) and it occurs in the unusual Eshtaphal stem (see C.L. Seow, 1987 "A
Grammar for Biblical Hebrew", p 230 and R.L.Harris et al.,1980,
"Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament Vol I, entry 619). Your
description of the meaning of "SHACHAH" (= HAWA) was however accurate.



Rolf Furuli
Lecturer in Semitic languages
University of Oslo

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