Re: Gal. 3:28

From: Maurice A. O'Sullivan (
Date: Fri Aug 14 1998 - 14:41:32 EDT

At 12:54 14/08/98 GMT, "Phillip J. Long" <> wrote:
>On Thu, 13 Aug 1998 17:56:44 -0700 (PDT), you wrote:
>>Is there any significance in the clause OUK ENI ARSEN KAI QHLU (Gal.
>>3:28)? Does this clause differ markedly in meaning from the two
>>previous couplets in 3:28?
>I would not think so, I thought that the reason he shifted from OUDE
>to KAI was the influence of Gen 1:27 (which connects male and female
>with KAI.) I wonder why he chose those two words for male and female
>(as opposed to anqropos kai gunh, etc.) I have read that some take
>this as an allusion to a common saying among Jewish men, "I thank God
>that I was not born a Gentile, Slave or Woman." (That's off the top
>of my head, I don't have a source handy!"
>Maybe the two words are so commonly associated that it is difficult to
>use OUDE with this pair. The LXX has 10x in Genesis of the pair,
>always in that order and connecte with KAI.

I quite agree with you about the significance of the LXX parallel.

There is an additional point, brought out by Bauer in EDNT vol. 2, dealing
with Ro. 1:26, where he holds the use of QHLUS is not perjorative ( despite
the subject matter Paul is dealing with ) bur simply because GUNH could be
taken for wife, rather than " the word which designates the femal among
animals, people and gods".

Besides, the other terms in Ga. 3:28 are in oppostion -- Jew/Greek,
free/slave -- whereas Paul is taking over not just the grammatical forms of
the LXX but also the idea of complementarity inherent in the Genesis account.


Maurice A. O'Sullivan [ Bray, Ireland ]

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