From: Edgar Foster (
Date: Sat Aug 22 1998 - 19:44:30 EDT

Dear Carl,

I can now understand why you question the paraphrastic "irrefutable
proofs." True, it does have a rhetorical feel to it. Maybe it would be
better to render it "unquestionable evidence" (Amplified Bible) or
"indubitable proof." The semantic range of the word seems to allow for
this rendering. Still, as you point out, we must consider the context.
In the context of Acts 1:3, "unquestionable" or "indisputable" seems a
good choice. The apostles are being shown signs that will enable them
to be witnesses of Christ throughout the earth. Surely they will need
strong proof to be convinced and to persuade others.

Another consideration here is the Classical usage of TEKMHRION. When
consulting LSJ, I found that TEKMHRION was variously rendered as "sure
proof" or "strong proof," as well as "evidence." The word seems to
have strong connotations of evidence that is undeniable. Still, I
understand your objections.

Thanks for your help,

Edgar Foster

Classics Major

Lenoir-Rhyne College

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