From: Bill Ross (
Date: Sun Feb 21 1999 - 23:53:05 EST

>Is there any gramatical reason that DIA TOUTO in Romans 5:12 cannot refer
to TH ZWH AUTOU in 5:10?

It's a neuter, I hardly think it can refer back to THN ZWHN AUTOU. I would
understand it as referring to the entire main
clause of 5:11 as the antecedent.

What I'm considering is, rather than ending the sentence in 5:11 with
KATALLAGHN ELABOMEN, continuing it with DIA TOUTO, so it reads: KATALLAGHN

* is this grammatically acceptable?
* if so, what would seem to be the antecedent of TOUTO?

>While I'm at it, does anyone object to KATAKRIMA being translated "death
sentence" in 5:16?

It will mean "condemnation" and in this instance that will be death, but I
wouldn't want to endorse "death sentence" itself
as an appropriate translation for KATAKRIMA in 5:16.

How would KATEKRIQH in Matthew 27:3 be translated? It reads:


The reason I ask is that he did not see the legal sentencing (see verse 11).
Does the word necessarily imply a "legal" sentencing, or might he seen only
that "He was going to die"?

I am wondering if the word has a range of nuances like our English word
"condemned," used in reference to:

* someone sentenced to death by a court;
* a building marked for destruction;
* a person who will inevitably come to some demise, apart from a judicial
setting (i.e. "he was condemned to remember his mistake for the rest of his

>And KATESTAQHSAN beint translated "oriented as" in 5:19?

Seems very strange to me; it really means "were constituted" = "were caused
to be" or even "were made" This verb KAQISTHMI regular means "put someone
into a state/condition," which state/condition is normally indicated as a
predicate accusative or, in this instance of a passive verb, as a predicate

This is the definition I have for "constituted":

1 : to appoint to an office, function, or dignity

Since "sinners" and "righteous" are adjectives and not nouns and describe
the *characters* of the ones being KAQISTHMI, I wanted to translate this in
a way that made clear to the reader that this was not a "positional" or
"judicial" statement (ie: "reckoned" as "unrighteous"). Constituted, in the
sense of "appoint" fits many of the contexts of KAQISTHMI, but it would seem
a strange reading for being "appointed to the office of sinner," or
"appointed to the office of uprightness" though it could be an intentional
spin by Paul.

Perhaps "were made into sinful people" and "made into righteous people"?

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