From: Carl W. Conrad (email@example.com)
Date: Sun Mar 28 1999 - 06:37:40 EST
<x-rich>At 10:58 PM -0600 3/27/99, Moon-Ryul Jung wrote:
>According to Carl's recommendation, I try to interpret "passive
>endings" as middle unless there is an indicator for passive meaning.
>Here is an example from Mark 2:12.
>hWSTE EXISTASQAI PANTAS KAI DOXAZEIN TON QEON.
>Is there anyway to interpret EXISTASQAI as middle?
Absolutely; I just did a quick AcCordance search for this verb in Mark
only and found, in addition to 2;12:
<color><param>0000,7777,0000</param>Mark 3:21 KAI AKOUSANTES hOI PAR'
AUTOU EXHLQON KRATHSAI AUTON: ELEGON GAR hOTI EXESTH.
Mark 5:42 KAI EUQUS ANESTH TO KORASION KAI PERIEPATEI: HN GAR ETWN
DWDEKA. KAI EXESTHSAN [EUQUS] EKSTASEI MEGALHi
Mark 6:51 KAI ANEBH PROS AUTOUS EIS TO PLOION KAI EKOPASEN hO ANEMOS,
KAI LIAN EK PERISSOU EN hEAUTOI EXISTANTO.
Of course I could have added several others from the gospels but these
are sufficient to show usage, I think: 2:12 shows present middle
infinitive, 6:51 shows imperfect middle 3 plural; 3:21 and 5:42 show
the intransitive aorist forms EXESTH and EXESTHSAN. There is in none of
these an indication of an agent or external cause; depending on the
context, the verb means "be beside oneself," whether in a state of
amazement (2:12, 3:21, 5:42) or insanity (6:51) or (although this usage
of the middle voice doesn't appear in the NT) it is used of mystical
exaltation--and in that sense is the ultimate source of the English
word "ecstasy." In Acts 8:9 and 8:11 the verb is used of Simon Magus in
the active for his power to put persons in such a state. I'd say
therefore that this verb EXISTHMI, EXISTAMAI shows standard alternation
between a causative active and intransitive middle.
Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics/Washington University
One Brookings Drive/St. Louis, MO, USA 63130/(314) 935-4018
Home: 7222 Colgate Ave./St. Louis, MO 63130/(314) 726-5649
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