Re: Jude 8

From: Carl W. Conrad (
Date: Fri Oct 15 1999 - 23:44:45 EDT

At 10:32 PM -0500 10/15/99, Dmitriy Reznik wrote:
>Dear friends,
>In Jude 8 hOMOIWS MENTOI KAI hOUTOI ENUPNIAZOMENOI ... (Likewise also these
>filthy dreamers...) ENUPNIAZOMENOI has no article. Is its meaning then as of
>a noun (as it would certainly be with an article), or it describes the
>following verbs (defile the flesh, despise dominion, and speak evil of
>dignities) as an adverb?

You cite the KJV for Jude 8, but ENUPNIAZOMENOI surely must be predicative
and therefore understood adverbially--a circumstantial participle--with the
three verbs that follow. You are right: this is NOT a substantive
participle. The writer returns to those persons described in verse 4 and
says, "But these in the same way, as they dream, not only defile the flesh,
but also despise dominion and speak evil of dignities." Exactly what is
intended by ENUPNIAZOMENOI is less than crystal clear, however; it could
refer to having visions of some sort or it could be a way of saying what we
mean when we say that someone is "out of touch with reality"--living in a
fantasy world rather than in the real world.

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics/Washington University
One Brookings Drive/St. Louis, MO, USA 63130/(314) 935-4018
Home: 7222 Colgate Ave./St. Louis, MO 63130/(314) 726-5649

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