Re: Ezek 37:9 LXX

From: Steven Craig Miller (
Date: Tue Oct 12 1999 - 07:35:22 EDT

To: Nigel Hanscamp and Joe A. Friberg,

NH: << In this fascinating verse (Ezek 37.9), the following appears: TADE
LEGEI KUPIOS... I wonder if someone could enlighten me on the meaning of
the TADE. >>

TADE is just TA & DE (from hODE).

NH: << I wonder if the list would agree that PNEUMA is best translated
"wind" in this case. The NRSV uses "the breath", but I wonder if that is
pushing this use a little too far, since it/they are called out of the

(Of course, the NRSV is translating the Hebrew.) I think "wind" is a
completely acceptable translation of the Greek LXX here. The difference
between the two is IMO a matter of style.

Joe A. Friberg writes:

<< Actually, I would think that there is a distinct play on words here.
EMFUSHSON seems to support 'breath', as does ZHSATWSAN. The singular
PNEUMA/PNEUMATI stands in contrast to and distinct from the TESSARWN
PNEUMATWN. So, it seems advisable to translate the PNEUMA/PNEUMATI in its
sense of 'breath'. >>

Of course, the singular "wind" comes from the four winds (plural), that is
just how weather was viewed to work. And as for EMFUSHSON & ZHSATWSAN
supporting the translation "breath," I'm surprised you didn't also cite KAI
EISHLQEN EIS AUTOUS TO PNEUMA ("and the breath/wind came into them") of the
next verse. But I'm not convinced, although it seems that this PNEUMA
becomes their breath, that does not mean that PNEUMA was all along thought
of as a "breath." One might ask, "breath" of what? God? Does God's breath
come from the four winds? To translate PNEUMA here as "breath" is to create
a metaphor which does not necessarily exist in the original Greek text. IMO
"wind" is a perfectly natural translation here. Although, perhaps the
difference between the two is simply a matter of personal style.

-Steven Craig Miller (

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