From: Steven Craig Miller (email@example.com)
Date: Wed Oct 13 1999 - 06:32:56 EDT
To: Carl W. Conrad,
<< All three, I think; it's quite common, even when a verb must be
understood with several subjects, for it to be construed only with the
nearest one. But I would suggest that this not be considered so much a
singular verb with a plural subject as an instance of ellipsis, where the
singular verb actually expressed with the third subject is to be understood
with each of the other two subjects, so that we are to understand: ELEOS
hUMIN PLHQUNQEIH KAI EIRHNH PLHQUNQEIH KAI AGAPH PLHQUNQEIH. But that would
look awkward in Greek as in English; it needs to be stated only once to be
understood with each of the other subjects. Alternatively one could
understand an ESTW or ESTWSAN with ELEOS and EIRHNH as implicitly present,
but I think it's easier to understand PLHQUNQEIH as referring to all three
That seems to be a reasonable enough explanation of Jude 2, although I
think it simpler to think of it in terms of a Pindaric construction (a
compound subject with a verb in the singular). For example,
hEWS AN PARELQHi hO OURANOS KAI hH GH (Mt 5:18).
Similarly, we have:
hOTI SARX KAI hAIMA BASILEIAN QEOU KLHRONOMHSAI OU DUNATAI (1 Cor 15:50).
With these two examples, I doubt one would want to think that they are mere
ellipsis, since with "heaven and earth" and "flesh and blood," it appears
that it is the totality which is being emphasized.
KAI HN hO PATHR AUTOU KAI hH MHTHR QAUMAZONTES (Luke 2:33).
Here we have a compound subject with a single verb and a plural participle!
So, while your interpretation of Jude 2 as an ellipsis is reasonable
enough, I see nothing wrong with just assuming that it is a Pindaric
construction. What do you think?
-Steven Craig Miller (firstname.lastname@example.org)
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