Re: "Enemy" as gloss for EXQROS (and Sin, Nun, Aleph)

From: clayton stirling bartholomew (
Date: Mon Jan 03 2000 - 15:01:26 EST

>From: "Stevens, Charles C" <>

> It seems to me that the word "enemy" in English has come to carry a
> significant implication of *reciprocal* hostility, not just one-sided -- in
> a way, in English, it seems to me that one cannot become your *enemy*
> without you yourself at the very least acknowledging that person's status as
> your enemy, and most generally responding with at least some degree of
> hostility or firm defensiveness.


I have a question about your question. How did you come to the
conclusion that "the word "enemy" in English has come to carry a
significant implication of *reciprocal* hostility?"

Since all the rest of your discussion rests on this I wonder if perhaps
the word "enemy" in English really has this element of *reciprocal*

On the other question about the best English gloss for EXQROS, I have
been seeing this word a lot in my study of Cosmic Combat motifs in the
OT. There may be some imprecision in the semantic overlap between
EXQROS and enemy but I would be hard put to find a replacement that
would not have more problems. The word adversary does not solve
anything, nor does the word foe. Translation equivelents are rarely
optimal but it seems to me that enemy and EXQROS are a reasonably good

I have a lingering question about the element of *reciprocal* hostility
in "enemy," for example "enemy of the people" where is the reciprocal
hostility here?


Clayton Stirling Bartholomew
Three Tree Point
P.O. Box 255 Seahurst WA 98062

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