Date: Sun Feb 06 2000 - 19:12:33 EST
In a message dated 2/6/2000 7:01:35 AM Central Daylight Time,
<< I would appreciate any information someone could provide me regarding
the use of PARQENOS around the time of the Septuagint translation of
the Hebrew scriptures. Was its use predominantly equivalent to
English "virgin" or more in the sense of a young woman, probably a
virgin given customs, but not necessarily so? In the Septuagint,
although related words (PARQEN___) were almost entirely restricted to
the transliteration of Hebrew B:TW.LAH, virgin in the strict sense,
PARQENOS is used about a third of the time to translate (AL:MAH or
NA(:ARAH, both meaning approximately "young woman" without necessary
implication of virginity.
The entry for PARQENOS from the Liddell-Scott-Jones Lexicon is about the best
I can do. Of course, this isn't specific to the 3rd cent. BC.
PARQENOS , Lacon. PARTHENOS Aristoph. Lys. 1263 (lyr.). Ó , maiden, girl,
Hom. Il. 22.127, etc. ; hAI AQLIAI P. EMAI my unhappy girls, Soph. OT 1462,
cf. Aristoph. Kn. 1302 ; also GUNH PARQENOS Hes. Th. 514; p. k–ra , of the
Sphinx, dub. in Eur. Phoen. 1730 (lyr.); QUGATHR P. Xen. Cyrop. 4.6.9 ; of
Persephone, Eur. Hel. 1342 (lyr.), cf. S.Fr.804; virgin, opp. GUNH ,
IDEM=Soph. Trach. 148, Theoc.27.65.
2. of unmarried women who are not virgins, Hom. Il. 2.514, Pind. P. 3.34,
Soph. Trach. 1219, Aristoph. Cl. 530.
3. PARQENOS, hH , the Virgin Goddess, as a title of Athena at Athens, Paus.
5.11.10, au=Paus. 10.34.8 (hence of an Att. coin bearing her head, E.Fr.675);
of Artemis, Eur. Hipp. 17 ; of the Tauric Iphigenia, Hdt. 4.103 ; of an
unnamed goddess, SIG46.3 (Halic., v B.C.), IG12.108.48,au=IG 12.108.54=lr
(Neapolis in Thrace); a§ §era† p ., of the Vestal Virgins, D.H.1.69,
Plu.2.89e, etc. ; hAI ESTIADES P. IDEM=Plu.Cic.19; simply, hAI P. D.H.2.66.
4. the constellation ti=D.H. Virgo, Eudox.ap.Hipparch. 1.2.5, Arat.97, etc.
5. = KORH III, pupil, X.ap.Longin.4.4, Aret. SD1.7.
II. as Adj., maiden, chaste, PARQENON YUCHN ECWN Eur. Hipp. 1006, cf. Porph.
Marc.33 ; MITRH P. Epigr.Gr.319 : metaph., P. PHGH Aesch. Pers. 613.
III. as masc., PARQENOS, hO , unmarried man, Apoc.14.4.
IV. P. GH Samian earth (cf. PARQENOS III), PMag.Berol.2.57.
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