Date: Mon Nov 06 2000 - 00:34:37 EST
In a message dated 11/5/00 8:31:00 PM, firstname.lastname@example.org writes:
<< Charles, where in Sharp's rule does it state that one of the substantives
must be independent and not in apposition to something? Is this yet
_another_ exception to Sharp's rule ;-)>>
It doesn't, and I'm not saying it would be, but the appositional phrases are
tied to the substantives they modify.
It also appears that your logic is circular. If you assume that just TON
MONON ALHQINON QEON is in apposition to SE and that hON APESTEILAS is
in apposition to IHSOUN CRISTON you have already decided ahead of time
what the passage says. Both substantives are also in the same case and
this view is also re-enforced because of Jesus apparently speaking about
himself in the third person. That is why there are some who consider
that TON MONON ALHQINON QEON KAI hON APESTEILAS IHSOUN CRISTON is all
in apposition to SE, and that it is a proper example of Sharp's.>>
One way or another, IHSOUN CRISTON is appositionally connected to hON APESTEIL
AS, but TON MONON ALHQINON QEON KAI hON APESTEILAS IHSOUN CRISTON cannot all
be in apposition to SE because Jesus is addressing the Father as SE and he
clearly distinguishes himself from the Father. Both TON MONON ALHQINON QEON
and cannot refer to SE, which is what would be the case is tthe entire clause
is tied to SE. There fore the Kai links SE to IHSOUN CRISTON, and both
pronouns and proper names are outside the parameters of Sharp's rule
(pronouns are never modified by an article).
Also, I do not understand what we learn about Greek by continuing to
add exceptions to Sharp's rule, like the next one which you propose
the exclusion of certain types of substantives. Both Smyth  and
Porter [Idioms, 245] give the substantive as one of the functions of
the relative clause. Porter actually says that the "substantival relative
clause" is "the most common form of relative clause in the NT." (ibid)
It also does not appear that the relative pronoun functions as a definite
article [invalidating it from Sharps], thus identifying the one who was
sent from God as a unique individual who could be recognized by this
appellation alone, because Jesus was not the only one ever sent from
God. (Cf. John 1:6) The use of the relative clause with an unspecified
referent is used elsewhere in the book of John (e.g. hON EXEIS at Jn
4:18) [Porter's Idioms, 251]>>
Again pronouns (personal, relative, demonstrative, etc.) are never modified
by an article; therefore, they fall outside the parameters of the Sharp's
construction and rule.
<<Therefore, I again submit that Sharp's has decidedly more exceptions
that only seem to be introduced to bolster the rule itself and serve
no other useful purpose.>>
Sharp's criteria is by observation and has some common sense restrictions.
1) Distinct Personal names almost always refer to different people so they
naturally fall outside the parameters.
2) Impersonal nouns don't refer to people so referents to a person are
3) Plural nouns usually have natural distinctions in terms of referents;
however, when substantival participles are connected in Sharp's construction,
they seem to always refer to the same group (at least in the NT).
I don't think three criteria are too many to nuance a rule.
<<On the other hand, Smart's rule just has the rule itself with no further
exceptions needed, including plurals, proper names, quasi-proper names,
relative clauses, and anything in apposition to the substantives,
etc .....and there are _no_ exceptions to Smart's rule.
Smart's rule is so broad as to be useless because you have too many things
involved that would naturally distinguish things. Even given this, one has to
wonder how large this database is. I could only come up with 20 or so NT
examples that fit the criteria (i.e., subatantive + possessive pronoun + KAI
+ substantive + possessive pronoun). This is too small a database to define a
There are over 80 NT texts that fit Sharp's rule.
Charles E. Powell, Ph.D.
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