From: David Luckensmeyer (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Date: Tue Nov 14 2000 - 00:52:57 EST
In JBL 119 (2000) 521-525, Pieter W. van der Horst has an excellent
article on the correct translation of KAI hOUTWS in Rom 11:26. He argues
that the temporal sense ("only then/thereafter") may be preferred over
the modal sense ("and so/thus"), although he does comment that the
translations are not mutually exclusive.
In the course of van der Horst's argumentation, the correct translation
of KAI hOUTWS in 1 Thess 4:17 is raised.
The Greek text runs as follows:
hOI NEKROI EN CRISTWi ANASTHSONTAI PRWTON, EPEITA hHMEIS hOI ZWNTES hOI
PERILEIPOMENOI hAMA SUN AUTOIS hARPAGHSOMEQA EN NEFELAIS EIS APANTHSIN
TOU KURIOU EIS AERA; KAI hOUTWS PANTOTE SUN KURIWi ESOMEQA
which van der Horst translates:
the dead in christ will rise first; thereafter those who are alive, who
are left, will be caught up in the clouds together with them to meet the
Lord in the air; and [only] then we will be with the Lord forever.
In this translation, there is a temporal progression: first A, then B,
and only then (finally) C. Yet a look at major commentaries on 1 Thess
(including those by E. Best, F. F. Bruce, J. E. Frame, G. Haufe and E.
J. Richard) show a preference for "and so".
I have three questions:
1. How should I understand KAI hOUTWS in 1 Thess 4:17?
2. Does the presence of EPEITA at the beginning of 4:17 bear on the
3. Is the difference between the alternatives, "and so" / "only then",
Thanks for your help,
Department of Studies in Religion
University of Queensland
Brisbane, Australia 4067
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