[b-greek] Re: IAW = IAO, IAWE = IAVE

From: Rolf Furuli (furuli@online.no)
Date: Mon Feb 19 2001 - 07:33:13 EST

Dear Eduardo,

I would like to give some comments to your post:

To be able to draw conclusions regarding phonetic transcriptions in Greek
from a Hebrew original, we need to study Origen's Hexapla. A fine help is
Bronno, Einar (1943) Studien über hebräische Morphologie und Vokalismus,
Abhandlungen für die Kunde des Morgenlandes XXVIII. I got the following
result by a study of Origen:
The long Hebrew vowels generally behave as we expect, they are transcribed
by the vowels we expect, but this is not the case with PATAH and SHEWA
which are important for a study of IAW. Origen transcribes 57 % of the
PATAHs with ALFA, 23 % with EPSILON, 1 % with IOTA, 8 % by zero, and 11 %
by other vowels and diphtongs. 68 % of SHEWA mobile is transcribed by zero,
12 % by EPSILON, 16 % ALFA, and 4 % by other vowels. I will also mention
that 52 % of the SEGOLs are transcribed by EPSILON, 21 % by ALFA and 20 %
by zero. Thus we cannot draw the conclusion that the A of IAW necessarily
represents a Hebrew a-sound, it can just as well represent a Hebrew
e-sound. All the proper names in the Hebrew Bible beginning with Ye- (or
Je-) could suggest that the first syllable of the long form of the divine
name was Ye- or Je- rather than Ya- or Ja-.

I am not aware of a single piece of evidence which suggests that the
phonetic transcription IAW in 4QLXXLevb was chosen as a substitute for YHWH
because of some magic viewpoint. It is true that YAW *later* was used as a
magic word - several papyrii from the third century C.E. at the University
library of Oslo testify to this - but this is hardly the case in the LXX.
The phonetic transcription IAW evidently represents the real
pronunciatiation of the shortened form of YHWH when the LXX-copy was made,
just as YHW was used by Aramaic-speaking Jews on the Egyptian island of
Elephantine in the 5th century B.C.E. Corroborating this are the forms
PIPI and HEHE (not anything resembling IAW) in the marigin of old Syraic
Biblical manuscripts. So I see no connection between IAW and magic or
between the Masoretes and IAW.

As to the LXX manuscripts from the second century onward, several divine
designations, such as for instance QS (for QEOS) are abbreviated, and magic
cannot play any role in connection with these abbreviations. So why should
it in connection with KS?. There is evidence that some groups, including
the Qumran sect, stopped pronouncing the divine name at the beginning of
the second century B.C.E. while others continued to pronounce it, perhaps
as long as the middle of the first century C.E.



Rolf Furuli
University of Oslo

>> This post is the result of a reply in b-hebrew; however, the text is more
>> related to b-greek and this is the reason for appearing here.
>> 4QLXXLevb translates YHWH as IAW, which is a greek phonetic transcription
>> for an inverse (i.e., magic) substitution of the (incomplete) vowels of
>This explanation strongly suggests that this is the origin of the later
>masoretic practice for punctuating YHWH with ADONAI¥s vowels.
>> The complete phonetic transcription of the vowels from IANODA, IAWA, was
>> not used probably because it could lead common people to the knowledge of
>> the magic spell, something occult reserved only for the initiated.
>> The incomplete phonetic transcription of the magic spell, the inverted
>> ADONAI, is probably the origin for the non pronunciation of the Name YHWH.
>> An argument about a temporary restriction for the non pronunciation of
>> YHWH in Amos 6:10-11 is found in the post: ìIAW Kurios Pantokrator =
>> Jehova/YHWH?î http://www.ibiblio.org/bgreek/archives/97-08/0156.html in
>> the same post, the author Rolf Furuli, mentions the LXX Lev 24:16 as an
>> argument against pronouncing the Name. However, Lev 24:16 is part of the
>> 24:11 as linked by 24:14 and the non pronunciation refers to a blasphemous
>> pronunciation.
>> In late LXX the complete greek word for ADONAI, KURIOS, was used as a
>> replacement for YHWH. It is worth to note that it was not inverted
>> (SOIRUK). The abbreviation KS from K(URIO)S may stand as a recognition of
>> the abbreviation of Y(HW)H, as YH.
>> The complete phonetic transcription: IAWE, is the samaritan pronunciation
>> IAVE documented by Photius in his letter 162 to Amphiloque, which is the
>> modern Iahveh, Yahveh or Yahweh.
>> Petrus Galatinus (De arcanis catholicae veritatis. 1518) provides, in my
>> opinion, the correct pronunciation of YHWH: Iehouah, as well as Iehovah or
>> Jehovah.
>> Eduardo M. Acuna

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