[b-greek] Re: Using BDAG

From: Carl W. Conrad (cwconrad@artsci.wustl.edu)
Date: Sun Feb 25 2001 - 09:30:31 EST

At 9:01 PM -0800 2/23/01, Jon D. Boyd wrote:
>Carl wrote:
><In fact this form, ESTHSEN, can ONLY be transitive; the alternative "3rd
>aorist" form, ESTH, is what one uses for the intransitive (corresponding
>the present middle used for intransitive, hISTAMAI).>
>I really appreciate the B-greek forum--thanks to everyone who puts time
>and effort into discussing the language. I especially appreciate your
>help Carl.
>I'm assuming that the information which you gave above could be
>discovered in BDAG, if one were erudite enough. Can it be found in BDAG?
> Under hISTHMI, I see letters A. B. C. and D. According to the
>notations, A. is transitive while B., C., and D., are intransive.
>The line introducing A says:
>"A. trans. (pres., impf., fut., 1 aor. act; . . ."
>The line intr. B says:
>"B. intr., aor. and fut. forms"
>Is this the information I should look for? From these notations could I
>conclude that the verb hISTHMI is found in the future in both a
>transitive and intransitive sense? How does the "aor." under line B
>relate to "1 aor. act." in line A?

All of the above is understood exactly as I would understand what BDAG
says. The only thing I would ask in addition is that the principal parts
(or 1 person sg. indicative forms) were given under both transitive and
intransitive usage. I certainly would say that the statement under B in
BDAG implies that ESTHN is the intransitive aorist for hISTAMAI.

The older LSJ at the Perseus site actually offers a historical overview of
the forms used for each sense (I give the Latin transliteration wherein
long-vowels are indicated with a circumflex):

histÍmi (cf. histaŰ, histanŰ),
I. causal, make to stand, imper. histÍ Hom. Il. 21.313, Eur. Supp. 1230,
kath-ista Hom. Il. 9.202: impf. histÍn, Ep. histaske Hom. Od. 19.574; 3pl.
histan Bacchyl. 10.112: fut. stÍsŰ, Dor. sta_sŰ Theoc.5.54: aor. 1 estÍsa,
Ep. 3pl. esta^san for estÍsan dub. in Hom. Od. 18.307, au=Hom. Od. 3.182,
au=Hom. Od. 8.435, al. (v. esta^san): hence, in late Poets, esta^sas,
esta^se, AP9.714,au=AP 9.708=lr (Phil.): aor. 1 Med. estÍsamÍn (never
intr.), v. infr.A san.au=Phil. 111.2, au=Phil. 111.3=lr: pf. hesta^ka
Cerc.3, (kath-) Hyp. 4.28, UPZ 112.5 (ii B.C.), (peri-) Pl.Ax.370d, (aph-)
LXXJe.16.5, (par-) Phld.Rh. 1.9S., al., (sun-) S.E.M.7.109; also hestÍka
(v. infr.) in trans. sense, (di-) Arist.Vent.973a18, (aph-) v.l. in LXX
l.c.; hestakeia trans. in Test.Epict.1.25.
II. intr., stand,

1. Act., aor. 2 estÍn, Ep. staskon Hom. Il. 3.217; 3pl. estÍsan, more freq.
in Hom. estan, stan [a^]; imper. stÍthi, Dor. stathi Sapph.29, Theoc.23.38;
subj. stŰ, Ep. au=Theoc. 23.2=lr and 3sg. stÍÍis, stÍÍi (for stÍis, stÍi),
Hom. Il. 17.30, au=Hom. Il. 5.598; 1pl. steŰmen (as disyll.) au=Hom. Il.
22.231, steiomen au=Hom. Il. 15.297; opt. staien, Ep. 3pl. staiÍsan au=Hom.
Il. 17.733; inf. stÍnai, Ep. stÍmenai au=Hom. Il. 17.167, Hom. Od. 5.414,
Dor. stamen Pind. P. 4.2; part. stas: pf. hestÍka: plpf. hestÍkein, sts.
with strengthd. augm. heistÍkein, as Eur. Her. 925, Aristoph. Birds 513,
Thuc. 1.89, etc.; Ion. 3sg. hestÍkee Hdt. 7.152:--

* from Hom. downwds. the shorter dual and pl. forms of the pf. are
preferred, hesta^ton, hesta^men, hesta^te, hestasi (IG12(8).356 (Thasos, vi
B.C.), etc.), in Hdt. hestea_si; imper. hesta^thi Aristomen. 5; subj.
hestŰ; opt. hestaiÍn; inf. hestanai, Ep. hestamen, hestamenai (hestÍkenai

only late, as Ael.VH3.18); part. hestŰs (hestÍkŰs rare in early Gr., Hdt.
2.126, Plat. Meno 93d, ti=Plat. Laws 802c, Arist. (infr. Bacchyl. 11.2),
Alex.126.16, heistÍkota IG12.374.179), fem. hestŰsa (not hestuia; but
sunestÍkuiŰn prob. in Hp.AŽr.au=Hp. 12.374.10=lr), neut. hestos Plat. Tim.
40b, ti=Plat. Theaet. 183e, SIG1234(Lycia), etc., (kath-) POxy.68.32 (ii
A.D.), (en-) PRyl. 98(a).au=PRyl. 10 (ii A.D.), (par-) Aristoph. Kn. 564
(-Űs freq. v.l. as in Pl. and Ar. ll.cc., preferred by Choerob.in
Theod.2.313); gen. hestŰtos; Ion. hesteŰs, hesteos, Űtos; Ep. hestÍŰs Hes.
Th. 747; dat. pl. hestÍŰsi cj. in Antim.16.5, cf. Call.Dian.134; Hom. does
not use the nom., but has gen. hesta^otos, acc. hesta^ota, nom. pl.
hesta^otes, as if from hestaŰs: so also plpf. hestatÍn, hesta^men,
hesta^te, hesta^san: late pres. hestÍkŰ, formed from pf.,
Posidipp.ap.Ath.10.412e: hence, fut. hestÍxŰ Hom. Epigr.15.14, Xen. Cyro
6.2.17, Hegesipp.1.25, hestÍxomai Xen. Hunt. 10.9 codd.
2. Pass., histamai: imper. histaso Hes. Sh. 449, histŰ Soph. Phil. 893,
Aristoph. Eccl. 737: impf. histamÍn: fut. sta^thÍsomai Andoc. 3.34,
Aeschin. 3.103: more freq. stÍsomai Hom. Il. 20.90, etc.: aor. estathÍn
Hom. Od. 17.463, etc.; rarely estÍn, Dor. 3sg. essta SIG56.43 (Argos, v
B.C.): pf. hestamai (di-) v.l. in Plat. Tim. 81d, katesteatai v.l. in Hdt.
1.196. (From I.-E. sth&amacr;-, cf. Skt. sth&amacr;- (aor. Š-sth&amacr;-t),
Lat. stare, etc.; Gr. redupl. pres. and pf. fr. si-sth&amacr;-,

>These questions all relate to navigation of the waters that we call BDAG.
> I'm still learning about the wealth of info. contained in its pages.

I would like to have checked the older BAGD, but my books are currently in
limbo between an office that I'm evacuating, books already sent or taken to
retirement office and book stashed in boxes for moving.

Carl W. Conrad
Department of Classics/Washington University
Home: 7222 Colgate Ave./St. Louis, MO 63130/(314) 726-5649
WWW: http://www.artsci.wustl.edu/~cwconrad/

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