[b-greek] Re: John 17:25

From: Iver Larsen (iver_larsen@sil.org)
Date: Fri Jun 01 2001 - 06:08:43 EDT

> The KAI pair is always used in either an additive or paralleling sense
> when they are ment to pair up. The KAI pair is just not used for
> contrast. That's why I have to disagree with what BAGD says on page
> 393 under I.6 about KAI pairs contrasting with "although...yet".
> If you look at the examples given, Jo. 15:24 and Acts 23:3,
> according to the context the KAI pairs are being used in an additive
> sense even though there is contrast in Acts 23:3.

Well, I believe you are basically right, and yet (or should I say but?) also a bit wrong
at the same time.

It is true that KAI is used in an additive or paralleling sense. Here the clause KAI hO
KOSMOS SE OUK EGNW is paralleled by hOUTOI EGNWSAN as well as EGW SE EGNWN. They all talk
about knowing God, and especially knowing that Jesus was sent by God.

The two clauses contrast, not because of the KAI before hOUTOI, but because of the content
of the clauses apart from the conjunctions used, especially shown by the fronted hO KOSMOS
which is emphasized by the preceding KAI and the fronted hOUTOI.

It is therefore not correct to say that KAI in itself can indicate contrast, but is not
correct either to say that two clauses which are conjoined and compared/paralleled by the
use of KAI cannot contrast with each other. It is possible to be both additive and
contrastive at the same time. In Hebrew poetry that is normally called antithetical

IMO, Richard Ghilardi did an excellent job of explaining the meaning of the Greek text
using English, including capital letters to show emphasis, and indicating the parallel
contrast by "and yet".

Iver Larsen

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