From: Iver Larsen (firstname.lastname@example.org)
Date: Tue Feb 19 2002 - 04:18:02 EST
> > ROM. 1:16 OU GAR EPAISCUNOMAI TO EUAGGELION, DUNAMIS GAR QEOU ESTIN EIS
> > SWTHRIAN PANTI TW PISTEUONTI, IOUDAIW TE PRWTON KAI ELLHNI.
> > Let's expand this into three parallel constructions:
> > DUNAMIS . . . QEOU ESTIN EIS SWTHRIAN PANTI TWi PISTEUONTI
> > [DUNAMIS . . . QEOU ESTIN EIS SWTHRIAN] IOUDAIW . . . PRWTON
> > [DUNAMIS . . . QEOU ESTIN EIS SWTHRIAN] ELLHNI
> I think that IOUDIAW TE PRWTON KAI ELLHNI is an apposition or explanation
> of PANTI TWi PISTEUONTI. That is, the connotation of ALL is both Jews and
> Gentiles rather than every individual. It is based partially on the fact
> Romans ALL primarily refers to BOTH JEWS AND GENTILES in many places.
> To translate, we would have: To all who believe, that is, to the Jews
> first and to the Greek also.
> This rendering makes me wonder if "adverbs" should always modify verbs or
> adjectives, but not nouns.
> Moon R. Jung
Just a couple of additional comments from a semantics viewpoint.
It is often helpful to semantically "unpack" constructions with verbal nouns
or derivations. In this case we have EIS SWTHRIAN PANTI TWi PISTEUONTI.
Behind SWTHRIAN we have SWiZW (to save). The dative noun is the beneficiary
of salvation which corresponds here to the object in "(God) will save all
who believe". Since the subject (God) is not in focus, let us make the
subject implicit and use passives: Anyone who believes will be saved.
"Anyone who believes" is modified by a more specific description that
grammatically is in apposition to the dative PANTI TWi PISTEUONTI. So,
IOUDAIW TE KAI ELLHNI functions parallel to PANTI TWi PISTEUONTI, i.e. as
beneficiary for the verbal act, or if we unpack it and use the verb: "Anyone
who believes will be saved, whether Jew or Gentile."
PRWTON then modifies the underlying semantic verb SWiZW from SWTHRIAN, not
the whole sentence. The Jews are first in line to be saved. When they have
had their chance, the offer is extended to the Gentiles. That is the
strategy laid down by Jesus and followed by Paul.
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