Deciduous.   Persistent for one growing season

Declinate.   Directed or curved downward

Decompound.   A general term for leaflets in two or more orders - bi-, tri-etc - pinnately, palmately, or ternately compound

Decumbent.   Reclining or lying on the ground with the tips ascending

Decurrent.   Elongate, extending downward

Decussate.   Opposite leaves at right angle to preceding pair

Deflexed.   Bent abruptly downward

Dehiscent.   Opening regularly by valves, slits, etc., as a capsule or anther

Deliquescent.   Softening and wasting away

Dentate.   Margins with rounded or sharp, coarse teeth that point outwards at right angles to midrib or midvein, cut 1/16 to 1/8 distance to midrib or midvein

Denticidal Capsule.   One that dehisces apically, leaving a ring of teeth, as in Cerastium

Denticulate.   Diminutive of dentate, cut to 1/16 distance to midrib or midvein

Depauperate.   Small and usually poorly developed

Depressed.   Pressed closely to axis downward with angle of divergence of 166-180

Descending.   Directed downward with an angle of divergence of 136-165

Determinate.   Growth of plant parts, the size of which is limited by cessation of meristematic activity during the year

Dextrorse.   Rising helically from right to left, a characteristic of twining stems

Diadelphous.   With two groups of stamens connate by their filaments

Diandrous.   With two stamens per flower

Diaphanous.   Translucent

Dichasium.   Cymose inflorescence in which each axis produces a pair of lateral axes

Dichlamydeous.   With perianth composed of distinct calyx and corolla

Dichogamous.   With maturation of stamens or anther and carpels or stigma at different times

Dichotomous.   With branches forking into two more or less equal parts

Diclesium (Calyx).   Achene or nut surrounded by a persistent calyx, as in Mirabalis

Diclinous.   Plant with imperfect flowers; stamens and carpels in separate flowers either monoecious or dioecious

Dicotyledonous.   With two cotyledons

Dictyostele.   A dissected solenostele with each individual bundle a meristele

Dicyclic.   Two-whorled

Didymous.   With stamens in two equal pairs

Didynamous.   With stamens in two unequal pairs

Diffuse.   Spread over a wide surface

Digestive Glands.   Enzyme-secreting glands found mostly on leaves of carnivorous and insectivorous plants

Dilated.   Widened; expanded

Dimerous.   Whorl with two members

Dimidiate.   Divided into unequal halves

Dimorphic.   Having two different sizes and/or shapes within the same species

Dioecious.   Plant with all flowers imperfect, but staminate and pistillate on separate plants

Diplecolobal.   With incumbent cotyledons folded two or more times

Diplostemonous.   With stamens in two whorls, outer opposite the sepals, inner opposite petals

Diplotegium.   A pyxis derived from an inferior ovary

Dipterous.   Two-winged

Disc.   A discoid structure developed from receptacle at base of ovary or from stamens around the ovary

Discoid.   Orbicular with convex faces

Discoidal.   A single large spot of color in the center of another

Discontinuous.   Basal and lateral, basal and terminal, or lateral and terminal; not continuous

Dissected.   Irregularly cut into numerous segments

Distal.   Away from the point of origin or attachment

Distichous.   Leaves 2-ranked, in one plane

Distinct.   With like parts or organs unjoined and separate from one another

Diurnal.   Opening during the day

Divergent, Patent, or Divaricate.   More or less horizontally spreading with angle of divergence of 15 or less up or down from the horizontal

Divided.   Cut 3/4 to almost entire distance to middle of structure

Dolabriform.   Axe-shaped

Dorsal.   Pertaining to the surface most distant from the axis; back of an outer face of organ; lower side of leaf; abaxial. Dorsal Side - Back or abaxial side, or the lower side of a perianth part

Dorsifixed.   Anther attached dorsally and medially to apex of filament

Dorsilaminar.   On dorsal side of blade

Dorsiventral.   Planate and having distinct dorsal and ventral surfaces, the two usually different

Dotted.   The color disposed in very small round spots

Downy.   Covered with short, weak, soft trichomes

Drupe.   A fleshy fruit with a stony endocarp, as in Prunus

Drupecetum.   An aggregation of drupelets, as in Rubus

Drupelet.   A small drupe, as in Rubus

Dwarf.   Very small. Dwarf Shoots or Spurs - Shoots that develop from preformed buds which have very short internodal lengths or intervals

Dyad.   Pollen grains occurring in clusters of two

Eccentric.   Off-center style

Echinate.   Covered with spines

Ectocarp or Exocarp.   Outermost layer of pericarp

Edged.   One color is surrounded by a very narrow rim of another

Elaminate.   Without blade

Elater.   One of four elongate appendages on the spores, as in Equisetum

Elliptic.   With widest axis at midpoint of structure and with margins symmetrically curved

Emarginate.   Lobe rounded; sinus depth 1/16-1/8 distance to midpoint of blade; margins straight or convex

Embryo.   Young sporophyte consisting of epicotyl, hypocotyl, radicle, and one or more cotyledons. Embryo Sac - Female gametophyte. Linear Embryo - Axial embryo several times longer than broad, straight, curved or coiled; cotyledons not expanded; endosperm present or absent

Emergent.   With part(s) of plant aerial and part(s) submersed; rising out of the water above the surface

Emersifolious.   With emergent leaves

Endocarp.   Innermost differentiated layer of pericarp

Endosperm.   Food reserve tissue in seed derived from fertilized polar nuclei; or food reserve derived from megametophyte in gymnosperms

Endospermous or Albuminous.   With food reserve in endosperm or albumen, derived from fertilized polar nuclei

Entire.   Without indentations or incisions on maigins; smooth

Entomophily.   Pollinated by insects

Eophyll.   Term applied to first few leaves with green, expanded lamina developed by seedlings; transitional type leaves developed before formation of adult leaves

Epetiolate.   Without petiole, leaf sessile

Epetiolulate.   Without petiolule, leaflet sessile

Ephemeral.   Germinating, growing, flowering and fruiting in a short period, as most desert herbs

Epicalyx.   Group of leaves resembling sepals below the true calyx

Epicalyx or Calycle.   A whorl of bracts below but resembling a true calyx

Epicormic Shoots or Water Sprouts.   Shoots that develop from dormant lateral buds on the trunk which have very long and frequently variable internodal lengths or intervals

Epicotyl.   Apical end of embryo axis that gives rise to shoot system

Epigyny.   The condition in which the sepals, petals, stamens are attached to the floral tube above the ovary with the ovary adnate to the tube or hypanthium

Epihyperigyny.   The condition in which the sepals, petals, stamens are attached to the floral tube or hypanthium surrounding the ovary; a combination perigyny and partly inferior ovary

Epihypogyny.   The condition in which the sepals, petals, stamens are attached about half-way from the base of the ovary to the partly adnate hypanthium tube; half-inferior insertion of parts

Epimatium.   Fleshy covering of the seed and more or less fused with the integument; arising from the chalazal end of the ovule like an additional integument; e.g., Podocarpus

Epiperigyny.   The condition in which the sepals, petals, stamens are attached to the floral or hypanthium cup above the ovary with the lower part of the hypanthium completely adnate to the ovary

Epipetalous.   With stamens attached to or inserted upon petals or corolla

Epipetiolar.   With branches arising from buds on the petiole

Epipetric.   Upon rock

Epiphyllous.   From a phylloclad or peculiar bract, as in Tilia

Epiphytic.   Upon another plant

Epirhizous.   With roots upon another plant

Episepalous.   With stamens attached or inserted upon sepals or calyx

Epitropous .  Dorsal - Ovule pendulous or hanging, micropyle above, raphe dorsal (away from ventral bundle). Ventral - Ovule pendulous or hanging, micropyle above, raphe ventral (toward ventral bundle)

Equilateral.   With halves or sides equal in shape and size

Equinoctial.   Having flowers which expand and close regularly at particular hours of the day

Equitant.   Leaves 2-ranked with overlapping bases, usually sharply folded along midrib

Eramous.   With unbranched stems

Erect.   Upright

Erose.   Irregularly, shallowly toothed and/or lobed margins; appearing gnawed

Essential Organs.   The androecium and gynoecium

Ethereal Oil Producing Glands.   Mostly aromatic compound producing glands found on various parts of the plant, without definitely known functions

Eucamptodromous.   With a single primary vein, the secondary veins curved upward and gradually iminishing distally within the margin and interconnected by a series of cross-veins without forming conspicuous marginal loops

Eusporangiate.   Having the sporangium develop from a great amount of leaf tissue as opposed to only one or a few cells

Eustele.   A dissected siphonostele with phloem only to the outside of the xylem

Evanescent.   Passing away, disappearing early

Evergreen.   Persistent two or more growing seasons

Evident.   Clearly visible macroscopically

Excentric.   One-sided; off-center

Excurrent.   Running out, as the nerve of a leaf projecting beyond the margin

Exospore or Exine.   Outer spore wall layer

Exsserted.   Projecting out of, beyond

Exstipellate.   Without stipels

Exstipulate.   Without stipules