Falcate or Seculate.   Sickle-shaped

False Veins.   Small vein-like areas of thick-walled cells in the leaves of some lower vascular plants

Farinaceous.   Mealy

Fasciated.   Unnaturally and often monstrously connate or adnate, the coalesced parts often unnaturally proliferated in size and/ or number; e.g., inflorescence of Celosia

Fascicle.   Cluster of needles borne on a minute determinate short shoot in the axil of a primary leaf (bract); e.g. Pinus. Fascicle Sheath - Closely imbricated bud scales at the base of the fascicle of needles; e.g., Pinus

Fascicled.   Fleshy or tuberous roots in a cluster

Fasciculate.   Leaves or other structures in a cluster from a common point

Fastigiate.   Strictly erect and parallel

Faucal Area.   The throat area

Female, Carpellate, or Pistillate.   Plant with pistillate flowers only

Fetid.   Having an unpleasant, rotten odor

Fenestrate.   With windowlike holes through the leaves or other structures

Fibonacci Phyllotaxis.   A fundamental type of leaf arrangement expressed as a fraction in which each succeeding fraction is the sum of the two previous numerators and the sum of the two previous denominators, i.e., 1/2, 1/3, 2/5, 3/8, 5/13, 8/ 21, etc. The numerator represents the number of turns or spirals around a stem before one leaf is directly above another and the denominator represents the number of leaves in the turns or spirals before one is directly above the other. 2/5 phyllotaxy would mean two twists and five leaves before one leaf is directly above the other or an angle of divergence of 144 between succeeding leaves in the stem (2/5 of 360 ).According to Leppik anthotaxis and semataxis do not necessarily follow the same pattern, with anthotaxis in Michelia cited as being in 2/7, 3/7, 3/8, and 4/10 systems of arrangement.

Fibrous.   With fine, threadlike or slender roots or fibers

Filament.   Stamen stalk

or Filiferous.  Filamentose or Filiferous With coarse marginal fibers or threads

Filantherous or Typical.   Stamen with distinct anther and filament with or without thecal appendages, as in Rhexia or Vaccinium

Filiform.   Threadlike, usually flexuous

Fimbriate.   Margins fringed

Fimbriolate.   Minutely fimbriate

Fistulose.   Hollow, as without pith

Flabellate.   Fan-shaped branching

Flabelliform.   Fan-shaped

Flaccid.   Lax and weak

Flagellate.   Bearing flagella, whip-like strands or organs

Fleshy.   Succulent roots

Flexuous.   With a series of long or open vertical curves at right angles to the central axis

Floating.   Upon the surface of the water

Floccose.   Covered with dense, appressed trichomes in patches or tufts

Flotophyllous.   With floating leaves

Flower.   Reproductive structure of flowering plants with or without protective envelopes, the calyx and/or corolla; short shoot with sporophylls and with or without sterile protective leaves, the calyx and corolla

Flushing Shoots.   Shoots that develop from mature terminal buds several times during a season. Terminal bud will develop shoot with new terminal bud which will develop more shoots and a terminal bud which will develop etc. --several times in a season with several flushes of growth.

Fly Trap.   Hinged, insectivorous leaf, as in Dionaea

Folded.   Foliate embryo with cotyledons usually thin and extensively expanded and folded in various ways

Follicetum.   An aggregation of follicles, as in Caltha

Follicle.   A dry, dehiscent fruit derived from one carpel that splits along one suture

Fovea.   Pit or depression containing the sporangium in the leaf base of Isoetes

Foveolate.   Pitted

Free.   Unlike parts or organs unjoined and separate from one another

Free-adnate.   Hypanthium fused with ovary and having a free limb around or above ovary

Free-central.   With the placenta along the central axis in a compound ovary without septa

Fringe.   The modified margin of a petal, sepal, tepal or lip

Frond.   The leaf of a fern

Fruit.   Matured ovary of flowering plants, with or without accessory parts

Fruticose.   Shrubby

Fugacious.   Ephemeral, usually applied to plant parts

Funicular.   With a persistent elongate funiculus attached to seed coat, as in Magnolia

Funiculus.   Stalk by which ovule is attached to placenta

Fusiform.   Spindle-shaped; broadest in middle and tapering to each end

Galeate.   Helmet-shaped, as one sepal in Aconitum

Geitonogamy.   Fertilization of one flower by another on the same plant

Gelatinous.   Jellylike; soft and quivery

Geminate or Binate.   Paired; in pairs

Gemma.   A vegetative reproductive bud borne on the stem, as in Lycopodium; a multicellular reproductive propagule on gametophytes, as in ferns

Geniculate.   Abruptly bent at a node, zigzag

Geoflorous.   With subterranean flower

Geocarpous.   Fruits below ground, as in Amphicarpum

Gibbous.   Inflated on one side near the base

Gigantic.   Very large

Glabrate.   Without trichomes

Glabrescent.   Becoming glabrous

Glabrous.   Smooth; devoid of trichomes

Gland.   A secreting part or appendage

Glandular.   Covered with minute, blackish to translucent glands

Glans (Involucre).   Nut subtended by a cupulate, dry involucre, as in Quercus

Glaucescent.   Sparingly or slightly glaucous

Glaucous.   Covered with a bloom or smooth, waxy coating

Globose.   Round

Glochidiate.   With barbed trichomes, glochids, usually in tufts

Glomerule.   An indeterminate dense cluster of sessile or subsessile flowers

Glume.   Bract, usually occurring in pairs, at the base of the grass spikelet

Glutinous.   Having a shiny, sticky surface

Granular.   Finely mealy, covered with small granules

Greasy or Unctuous.   Slick, oily, slippery to touch

Gynagamous.   Inflorescence with pistillate flowers inside or above and neuter flowers outside or below (gynagamocephalous)

Gynandrial or Gynostemial.   With fused stamens and carpels (stigma and style) as in the Orchidaceae

Gynecandrous.   Inflorescence with pistillate flowers inside or above and staminate outside or below, as in spikes of some species of Carex

Gynehermaphroditic.   Inflorescence with pistillate flowers inside or above and hermaphroditic outside or below (gynehermaphrodicephalous)

Gynobasic.   Attached at base of ovary in central depression

Gynodioecious.   Some plants with perfect flowers and some with pistillate

Gynoecium or Pistil.   The whorl or group of carpels in the center or at the top of the flower; all carpels in a flower

Gynomonoecious.   Plant with pistillate and perfect flowers

Gynophore.   The stipe of a pistil or carpel

Half-inferior.   Other floral organs attached around ovary with hypanthium adnate to lower half of ovary

Half-terete.   Flat on one side, terete on other; semicircular in cross section

Haplomorphic.   Flowers with parts spirally arranged at a simple level in a semispheric or hemispheric form; petals or tepals colored; parts numerous; e.g., Nymphaea, Magnolia

Hastate.   Lobe pointed and oriented outward or divergent in relation to petiole or midrib; sinus depth variable; margins variable

Hastiform.   Triangular with two flaring basal lobes

Haustorial.   Absorbing roots, within host of some parasitic species

Helicoid Cyme or Bostryx.   A determinate inflorescence in which the branches develop on one side only, appearing simple

Hemianatropous or Hemitropous.   With body half-inverted so that funiculus is attached near middle with micropyle terminal and at right angles

Herb.   A usually low, soft, or coarse plant with annual aboveground stems

Herbaceous.   Soft and succulent

Hermaphrodagamous.   Inflorescence with hermaphroditic flowers inside or above and neuter outside or below (hermaphrodagamocephalous)

Hermaphrodandrous.   Inflorescence with hermaphroditic flowers inside or above and staminate outside or below (hermaphrodandrocephalous)

Hermaphroditic or Monoclinous.   Plant with all flowers perfect

Hesperidium.   A thick-skinned septate berry with the bulk of the fruit derived from glandular hairs, as in Citrus

Heterandrous.   With stamens of different sizes and/or shapes

Heteranthous.   Having different states in two different sets of flowers, only one state present in each set

Heteroblasty.   With juvenile foliage distinctly different from adult foliage in size or shape

Heterocarpous.   With carpels of different sizes and/or shapes

Heterocephalous, Heterocymous, Heterospicous.   Heads, cymes, spikes with flowers of different sexual conditions. Note: other inflorescence word stems could be used for appropriate inflorescence type.

Heterocladous.   With stems of different sizes and/or shapes

Heteromerous or Anisomerous.   With different number of members in different whorls

Heteropetalous.   With petals of different sizes and/or shapes

Heterophyllous.   With leaves of different sizes and/or shapes. Heterophyllous Shoots - Shoots that develop from winter buds which do not contain the primordia of all the leaves to develop during the year

Heterophytous.   Having different states in two different sets of plants, only one state present in each set

Heterosepalous.   With sepals of different sizes and/or shapes

Heterosexual.   Inflorescences or flowers within the plant with different sexual conditions

Heterosporous.   Having two kinds of spores, usually differing in size

Heterostichus.   With unequal rows

Heterostylous.   With styles of different sizes or lengths or shapes within a species

Heterotropous.   Ovule position not fixed in ovary

Hibernal or Hiemal.   Appearing in the winter

Hilum.   Funicular scar on seed coat

Hip or Cynarrhodion (Receptacle and Hypanthium).   An aggregation of achenes surrounded by an urceolate receptacle and hypanthium, as in Rosa

Hippocrepiform.   Horseshoe-shaped

Hirsute.   Covered with long, rather stiff trichomes

Hirsutullous or Hirtellous.   Minutely hirsute

Hispid.   Covered with very long, stiff trichomes

Hispidulous.   Approaching hispid, minutely hispid

Homandrous.   With stamens of same size and shape

Homanthous.   Having more than one state within each individual flower, all flowers the same

Homocarpous.   With carpels of same size and shape

Homocephalous, Homocymous, Homospicous.   Heads, cymes, spikes with flowers sexually uniform

Homochlamydeous.   With perianth composed of similar parts, each part a tepal

Homogamous.   With maturation of stamens or anther and carpels or stigma at same time

Homophytous.   Having more than one state within each individual plant, all plants the same

Homosexual.   Inflorescences or flowers sexually uniform

Homosporous.   Having spores of only one kind

Homostylous.   With styles of same sizes or lengths and shapes

Hood.   A cover-shaped perianth part, usually with a turned down margin

Horn.   A curved, pointed and hollow protuberance from the perianth

Hyaline.   Thin and translucent or transparent

Hydrophily.   Pollinated by water

Hymenopterophily.   Pollinated by bees

Hypanepigyny.   The condition in which the sepals, petals, stamens are attached to the elongate floral tube or hypanthium above the inferior ovary, as in Oenothera

Hypanthium.   The fused or coalesced basal portion of floral parts (sepals, petals, stamens) around the ovary

Hypanthodium.   An inflorescence with flowers on wall of a concave capitulum, as in Ficus

Hyphodromous.   With a single primary vein and all other venation absent, rudimentaryj or concealed within a coriaceous or fleshy blade

Hypocotyl.   Embryonic stem in seed, located below cotyledons

Hypocotylespermous or Macropodial.   With food reserve stored in hypocotyl, derived from zygote

Hypogynium.   Perianth-like structure of bony scales subtending the ovary, as in Scleria and other members of the Cyperaceae

Hypogyny.   The condition in which the sepals, petals, stamens are attached below the ovary

Hypophyllous.   With small leaves, as bracts, scales, cataphylls

Hypotropous.   Dorsal - Ovule erect, micropyle below, raphe dorsal (away from ventral bundle). Ventral - Ovule erect, micropyle below, raphe ventral (toward ventral bundle)

Hysteranthous.   With leaves appearing after flowers