The first of these communications issued jointly between the Chinese and Japanese governments, coincided with the release of the first joint communiqué between China and the US.
September 29, 1972
Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka of Japan visited the People's Republic of China at the invitation of Premier of the State Council Chou En-lai of the People's Republic of China from September 25 to September 30, 1972. Accompanying Prime Minister Tanaka were Minister for Foreign Affairs Masayoshi Ohira, Chief Cabinet Secretary Susumu Nikaido and other government officials.
Chairman Mao Tse-tung met Prime Minister Kakuei Tanaka on September 27. They had an earnest and friendly conversation.
Prime Minister Tanaka and Minister for Foreign Affairs Ohira had an earnest and frank exchange of views with Premier Chou En-lai and Minister for Foreign Affairs Chi Peng-fei in a friendly atmosphere throughout on the question of the normalization of relations between Japan and China and other problems between the two countries as well as on other matters of interest to both sides, and agreed to issue the following Joint Communique of the two Governments:
Japan and China are neighbouring countries, separated only by a strip of water with a long history of traditional friendship. The peoples of the two countries earnestly desire to put an end to the abnormal state of affairs that has hitherto existed between the two countries. The realization of the aspiration of the two peoples for the termination of the state of war and the normalization of relations between Japan and China will add a new page to the annals of relations between the two countries.
The Japanese side is keenly conscious of the responsibility for the serious damage that Japan caused in the past to the Chinese people through war, and deeply reproaches itself. Further, the Japanese side reaffirms its position that it intends to realize the normalization of relations between the two countries from the stand of fully understanding "the three principles for the restoration of relations" put forward by the Government of the People's Republic of China. The Chinese side expresses its welcome for this.
In spite of the differences in their social systems existing between the two countries, the two countries should, and can, establish relations of peace and friendship. The normalization of relations and development of good-neighborly and friendly relations between the two countries are in the interests of the two peoples and will contribute to the relaxation of tension in Asia and peace in the world.
1. The abnormal state of affairs that has hitherto existed between Japan and the People's Republic of China is terminated on the date on which this Joint Communiqué is issued.
2. The Government of Japan recognizes that Government of the People's Republic of China as the sole legal Government of China.
3. The Government of the People's Republic of China reiterates that Taiwan is an inalienable part of the territory of the People's Republic of China. The Government of Japan fully understands and respects this stand of the Government of the People's Republic of China, and it firmly maintains its stand under Article 8 of the Potsdam Proclamation.
4. The Government of Japan and the Government of People's Republic of China have decided to establish diplomatic relations as from September 29, 1972. The two Governments have decided to take all necessary measures for the establishment and the performance of the functions of each other's embassy in their respective capitals in accordance with international law and practice, and to exchange ambassadors as speedily as possible.
5. The Government of the People's Republic of China declares that in the interest of the friendship between the Chinese and the Japanese peoples, it renounces its demand for war reparation from Japan.
6. The Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China agree to establish relations of perpetual peace and friendship between the two countries on the basis of the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful co-existence. The two Governments confirm that, in conformity with the foregoing principles and the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, Japan and China shall in their mutual relations settle all disputes by peaceful means and shall refrain from the use or threat of force.
7. The normalization of relations between Japan and China is not directed against any third country. Neither of the two countries should seek hegemony in the Asia-Pacific region and each is opposed to efforts by any other country or group of countries to establish such hegemony.
8. The Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China have agreed that, with a view to solidifying and developing the relations of peace and friendship between the two countries, the two Governments will enter into negotiations for the purpose of concluding a treaty of peace and friendship.
9. The Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China have agreed that, with a view to further promoting relations between the two countries and to expanding interchanges of people, the two Governments will, as necessary and taking account of the existing non-governmental arrangements, enter into negotiations for the purpose of concluding agreements concerning such matters as trade, shipping, aviation, and fisheries.
Done at Peking, September 29, 1972
Prime Minister of Japan
Minister for Foreign Affairs of Japan
Premier of the State Council of the People's Republic of China
Minister for Foreign Affairs of the People's Republic of China
26 November 1998
Joint Press Announcement on Strengthening Cooperation between
Japan and China toward the Twenty-first Century
During the official visit to Japan by President Jiang Zemin of the People's Republic of China, Japan and China reached a common view on their strengthening cooperation toward the twenty-first century and actively developing their partnership of friendship and cooperation for peace and development, and issue the following press announcement.
I. Cooperation in Bilateral Relations
Both sides, in order to strengthen high-level dialogue between the two countries, confirmed that every year a leader of each country will alternately visit the other country, and that a hot line will be established between the two Governments.
Both sides, noting that the bilateral economic relationship has greatly developed based on the principles of mutual complementarity and of equality and mutual benefit, shared the view that the cooperative bilateral relationship should continue to expand in such economic areas as trade and investment.
The Chinese side, noting the positive role played in China's economic development by Japanese corporations investing in China, expressed its intention to make efforts to promote further investments in China by Japanese corporations. The Japanese side welcomed this, and expressed its intention to make efforts to promote further development of cooperation in the field of investment between Japan and China.
The Japanese side decided to provide yen loans of up to 390 billion yen for 28 projects as the "latter two-year" portion of the Fourth Batch of Yen Loans toward China. The Chinese side highly appreciated this.
Both sides, recognizing that expanding cooperation and exchanges toward the twenty-first century in the areas of scientific and industrial technology is beneficial, shared the view that cooperation should be strengthened through both governmental and private channels in these areas, and confirmed that they would support the promotion of research cooperation and technology transfers between the industrial sectors of the two countries.
Both sides confirmed that they will actively promote cooperation for economic development in the inland regions of China by the industrial sectors of both countries through joint efforts by the government and the private sector. The Japanese side expressed its intention to advance industrial cooperation in these regions through close coordination between the government and the private sector. The Chinese side expressed its intention to make active efforts in such areas as infrastructure development and improvements in the investment environment.
The Japanese side stated that it is prepared to cooperate for human resource development in such areas as the reform of state enterprises, the encouragement of small and medium enterprises and the rationalization of the distribution system in China. The Japanese side stated that it is prepared to make use of its measures, human resources and experience related to the encouragement of small and medium enterprises in Japan, and to actively implement a series of cooperation efforts toward the development of small and medium enterprises in China. For its part, the Chinese side welcomed this. Both sides will study concrete cooperation.
The Japanese side restated its intention to actively cooperate in the technical, operational and financial aspects related to the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway. The Chinese side welcomed Japan's participation in this competition, based on the status of preparation of the Beijing-Shanghai High-Speed Railway project.
Both sides reaffirmed the importance of the issue of environmental protection and the achievements reached in this field through cooperation by the two countries thus far, and shared the view that they will further enhance cooperation in this field based on "The Japan-China Joint Announcement on Environmental Cooperation toward the Twenty-first Century".
Both sides, recognizing the importance of energy issues in the twenty-first century, shared the view that they will further promote cooperation in such areas as the promotion of energy-related infrastructure development including power plants, the energy conservation policy and measures, and the development and use of clean energy. Both Governments will support the promotion of joint researches on energy and its related fields by the industrial sectors and academic institutions of both countries.
Both sides will continue to strengthen cooperation in the agricultural sector, in particular in the area of technology for the sustainable development of agriculture.
Both sides, recognizing the importance of measures to prevent flood damage and to recover from flood disasters, shared the view that they should study concrete ways and contents of cooperation at an early date.
In this connection, both sides shared the view that they would study and promote, at an early date, concrete contents of cooperation, both by the government and the private sector, in such areas as forestation and forest conservation.
Both sides, fully understanding and positively evaluating the important role played by youth exchanges between Japan and China in the mutual understanding and the development of the bilateral relationship, recognized that the signing of "The Cooperative Plan on a Framework between the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China for Further Development in Youth Exchanges" is beneficial for ceaseless deepening and development of such exchanges. Both sides shared the view that they will make efforts to realize mutual visits and exchanges of youth, who will total as large as 15,000 from 1999 to 2003.
Both sides believe that strengthening exchanges in the intellectual areas has a positive meaning in increasing the quality and scope of exchanges between the two countries. Both Governments will assist and cooperate for such activities in the private sector.
Both sides, recognizing that cultural exchanges play an important role in deepening mutual understanding between the peoples of both countries, shared the view that they will further promote such exchanges. Both sides consider to hold in China "The 1999 Japan-China Culture and Friendship Year" , and plan to hold in Japan "The 1999Chinese Acclaimed Film Festival Commemorating the 20th Anniversary of the Japan-China Cultural Agreement and the 50th Anniversary of the Founding of the People's Republic of China".
The Japanese side, with a view to expanding the exchange of people between Japan and China, expressed its readiness to initiate receiving Chinese sight-seeing tour groups, and the Chinese side welcomed this.
Both sides positively evaluate the recent progress in bilateral security dialogue and cooperation in multilateral fora such as the ASEAN Regional Forum. They confirmed their intention to gradually expand exchanges in this area, including mutual visits by the Japanese Director-General of the Defense Agency and the Chinese Minister of National Defense and to continue coordination on mutual visits by naval vessels.
The Japanese side restated its intention that, in accordance with the Chemical Weapons Convention, it will sincerely deal with the issue of Japan's abandoned chemical weapons in China and destroy such abandoned chemical weapons by taking practical measures in a responsible manner at the earliest possible date. The Chinese side stated that it will provide appropriate cooperation in accordance with the Chemical Weapons Convention.
Both sides welcomed the fact that in August 1998, Japan and China started consultations on the issues related to the law of the sea, such as the delimitation of the exclusive economic zones and the continental shelves, and they shared the view that the next consultation should be held early next year.
Both sides shared the view that, the Japan-China Fisheries Agreement , whose aims are the establishment of a new fisheries order between the two countries, based on the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, the conservation and rational utilization of marine living resources of common concern, and the maintenance of a proper order of maritime fishing operations , should be put into effect as soon as possible, so that both sides will be engaged in orderly fishing operations based on the Agreement.
Both sides, as responsible fishing nations, shared the view that they will cooperate with each other in the international fora of fisheries activities.
Both sides shared the view that preservation of the Silk Road cultural heritages on the Eurasian continent is important as part of the protection of the common heritage of mankind. Both sides confirmed that they will cooperate for the preservation of the heritages and implement concrete preservation projects.
Both sides shared the view that promoting the development of next-generation information and telecommunications technology will have a tremendous impact on the socioeconomic development of both countries. Both sides confirmed that they will strengthen cooperation in information and telecommunications sectors such as applications of the multimedia information technology, and that they will jointly research and develop a model project of an information system.
Both sides confirmed that they will continue to promote cooperation to protect the Japanese crested ibis, which exists in few numbers and is in danger of extinction. For this purpose, as a token of friendship between Japan and China, the Chinese side presented Japan with a pair of ibis, and the Japanese side expressed its gratitude.
II. Cooperation in International Areas
Both sides shared the view that reform of the United Nations is essential in order that the UN is to play an even more effective role in the coming century. Both sides confirmed that they will strengthen consultations for the realization of the UN reform, including the reform of the Security Council, the financial reform and the reform in the area of development.
Both sides shared the view that they will strengthen coordination and cooperation on regional issues and play an active role for the regional peace and stability. Both sides are of the view that maintaining peace and stability on the Korean Peninsula is extremely important for the peace and stability of the Asia-Pacific region, and support positive efforts made by all parties concerned in this regard.
Both sides confirmed the universality of human rights and shared the view that each country should enhance common understanding and reduce differences through mutual exchanges. The two countries positively evaluated the Japan-China human rights dialogue, and will continue to exchange views on the issue of human rights based on equality and mutual respect.
Both sides, as states parties to the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, the Biological Weapons Convention and the Chemical Weapons Convention, confirmed that they will continue to abide by their obligations under these treaties and make efforts for the prevention of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction and their delivery vehicles, and for related international cooperation.
Both sides reaffirmed the importance of the multilateral trading system. The Chinese side reiterated that it will continue to make efforts toward early accession to the World Trade Organization. The Japanese side expressed its intention to continue to extend support and cooperation toward this end.
Both sides confirmed that the high-level consultations on East Asian economic issues held in September 1998 were beneficial, and shared the view that similar consultations will be carried out as the necessity arises.
Both sides believe that the Eurasian Land Bridge Project, which spans from East Asia across Central Asia to Europe, has a positive significance for the peace and stability of the entire Eurasian continent. Both sides, with the recognition of the importance of enhancing the transportation and distribution infrastructure from East Asia to Central Asia, confirmed that they will promote cooperation in this area.
Both sides confirmed that they will strengthen cooperation in combating various kinds of international crimes, including firearms, alien smuggling, money laundering, financial and economic crimes and high-tech crimes, and that they will intensify consultations and personnel exchanges between the relevant organizations as the necessity arises.
Both sides confirmed that they will continue to cooperate in crackdowns on drugs crimes, actively participate in international cooperation to ban drugs, and play an active role in the area of banning drugs.
28 November 1998
Japan - China Joint Declaration On Building a Partnership of Friendship and Cooperation for Peace and Development
In response to an invitation extended by the Government of Japan, President Jiang Zemin of the People's Republic of China made an official visit to Japan as a State Guest from 25 to 30 November 1998. On the occasion of this historically significant first visit to Japan by a President of the People's Republic of China, President Jiang met with His Majesty the Emperor of Japan, and held an intensive exchange of views with Prime Minister Keizo Obuchi on the international situation, regional issues and the overall Japan-China relationship. They attained a broad common view and, based on the success of this visit, declared as follows:
Both sides shared the view that as the world in the post-Cold War era continues to undergo great changes toward the creation of a new international order, further economic globalization is deepening interdependence and security dialogue and cooperation are making constant progress. Peace and development remain major issues facing the human society. It is therefore the common wish of the international community to build a new international political and economic order which is fair and rational, and to strive for a peaceful international environment in the twenty-first century that is even more firmly rooted.
Both sides reaffirmed that the principles of mutual respect for sovereignty and territorial integrity, mutual non-aggression, non-interference in each other's internal affairs, equality and mutual benefit and peaceful co-existence, as well as the principles of the Charter of the United Nations, are the basic norms for relations between states.
Both sides positively evaluate the efforts made by the United Nations to preserve world peace and to promote the economic and social development of the world, and believe that the United Nations should play an important role in building and maintaining a new international order. Both sides express support for the reforms of the United Nations including the reform of the Security Council, in order for the United Nations to further embody the common wish and collective will of all Members in its activities and policy decision making process.
Both sides stress the importance of the ultimate elimination of nuclear weapons, and oppose the proliferation of nuclear weapons in any form whatsoever, and furthermore, strongly call upon the nations concerned to cease all nuclear testing and nuclear arms race, in order to contribute to the peace and stability of the Asian region and the world.
Both sides believe that both Japan and China, as nations influential in the Asian region and the world, bear an important responsibility for preserving peace and promoting development. Both sides will strengthen coordination and cooperation in the areas such as international politics, international economy, and global issues, thus positively contributing to the endeavor for the peace and development of the world aimed at the progress of humanity.
Both sides believe that, after the Cold War, the Asian region has continued to move toward stability and the regional cooperation has deepened further. In addition, both sides are convinced that this region will exert greater influence on international politics, economics and security and will continue to play an important role in the coming century.
Both sides reiterate that it is the unshakable fundamental policy of the two countries to maintain the peace of this region and to promote its development, and that they will not seek hegemony in the Asian region and settle all disputes by peaceful means, without recourse to the use or threat of force.
Both sides expressed their great interest in the current financial crisis in East Asia and the ensuing difficulties for the Asian economy. At the same time, both sides recognize that the economic foundation of this region is sound, and firmly believe that by advancing rational adjustment and reform based on experiences, as well as by enhancing regional and international coordination and cooperation, the economy of Asia will definitely overcome its difficulties and continue to develop. Both sides affirmed that they would positively meet the various challenges that they faced, and would respectively make their utmost efforts toward promoting the economic development of the region.
Both sides believe that stable relations among the major nations of the Asia-Pacific region are extremely important for the peace and stability of this region. Both sides shared the view that they would actively participate in all multilateral activities in this region, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum, promote coordination and cooperation, and support all measures for enhancing understanding and strengthening confidence.
Both sides reviewed the bilateral relationship since the normalization of relations between Japan and China, and expressed satisfaction with the remarkable development in all areas, including politics, economics, culture and personnel exchanges. Further, both sides shared the view that under the current situation cooperation between the two countries is growing in importance, and that further strengthening and developing the friendly and cooperative relations between the two countries not only serve the fundamental interests of their peoples, but also positively contribute to the peace and development of the Asia-Pacific region and the world as a whole. Both sides reaffirmed that the Japan-China relationship is one of the most important bilateral relationships for the respective country, deeply recognized the role and responsibility of both countries in achieving peace and development, and expressed their resolve to establish a partnership of friendship and cooperation for peace! and development toward the twenty-first century.
Both sides restated that they will observe the principles of the Joint Communiqué of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China, issued on 29 September 1972 and the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People's Republic of China, signed on 12 August 1978, and reaffirmed that the above-mentioned documents will continue to be the most important foundation for the bilateral relations.
Both sides are of the view that Japan and China share a history of friendly exchanges spanning more than 2,000 years, as well as a common cultural background, and that it is the common desire of the peoples of the two countries to continue this tradition of friendship and to further develop mutually beneficial cooperation.
Both sides believe that squarely facing the past and correctly understanding history are the important foundation for further developing relations between Japan and China. The Japanese side observes the 1972 Joint Communiqué of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China and the 15 August 1995 Statement by former Prime Minister Tomiichi Murayama. The Japanese side is keenly conscious of the responsibility for the serious distress and damage that Japan caused to the Chinese people through its aggression against China during a certain period in the past and expressed deep remorse for this. The Chinese side hopes that the Japanese side will learn lessons from the history and adhere to the path of peace and development. Based on this, both sides will develop long-standing relations of friendship.
Both sides shared the view that expanding personnel exchanges between the two countries is extremely important for advancing mutual understanding and enhancing mutual trust.
Both sides confirmed an annual visit by a leader of either country to the other, the establishment of a Tokyo-Beijing hot line between the two Governments, and the further enhancement of personnel exchanges at all levels, in particular among the younger generation who will shoulder the heavy burden of the future development of the two countries.
Both sides shared the view that, based on the principles of equality and mutual benefit, they will formulate long-term, stable, cooperative economic and trade relations, and will further expand cooperation in such areas as high technology, information, environmental protection, agriculture and infrastructure. The Japanese side reiterated that a stable, open and developing China is significant for the peace and development of the Asia-Pacific region and the entire world, and restated its policy of continuing cooperation and assistance for the economic development of China. The Chinese side expressed its gratitude for the economic cooperation extended by Japan to China. The Japanese side reiterated that it will continue to support China's efforts for the early accession to the WTO.
Both sides positively evaluated the beneficial role played by their bilateral security dialogue in increasing mutual understanding, and shared the view that they would further strengthen this dialogue mechanism.
The Japanese side continues to maintain its stand on the Taiwan issue which was set forth in the Joint Communiqué of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China and reiterates its understanding that there is one China. Japan will continue to maintain its exchanges of private and regional nature with Taiwan.
Both sides affirmed that, based on the principles of the Joint Communiqué of the Government of Japan and the Government of the People's Republic of China and the Treaty of Peace and Friendship between Japan and the People's Republic of China, and following the spirit of seeking common major benefits while setting aside minor differences, they would work to maximize their common interests and minimize their differences, and, through friendly consultations, appropriately handle the issues, differences of opinion and disputes which currently exist and may arise in the future, thereby avoiding any restraint or obstacle to development of friendly relations between the two countries.
Both sides believe that through establishment of a partnership of friendship and cooperation for peace and development, the bilateral relations will enter a new level of development. To this end, a wide range of participation and sustained effort not only of both Governments, but also of the peoples of both countries, is essential. Both sides firmly believe that, if the peoples of both countries, hand-in-hand, thoroughly demonstrate the spirit shown in this Declaration, it will not only contribute to the friendship of the peoples of both countries for generations to come, but also make an important contribution to the peace and development of the Asia-Pacific region and of the world.