The Geographical Database examines locations in and around China of historical and cultural significance.

Entries are arranged alphabetically by proper name in English, and pinyin romanization for Chinese names. Older and/ or alternative translations and pronunciations are present next to the pinyin translation.

This page will have, for some entries, Chinese characters. For information on how to read Chinese characters, click here.

Dates reflecting a time period before the year '0' in European terms, are categorized as BCE (Before the Common Era). This is equivalent to the widely used BC (Before Christ). Dates reflecting a time period after the year '0' are categorized as CE (in the Common Era). This is equivalent to the widely used AD (After the Death of Christ or Anno Domini). As the Chinese culture in the majority do not subscribe to the practice of Christianity as a religion, it seemed appropriate to signify these dates in a neutral manner.

Look for a link to pictures and maps in most entries.

An interactive provincial map of China is available HERE (it is quite large).

A list of Chinese geographic terms and their meanings, Chinese cities and provinces and topographical features, such as rivers, lakes and mountains as well as an index to all terms in the database are all located at the end of the page, after the database entries.

Contents
A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z
 Geographic Terms | Topographic Features | Cities and Provinces
INDEX

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A

Amoy
SEE Xiamen

Amur River
SEE Heilong Jiang

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Anhui
B5: 安徽; PY: Ānhuī; WG: Anhwei-
Province in eastern China, comprising the broad alluvial lowland of the flood-prone Huai River in the north, the intensively cultivated alluvial lowlands along the Yangtze River in the south, and a rugged, hilly area in the extreme south. Chief crops are wheat and cotton in the north, rice and silk in the Yangtze lowlands, and tea in the southern upland areas. Fish culture is important. Rich iron-ore deposits support a large iron- and steel-manufacturing complex at Ma'anshan. Coal and copper are mined. Major cities are the capital, Hefei; Huainan; Bengbu; Anqing; and Wuhu.
Once part of the ancient southern state of Chu, the region that is now Anhui was absorbed into China during the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty (221- 206 BCE). It was made a separate province in 1667 CE. The Huang He (Yellow River) flowed through Anhui until it changed course to the north in 1852. The river was deliberately diverted to Anhui in 1938 by the Nationalist government, which hoped the resulting flood would halt the Japanese invasion. This act resulted in a tremendous loss of lives. Area, about 139,000 sq km (about 53,700 sq mi); population (1991 estimate) 57,610,000.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Anhui Province

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Anqing
B5: 安慶; GB: 安庆; PY: Ānqng-
Prefecture-level city in southwestern Anhui province, People's Republic of China. It borders Lu'an to the north, Chaohu to the northeast, Tongling to the east, Chizhou to the southeast, and the provinces of Jiangxi and Hubei to the south and west respectively.
The city was founded during the Han Dynasty in the second century BCE. In the Middle Ages it received the name of Anqing. From 1853 to 1861 it was held by the rebels of the Taiping rebellion. Several years later Anqing was a center of the weapon industry.
Anqing is important for the trade in tea, which is planted on surrounding mountains.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Anqing

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Anshan
B5: 鞍山; PY: Ānshān; lit.: saddle mountain-
City in northeastern China, in Liaoning Province, near the city of Shenyang. Anshan is one of China's leading industrial centers. Anshan's integrated iron and steel complex, one of the world's largest, processes iron ore mined in the region; other important manufactures of the city include chemicals and machinery.
Anshan was founded in 1387 and was fortified in the 16th century. After suffering extensive damage during the Boxer Uprising (1900) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), the city was rebuilt with broad avenues. Modern industrialization, begun in 1918, accelerated after the Japanese occupied northeastern China in 1931. Anshan was severely damaged again during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), and it was looted of industrial equipment by Soviet forces toward the end of World War II (1939-1945). The city was reconstructed in the 1950s with technologically advanced industrial facilities. Population (1991) 1,535,582.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Anshan

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Anyang
B5: 安阳; GB: 安陽; PY: Ānyng- City in northern China, in Henan Province, in a coal-mining and cotton-growing region. Principal manufactures include cotton textiles and processed food. Anyang is located on the site of Yin, the capital of the Shang (Yin) dynasty (1600?-1050? BCE). Archaeological work, begun here in 1928, has uncovered the remains of a royal palace dating from the 16th century BCE, several royal tombs, and a collection of oracle bones chronicling early Chinese history. Population (1991) 416,875.

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Aomen
B5: 澳門; GB: 澳门; PY: omn; WG: Macau; Macao-
Territory of China, on the southeastern coast of China, west of Xianggang. Portuguese traders first traveled to the South China coast in the early 1500s, and in 1556 they established a settlement at Aomen. The government of China did not formally recognize Portuguese control of Aomen until 1887. Aomen is scheduled to return to Chinese administration in December 1999, when it will become a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of China with a status similar to that of Xianggang after its transfer from British to Chinese rule in 1997. As an SAR of China, a Communist country, Aomen will maintain its capitalist economic system for 50 years after 1999, an arrangement China refers to as "one country, two systems."
Aomen is located west of the mouth of the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) estuary and borders China's Guangdong Province to the north. It is about 60 km (about 40 mi) southwest of Xianggang and about 110 km (about 70 mi) south of the city of Guangzhou. The city of Aomen is the territory's largest settlement.
Aomen covers a total land area of 17.4 sq km (6.7 sq mi). It consists of the narrow peninsula of Aomen (6.5 sq km/2.5 sq mi) and the islands of Taipa (3.8 sq km/1.5 sq mi) and Coloane (7.1 sq km/2.7 sq mi). Aomen's total area is growing as extensive land reclamation projects add new area to the islands and peninsula. This effort is expected to continue because Aomen has a scarcity of level land suitable for development. Bridges and a causeway, or raised highway, link the islands to the peninsula. At the north end of the peninsula, where Aomen borders Guangdong Province, the land forms a narrow isthmus.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Macau
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Aomen Special Administrative Region (Macau)
Atlas :: Country Maps :: Macau
East Asian Region :: Aomen

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B

Baoding
B5: 保定; PY: Bǎodng; WG: Ching-yuang-
City in northern China, in Hebei Province, a port on the Fu River. It is a transportation and industrial center at the northern edge of the fertile Huabei Pingyuan (North China Plain). Manufactures include fertilizer, processed food, chemicals, textiles, and pharmaceuticals. An ancient city that was founded before the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty (221-206 BCE), Baoding was called Ching-yuang from 581 CE until 1958. In Ming times (1368- 1644), it was fortified and developed as a military center for the defense of nearby Beijing. Population (1991) 428,376.

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Baoji
B5: 寶雞 (鷄); GB: 宝鸡; PY: Bǎojī-
City in northern China, in Shaanxi Province, in the Wei River valley. A transportation hub with rail connections to northwestern and southwestern China, Baoji is also a commercial and industrial center. Manufacturing industries, developed here largely after 1949, produce cotton textiles, railroad equipment, machinery, and paper. Baoji was founded as early as the 3rd century BCE and received its present name under the Tang (T'ang) dynasty (618- 907 CE). Population (1991) 375,605.

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Baotou
B5: 包頭; GB: 包头; PY: Bāotu-
City in northern China, largest in Nei Menggu province, a port and industrial center on the Huang He (Yellow River). It is the site of a large integrated iron and steel complex, supplied by locally mined coal, iron ore, and limestone. Other manufactures include aluminum, processed food (notably sugar), textiles, chemicals, and motor vehicles. Developed as a small commercial center in the 1880s, Baotou began to grow as a manufacturing hub while it was part of the Japanese-controlled state of Meng-chiang (1937-1945). It was returned to Chinese control in 1945 and became a center of heavy industry in the 1950s. Population (1991) 1,574,291.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Baotou

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Beibu Wan (Gulf of Tonkin)
B5: 北部灣; GB: 北部湾; PY: Běib Wān-
Also Gulf of Bac Bo, northwestern arm of the South China Sea, bordered on its west by northern Vietnam, on its north and east by southern China, and on the east by the Chinese island of Hainan. Several rivers flow into the gulf, including the Yuan Jiang (Red River) and the Lo.
The gulf is very shallow near the coast but increases to as much as 200 m (650 ft) in depth. The seabed is composed mainly of silt and other fine particles from the Yuan Jiang delta and is undergoing rapid siltation. Two major ports lie along the gulf: Haiphong in Vietnam and Beihai in China.
There are numerous islands in the gulf. Along Vietnam's Ha Long Bay, in the northern part of the gulf, are 3000 small islands. Among the more important islands are C T, a pearling center; and Ct B, an important tourist center. Formed of limestone pillars and other shapes, many of the islands are exceptionally beautiful and in 1994 were designated a World Heritage Site by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO).
Many of the islands are uninhabitable and consequently have maintained their unique structure. For much of the last 2000 years the Gulf of Tonkin has been a major trade route, especially in conjunction with the Yuan Jiang delta. In the 11th century trading posts were opened on islands of the gulf, encouraging merchants from Siam and Java and significantly increasing trade. In the 19th century the French expanded the port at Haiphong and conducted military raids around the area. Control of the gulf and the Yuan Jiang delta allowed French soldiers to easily travel inland. During the French colonial period the gulf was a primary export route for rice, cement, and coal. The Gulf of Tonkin played an important role in the history of the Vietnam War (1959-1975). At the end of July 1964 the U.S.S. Maddox, a destroyer of the United States Navy, was patrolling the gulf coast seeking reconnaissance about the North Vietnamese. At the same time, a number of smaller ships were conducting covert operations in the gulf against the North Vietnamese; these ships eventually shelled several offshore islands. The North Vietnamese retaliated by attacking the Maddox with three torpedo boats on August 2, 1964. On August 4, the Maddox and another destroyer, the U.S.S. Turner Joy, believed they were under attack and radioed two nearby U.S. aircraft carriers, the Ticonderoga and the Constellation, for retaliatory air strikes. Fighter planes from those two ships struck North Vietnamese naval vessels and a major petroleum storage center in the city of Vinh. On August 7, the U.S. Congress passed the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, giving President Lyndon Johnson the authority to take action against the North Vietnamese. Over the next four years, Johnson used the resolution to justify sending increasing numbers of troops to fight in the Vietnam War. Johnson's critics argued that the president had exaggerated the attack on U.S. ships and exceeded the authority of the resolution by escalating the war.

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Beijing
B5: 北京; PY: Běijīng; WG: Peking or Peiking-
Meaning 'northern capital'; capital city of The People's Republic of China, encircled by Hebei Province, located in the northern part of the country, on the northern edge of the Huabei Pingyuan (North China Plain), approximately 110 km (approximately 70 mi) northwest of the Bo Hai gulf. Beijing, the second largest city in China after Shanghai, is the cultural, political, and intellectual center of the country, as well as a major industrial and commercial metropolis. Initially settled more than 2000 years ago, it has been the capital of China for most of the last 700 years. The climate is seasonal, with hot summers and cold winters. Temperatures can climb higher than 38 C (higher than 100 F) in July and drop lower than -15 C (lower than 5 F) in January.
Beijing is an independently administered municipal district of about 16,810 sq km (about 6490 sq mi). It comprises ten urban districts and eight predominantly rural counties. The urban districts include four dense city districts and six suburban districts. The suburbs are growing rapidly as new construction of institutional, industrial, and residential buildings cover the landscape and convert former agricultural land to urban uses. The eight rural counties continue to provide basic grain, vegetables, fruits, building materials, and water supplies to the city. However, significant industrial growth has also occurred in these areas, namely in the outlying towns of Shijingshan, Tongxian, Fengtai, and Fangshan.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Beijing (8)
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Beijing Province
East Asian Region :: Beijing

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Bengbu
B5: 蚌埠; PY: Bngb; Also: P'engpu, Pang-pu, Peng-pu, Bangbu; lit.: "Clam Wharf" or "Oyster Quay"-
City in eastern China, in Anhui Province, a port on the Huai River and an important industrial center on the agriculturally rich lower Yangtze River plain. Manufactures include machinery, glass, processed food, and textiles. Coal is mined nearby. Bengbu gained prominence as an industrial city in the early 20th century. It expanded rapidly after 1949 with an emphasis on the production of heavy machinery. Population (1991) 443,367.

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Benxi
B5: 本溪; PY: Běnxī; WG: Penki-
City in northeastern China, in Liaoning Province, an important mining and industrial center. Extensive local deposits of coal and low-phosphorus iron ore support a large iron and steel industry; other leading manufactures include cement and chemicals.
Benxi was founded before the 11th century CE. Modern coal mining, begun here in 1905, initiated a period of rapid industrialization, which accelerated during the Japanese occupation (1931- 1945) of northeastern China. The city was damaged and looted during and immediately after World War II (1939- 1945) and was rebuilt in the 1950s with technologically advanced industrial facilities. Population (1991) 1,132,044.

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Brahmaputra River
B5:  雅魯藏佈江; GB: 雅鲁藏布江; PY: Yălŭzngbjiāng; (Sanskrit; "son of Brahma"; ancient: Dyardanes or Oedanes)-
One of the great rivers of southern Asia, 2,900 km (1,800 mi) long. It flows from southwestern Tibet, China, through Arunchal Pradesh and Assam states in India, into Bangladesh, where it empties into the Bay of Bengal. In Tibet it is called the Yarlung Zangbo. Rising in the Kailas Range of the Himalayas, at an elevation of 4,900 m (16,000 ft), the stream follows an easterly course for about 1450 km (about 900 mi) in Tibet at an altitude of about 3660 m (about 12,000 ft), then swings south, crosses the Himalayas, and enters the lowland plains of Assam, where it is called the Dihang. Near Sadiya, Assam, it changes course to southwest and becomes the Brahmaputra. After about 800 km (about 500 mi) in this direction it turns south again, going through Bangladesh. At the Ganges delta, the river divides into two channels, and the main channel becomes known as the Jamuna River. The Jamuna joins the Ganges River, which from that point is known as the Padma River and then the Meghna River before it empties into the Bay of Bengal. The plains watered by the stream yield abundant crops of rice, jute, and mustard. Steamers can navigate the Brahmaputra from the Bay of Bengal up as far as Dibrugarh in Assam, 1,290 km (800 mi) from the sea.

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C

Canton
SEE Guangzhou

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Changchun
B5: 長春; GB: 长春; PY: Chngchūn- City in northeastern China, the capital of Jilin Province, an important industrial and rail center. Its major industries produce motor vehicles and railroad equipment; other manufactures include rubber goods, pharmaceuticals, chemicals, electrical products, processed food and wood, textiles, and motion pictures. Changchun is a spacious, modern city, with broad avenues. Jilin University and several colleges are here. The city was founded by Chinese settlers in the 1790s. As Hsinking (Hsin-ching), it served (1932- 1945) as the capital of the former Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo and suffered heavy damage and looting during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937- 1945). It became a major industrial center after 1949 and replaced the city of Jilin as provincial capital in 1954. Population (1991) 2,583,890.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Changchun

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Changsha
B5: 長沙; GB: 长沙; PY: Chngshā; WG: Chang-sha- City in southern China, the capital of Hunan Province, a busy port on the Xiang River. Changsha is the industrial, transportation, and cultural center of a rich agricultural region. Manufactures include machine tools, aluminum, processed food (especially rice), chemicals, electronic equipment, and embroidered textiles. Changsha is associated with, and has many monuments to, the early career of Mao Zedong, who was born in nearby Shaoshan and spent most of the period from 1913 to 1921 here. In the city are Hunan University and the Changsha Museum, whose holdings include famous artifacts from a Western Han dynasty (206 BCE- 8 CE) tomb in nearby Mawangdui.
Founded in the 3rd century BCE, the city was originally called Qingyang. As Tanchow, it became the capital of the later Zhou state (951- 960 CE), and as Changsha it was a leading commercial and cultural center during the Song dynasty (960- 1279). It was made the capital of Hunan in 1664 and was opened to foreign trade in 1904. Severely damaged during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937- 1945), the city grew as an industrial center after 1949. Population (1991) 1,776,343.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Changsha

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Changzhi
B5: 長治; GB: 长治; PY: Chngzh- City in northern China, in Shanxi Province, a transportation and industrial center. Manufactures include iron and steel and machinery; coal, iron ore, and asbestos are mined nearby. An ancient city, dating from at least the Shang (Yin) dynasty (1600?- 1050? BCE), Changzhi was known as Luan until 1912. Population (1991) 317,144.

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Chengdu
B5: 成都; PY: Chngdu; WG: Ch'eng-tu- City in central China, the capital of Sichuan Province, on the Min Jiang (a tributary of the upper Yangtze), the cultural and industrial center for the agricultural Chengdu Plain. Manufactures include processed food, precision instruments, cutting tools, electronic equipment, textiles, and aluminum. Deposits of coal and natural gas are nearby. Sichuan University and several other institutions of higher education are in Chengdu, as is the home of the Tang (T'ang) poet Du Fu (Tu Fu).
Chengdu was founded during the Zhou (Chou) dynasty (1027?- 256 BCE). Capital of the Shu dynasty (221- 63 CE), it became a leading commercial center during the Tang dynasty (618- 907), when it was known as I-chou. Chengdu was one of the first centers of printing in China. In 1368 it was made the capital of Sichuan. Famous since the 13th century for its luxurious satins, brocades, and lacquer ware, Chengdu expanded rapidly during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945) and was developed as a major rail and industrial center in the 1950s. Population (1991) 3,347,433.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Chengdu

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Chiayi
B5: 嘉義; GB: 嘉义; PY: Jiāy; WG: Chia-yi; T: Ka-gī-
City in southern Taiwan, the capital of Chiayi County, on a coastal plain. A major sugarcane and lumber center in an agricultural area, the city is also a road and rail junction; sugar mills, sawmills, and distilleries are here, and manufactures include cement and tile. In the surrounding area rice, pineapples, sweet potatoes, and tobacco are grown. The nearby Ali Shan lumbering area is linked with the city by rail. Warm springs and Buddhist shrines are adjacent. The city dates from the 1700s. The name is also spelled Chiayi or Kiayi. Population (1997 estimate) 262,860.

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Chilung
B5: 基隆; PY: Jīlng; WG: Chi-lung; other: Keelung, Kirun- City in northern Taiwan, on the East China Sea. The chief port for imports to the city of T'aipei, it also has shipbuilding and fish-processing industries. Coal, gold, and silver deposits are nearby. The community was occupied by the Spanish in 1626 and by the Dutch in 1642 before passing to the Chinese Qing (Manchu) dynasty in 1683. Chilung was opened to foreign trade in 1860 as a treaty port, and its main growth began during the Japanese control of Taiwan (1895-1945). Population (1997 estimate) 374,199.

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China Sea
Arm of the Pacific Ocean, located off the eastern and southeastern coasts of Asia. It extends from Japan to the eastern end of Borneo and the southern end of the Malay Peninsula. The Taiwan Strait, located between mainland China and the island of Taiwan, divides the China Sea into two parts; the northern portion is called the East China Sea, and the southern portion is called the South China Sea, also known as the China Sea.

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Chongqing
B5: 重慶; GB: 重庆; PY: Chngqng; WG: Chungking-
Autonomous municipality, southwestern China, surrounded on all sides by Sichuan Province. Chongqing is situated on a rocky peninsula at the confluence of the Yangtze and Jialing rivers. It is a major inland port of China and the leading commercial, transportation, and industrial center of the country's southwestern region. The city is located near iron-ore and coal deposits in a fertile agricultural region. Manufactures include iron and steel, machinery, motor vehicles, cotton and silk textiles, chemicals, and processed foods. Major railroads and highways link Chongqing to all parts of the country. The city is the site of Chongqing University and several colleges. Several resorts and mineral spas are located in the surrounding region.
A city has existed on the site for more than 4000 years. In the 4th century BCE it was absorbed by the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty into what would become the first unified Chinese state. In 1890 Chongqing was opened to foreign trade. After the outbreak of hostilities between China and Japan in 1937, Chongqing was made the capital of the Chinese Nationalist government, and it remained so until 1946. Although it suffered heavy damage from Japanese bombings, the city grew greatly in population and increased its industrial base during the war years. Since the 1950s the Chinese government has developed heavy industry in Chongqing. The city was part of Sichuan Province until 1996, when it became an autonomous municipality and gained considerable rural area. Population (1991) 4,717,750.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Chongqing

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D

Da Yunhe
B5: 大運河; GB: 大运河; PY: D Ynh; lit.: transport river  (Grand Canal)-
Series of waterways, eastern China, connecting Hangzhou (Hang-chou) in the south with Beijing in the north. Also known as the Beijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal (GB: 京杭大运河; B5: 京杭大運河; PY: Jīng Hng D Ynh), it is the world's longest canal system, extending in a generally northern-southern direction for about 1600 km (about 1000 mi) and the longest ancient canal or artificial waterway. The oldest section, that between the Yangtze (Chang Jiang) River and the Huang He (Yellow River), was constructed in the 4th and 5th centuries BCE. In the early 6th century CE it was rebuilt and new canals were added. During the 13th century the system was extended north to Beijing, after that city had been made capital of the Yuan (Yan) dynasty. By the mid-19th century the Grand Canal had fallen into disrepair. The government dredged, repaired, and modernized the system between 1958 and 1964.

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Dalian
B5: 大連; GB: 大连; PY: Dlin; WG: Lda-
Municipality, Northeast China, located in Liaoning Province, on the Liaodong Peninsula. It includes Lshun (Port Arthur), the major seaport town, at the southwestern tip of the peninsula; Dalian, a port on Korea Bay; the offshore Changshan Islands; and adjacent agricultural regions. Lshun is an important ice-free naval base guarding the entrance to the gulf of Bo Hai (Gulf of Chihli). Dalian, the main commercial port for industrialized northeastern China (and also ice-free), is the leading petroleum-exporting point for the productive Daqing oil field. It can accommodate supertankers and has large shipyards; manufactures include refined petroleum, chemicals, fertilizer, machinery, iron and steel, and transportation equipment.
Lshun was an important port as early as the 6th century CE. It was occupied (1858) by the British and was fortified as a naval base by the Chinese in the 1880s. It was attacked and briefly held by the Japanese in 1895; subsequently it was granted, with adjacent parts of the peninsula, to Russia as part of the Liaodong lease. While under Russian control (1898- 1905), Lshun was renamed Port Arthur. It was valued by the Russians for its year-round access to the Pacific Ocean and was extensively refortified for naval use. Dalian was transformed during the same period from a minor fishing port into a modern commercial port and was given the Russian name Dalny.
The Treaty of Portsmouth, which ended the Russo-Japanese War (1904- 1905), transferred the Liaodong territory to the Japanese, who renamed it Kwangtung. Lshun, renamed Ryojun, became an important Japanese naval base and was (1905- 1937) the administrative center of the territory. Dalian, given the Japanese name Dairen, was enlarged and modernized. It replaced Lshun as the capital of Kwangtung in 1937 and developed rapidly in the 1930s and early 1940s as the main port for Japanese-controlled Manchuria (present-day Northeast China).
Following the defeat of Japan in World War II, both ports were placed under joint Soviet-Chinese control in 1945. They were returned to full Chinese sovereignty in 1955. Lshun again became a Chinese naval base, and Dalian became a center of heavy industry in the late 1950s and 1960s; during the 1970s Dalian was developed as China's leading petroleum port. Population (1991) 2,980,513.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Dalian

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Dandong
B5: 丹東; GB: 丹东; PY: Dāndōng; WG: Andong-
Municipality of northeastern China, in Liaoning Province, on the Yalu River, opposite Sinuiju, North Korea. The largest municipality in eastern Liaoning and a gateway to North Korea, it includes the industrial river port of Dandong, an outer harbor for oceangoing vessels at Donggou, and adjacent territory bordering the Yalu River. Manufactures include textiles, wood pulp and paper, chemicals, machinery, and rubber goods. A large hydroelectric power plant is located on the Yalu upstream from Dandong.
Dandong gained prominence in 1907, when it was linked by rail with both northeastern China and Korea. It was industrialized during the Japanese occupation (1931- 1945) of Manchuria (present-day Northeast China) and expanded during the Korean War (1950- 1953). Until 1965, Dandong was known as Andong and Donggou as Tatungkow. Population (1990) 523,700.

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Datong
B5: 大同; PY: Dtng-
City, northern China, in Shanxi Province, a major coal-mining and rail center, near the Great Wall. Manufactures include railroad equipment, agricultural machinery, cement, processed food, and shoes. The Yn-kang caves, famous for Buddhist art carved into a hillside between CE386 and 534, are nearby.
Datong was founded as a fortress town in the 4th century and was the 5th-century capital of the Northern Wei Buddhist dynasty. Industrialization accelerated in the 1920s as railroads and coal mining were developed in northern China. Population (1991) 1,235,673.

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Dong Hai
B5: 東海; GB: 东海; PY: Dōng Hǎi-
An arm of the Pacific Ocean, located off the eastern coast of Asia. The sea is bounded on the east by Kysh Island and the Ryky Islands and on the south by Taiwan and the Taiwan Strait; it merges with the Huang Hai (Yellow Sea) on the northwest. The most important ports on the sea are Shanghai, China, and Nagasaki, Japan. The principal river draining into the sea is the Yangtze. The sea floor averages about 350 m (about 1150 ft) and drops to a maximum depth of 2717 m (8913 ft) near the Rykys. The sea covers an area of 752,000 sq km (about 290,000 sq mi). Shipping and fishing in the sea are economically important; the main catches include croakers, tuna, cuttlefish, and cutlass fish.

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Dongting Hu
B5: 洞庭湖; PY: Dngtng h; WG: Tung-t'ing Hu-
Large lake, southeastern China, in northern Hunan Province, on the Dongting Plain, in the valley of the Yangtze River. The lake covers 3,700 sq km (1,430 sq mi). It becomes a natural reservoir during the rainy season, when the flooding Yangtze increases the size of the lake significantly. The Xiang (Hsiang) and Zi (Tzu) rivers flow into the lake from the south and the Yuan Jiang (Red River) and Li River from the west. Dongting Hu is joined to the Yangtze by three canals. The surrounding plain is one of the chief rice-producing areas of China.

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E

East China Sea
SEE Dong Hai

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F

Fujian
B5: 福建; PY: Fjin; WG: Fu-chien, Fukien-
Province, southeastern China, on the Taiwan Strait opposite the island of Taiwan. The province has an almost entirely mountainous terrain and an irregular coast, indented by numerous bays and harbors. Rice, double-cropped in the humid subtropical climate, is grown in small alluvial valleys; tea and fruit are produced in upland areas. Lumbering and fishing are also important. The capital and largest city is Fuzhou; other urban centers are Xiamen (Amoy), Zhangzhou, and Nanping.
Fujian came under Chinese domination in the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty (221-206 BCE), but was not effectively Sinicized before the 7th century CE. Its overseas trade prospered from the 12th to the 17th century and then declined with the rise of the port of Guangzhou (Canton) to the west. Fuzhou and Xiamen, opened to foreign trade in 1842, were important as tea ports in the 19th century. The presence of Nationalist forces on the strategic offshore islands of Matsu and Chinmen (Quemoy) since 1949 has adversely affected coastal shipping. The construction of railroads to neighboring provinces since the 1950s has alleviated the region's physical isolation. Area, 121,000 sq km (46,720 sq mi); population (1990) 30,048,224.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Fujian Province

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Fushun
B5: 撫順; GB: 抚顺; PY: Fǔshn; WG: Fu-shan; local: Funan-
City, northeastern China, in Liaoning Province, an important industrial center in a region of abundant coal and oil-shale deposits. Manufactures include aluminum, iron and steel, refined petroleum, machinery, cement, rubber, and fertilizers. Local coal seams, overlaid by oil shale, which is exceptionally thick, are mined by open cut methods.
The old walled city of Fushun was built in 1669. Its modern growth dates from the early 20th century when it was developed as a coal-mining center by Russian industrialists. Industrialization accelerated under Japanese control (1905- 1945), and oil-shale processing began in the 1930s. The city suffered heavy damage during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937- 1945), and during looting in 1945 it lost much industrial equipment. It was rebuilt in the 1950s, and highly mechanized coal mines and other modern industrial facilities were developed here. Population (1991) 1,487,400.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Fushun

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Fuxin
B5: 阜新; PY: Fxīn; WG: Fu-hsin, Fou-hsin-
City, northeastern China, in Liaoning Province, a major coal-mining center in a highly industrialized region. Coal deposits occur here in thick beds suitable for surface (opencut) mining methods. Mining began during the Japanese occupation (1931- 45) of northeastern China, and the mines suffered heavy damage during World War II. The mines were reconstructed and modernized by the Chinese in the early 1950s. Other industries in Fuxin include the generation of electricity and the manufacture of chemicals. Population (1991) 879,477.

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Fuzhou
B5: 福州; PY: Fzhōu; WG: Fu-chou; Also: Foochow, Fuchow-
City in southeastern China, capital of Fujian Province, an industrial center and seaport on the Min River. Manufactured products include chemicals, silk and cotton textiles, iron and steel, and processed food. Among its exports are fine lacquer ware and handcrafted fans and umbrellas. The city's trade is mainly with Chinese coastal ports; exports of timber, food products, and paper move through the harbor at Guantou (Kuan-t'ou), which is located about 50 km (30 mi) downstream of Fuzhou on the Min River. Fuzhou consists of an old walled city, about 3.2 km (about 2 mi) from the Min River, and a modern riverside quarter, which is connected by bridge to Nantai Island. A university is in the city, and several noted pagodas and temples are nearby. The strategically located island of Matsu, held by Taiwan, is near Fuzhou, in the Taiwan Strait.
Fuzhou, founded in the 2nd century BCE, was absorbed into China during the 6th century CE. It was opened to foreign trade in 1842 as a concession to the British after China was defeated in the first Opium War. From then until the late 19th century, Fuzhou was a major port for the export of tea. The city's other trade declined after contacts with nearby Taiwan, a traditional commercial partner, were severed in 1949. Thereafter, Fuzhou was linked (1958) by rail to northern China and grew as an industrial center. Population (1991) 1,652,228.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Fuzhou

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G

Gansu
B5: 甘肅; GB: 甘肃; PY: Gāns; WG: Kan-su, Kansu, or Kan-suh-
Province, northern China; long and narrow in outline, it is dominated by a complex system of semiarid loess-covered plateaus and basins. The high Nan Shan and Qilian Shan mountain ranges extend along much of the southern border. Terraced and irrigated agriculture produces wheat, millet, kaoliang, and soybeans. Major resources include petroleum, iron ore, copper, and coal. Lanzhou, the capital, is an important transportation junction and industrial center; other cities include Yumen and Tianshui.
Gansu first came under Chinese administration in the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty (221- 206 BCE) and thereafter served as the main corridor between eastern China and Central Asia. Trade flowed through the region on the Old Silk Road. It became a Muslim stronghold by the 13th century and was the base of the violent Muslim Rebellion (1862-78). It was subsequently reduced in size. The province was hit by devastating earthquakes in 1920 and 1932. Traditionally one of the poorer Chinese provinces, it grew rapidly when reached by rail and industrialized in the 1950s. Area, 454,000 sq km (175,300 sq mi); population (1990) 21,371,141.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Gansu Province

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Gejiu
B5: 个旧; PY: Gji; WG: Ko-chiu, Kokiu-
City, southwestern China, in Yunnan Province. Located in a rugged region near the border with Vietnam, the city has been a major mining center for silver and tin since about the 13th century, and it is now the country's most important producer of tin ore; lead and iron ore also are mined. In the city are large plants for smelting and processing tin. Population (1991) 214,294.

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Gobi Desert
B5: 沙漠; PY: Shām; WG: Sha- Mo; Also: B5: 沙漠; PY: Gēb-
Extensive desert area of Asia, principally in Mongolia, sometimes called by the Chinese Sha-mo ("sand desert"). The Gobi, which is about 1610 km (about 1000 mi) in extent from east to west and about 970 km (about 600 mi) from north to south, is bounded by the Da Hinggan Ling (Greater Khingan Range) on the east, the Altun Shan and Nan Shan mountains on the south, the Tian Shan mountains on the west, and the Altay and Hangayn Nuruu (Khangai) mountains and Yablonovyy range on the north. The general form of the Gobi is that of a plateau between higher mountains. The height of the plateau ranges from 914 m (3000 ft) above sea level in the east to 1524 m (5000 ft) in the west. The surface of the Gobi plateau consists in the main of rolling gravel plains, interspersed occasionally with low, flat-topped ranges and isolated hills that are the result of faulting action. Only the southeastern portion of the Gobi is completely waterless. The remainder of the region, approximately three-quarters of the area, has a thin growth of grass, scrub, and thorn sufficient to feed the flocks of the nomadic herders who live there; water is available in wells and occasional shallow lakes. The borders of the Gobi to the north and northwest are fertile, and grassy steppes or prairies lie at the southeastern edge of the desert area. Several caravan trails dating from ancient times cross the Gobi region. Among the more important are the routes from Partizansk (Suchan), Russia, to Hami, Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, and from Zhangjiakou (Chang-chia-k'ou), Hebei (Ho-pei) Province, China, to Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
The first Europeans to traverse the Gobi were Venetian traveler Marco Polo and his father and uncle, who crossed the region about 1275. The next recorded crossing is that of the French Jesuit priest Jean Franois Gerbillon (1654-1707) in the 1680s. In modern times a number of expeditions have explored the Gobi, including expeditions commanded by the Swedish explorer Sir Sven Anders Hedin. The American Museum of Natural History in New York City sponsored (1921-1930) a series of expeditions under the leadership of the American naturalist Roy Chapman Andrews. The expeditions discovered fossilized dinosaur eggs in the Gobi. Archaeological finds in the Gobi include remains of Eolithic, Upper Paleolithic, Azilian, Neolithic, and Bronze Age civilizations.

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Grand Canal
SEE Da Yunhe

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Guangdong
B5: 廣東; GB: 广东; PY: Guǎngdōng; WG: Kuang-tung; Also: Kwangtung)-
Province in southern China, on the South China Sea. The terrain of Guangdong is primarily rolling hills; the vast delta of the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) is Guangdong's only important lowland. In the province's subtropical humid climate, two crops of rice a year are raised; other important products are sugarcane, fruit, and fish (both sea catch and pond-raised). Petroleum, discovered in 1979 on the Leizhou Bandao Peninsula, is a major resource; others include iron ore, tungsten, molybdenum, and coal. Guangzhou (Canton), the capital, largest city, and chief port, is the manufacturing center of the province; other major cities include Shantou, Shaoguan, and Maoming.
Guangdong was annexed by China in the Qin (Ch'in) and Han dynasties (221-206 BCE, 206 BCE- CE 220) but was not extensively colonized by Han Chinese until the 12th century. Its population grew rapidly after Guangzhou became a major port for foreign trade in the 17th century. Area, 197,100 sq km (76,100 sq mi); population (1990) 62,829,236.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Guangdong Province

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Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
B5: 廣西; GB: 广西; PY: Guǎngxī; WG: Kuang-hsi-
Provincial-level administrative region of China, located in the southern part of the country. Guangxi is bounded on the east by Guangdong Province, on the north by Hunan and Guizhou Provinces, on the west by Yunnan Province, on the southwest by Vietnam, and on the south by the Gulf of Tonkin. The total area of Guangxi is about 226,600 sq km (about 87,500 sq mi).
A mountainous plateau slopes from Guangxi's north and northwest regions to lower elevations in the south and southeast. The Yunnan Plateau (Yungui Gaoyuan) extends into the western part of the region, and eastern Guangxi contains a portion of the Nan Ling hills. Broad valleys and basins lie in the center of the region. Guangxi's limited fertile plains are located near the coastal area and along rivers such as the Yu Jiang and the Liu Jiang. Much of the region's surface rock is limestone that has weathered into unusual formations known as karst topography. These striking landscape features include domes, towers, sinkholes, and numerous caves and caverns with underground rivers.
Summers in Guangxi are hot and humid, when moisture-laden monsoons bring the greatest precipitation and temperatures average 26 C (79 F). The average annual rainfall totals about 2050 mm (about 80 in). Winter temperatures are cooler, averaging 15 C (59 F), and frost can occur throughout the region. Forests cover the mountains, where monkeys and squirrels are the most numerous mammals. Deer, birds, reptiles, and amphibians are also common.
The 1993 estimated population of Guangxi was 44.4 million. Han Chinese account for about 60 percent of the total population. The Zhuang, who speak a Tai language, are the largest ethnic minority group in Guangxi, as well as the largest ethnic minority group in China. Smaller groups of Yao, Miao, Shui, Mulam, Maonan, and Jing also reside in Guangxi.
Most people are concentrated in the central valley and coastal plains. The capital and largest city is Nanning, which is an industrial and transportation center near the Vietnamese border. Liuzhou is also an important industrial center. Tourism is an important industry of Guilin, where the area's dome and tower karst formations have inspired travelers, poets, and painters for many years.
Although Guangxi is mostly mountainous, a variety of crops grow on the limited farmland. The region's ample water supply and high temperatures support yields of rice, soybeans, sweet potatoes, sugarcane, tea, vegetables, and fruit. Timber and bamboo harvesting are important, as is fishing. Near the coast in the Gulf of Tonkin lies an offshore oilfield, the Beibuwen Basin.
Railroads and highways connect Guangxi's major cities and provide transportation links to other parts of China. In addition, the Yu Jiang, a major tributary of the Xi Jiang (West River), flows from Guangxi's central valley to the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) delta and estuary in Guangdong. Small steamships can navigate as far as Wuzhou on Guangxi's border with Guangdong. The river provides Guangxi with an important transportation link to the major ports of Guangzhou, Xianggang, and Aomen.
In 1979 China adopted an export-oriented strategy and began economic reforms. As a result, Guangxi's coastal area and central valley now produce industrial goods such as textiles, watches, and electronics. In 1984 the coastal city of Beihei became one of several Chinese open cities where foreign investment is encouraged. Still, Guangxi remains one of China's poorest regions and lags far behind its neighboring province of Guangdong in its interactions with the outside world.
Like all autonomous regions in China, Guangxi reports directly to China's central government in Beijing. A local people's congress selects Guangxi's chairman, who must belong to the Zhuang minority group. Guangxi is divided into 14 autonomous prefectures and 6 municipalities.
Until the Qing dynasty (1644-1912), Guangxi's mountainous terrain and limited transportation prohibited contact between the Zhuang and other Chinese. To break down this regionalism, the Qing government frequently shifted its officials and even relocated peasant groups from one region to another. As a result, the Zhuang became assimilated into the culture and traditions of the Han, China's majority ethnic group.
Guangxi became a rebel base during the mid-19th century when Hong Xiuquan-a schoolteacher from Guangdong who believed he was divinely ordained to rid China of imperial rule-proclaimed himself Heavenly King of the Taiping, or Heavenly Kingdom, in a Guangxi village. Although Hong and his followers failed to overthrow the Qing dynasty, the Taiping Rebellion (1850- 1864) significantly weakened the Qing and contributed to its downfall in 1912. Japanese troops occupied Guangxi during World War II (1939- 1945) as part of their strategic plan to take South China and Southeast Asia.
The region was first administered as a province under the Chinese Communist government that rose to power in 1949. In 1958 the central government redesignated the area as the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region; this was to both reflect the presence of its large minority population and to allow it greater political representation.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

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Guangzhou (Canton)
B5: 廣州; GB: 广州; PY: Guǎngzhōu; WG: Kuang-chou, Kwangchow-
City, southern China, capital of Guangdong Province. It is a busy port and a commercial and industrial center on the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River). Manufactures include processed food (especially sugar), textiles, steel, paper, cement, fertilizer, chemicals, motor vehicles, and machinery. The city, which is served by an outer deepwater port at Whampoa (Huangpu), is linked by rail with Xinaggang and Beijing. About 15 percent of China's foreign trade is conducted here, and the city is the site of a twice-yearly major international trade fair (established 1957). A leading educational center of China, Guangzhou is the site of Zhongshan (Chung-shan or Sun Yat-sen) University (1924), a school of medicine, a technical university, and an agricultural institute.
Landmarks in the city include Sha-mien (Shameen) Island, where foreign traders formerly lived; a Ming dynasty (1368-1644) temple, now the Peasant Movement Institute; a pagoda in the Temple of the Six Banyan Trees; a 14th-century watchtower (now Guangzhou Museum) in Yue Xiu (Yue Hsiu) park; the blue-roofed Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hall; and a mosque said to be the oldest in China.
An ancient settlement of obscure origins, Guangzhou was brought into the Chinese Empire in the 3rd century BCE. Arab, Persian, Hindu, and other merchants traded here for centuries before the Portuguese arrived in quest of silk and porcelain in the 16th century. They were followed by British merchants in the 17th century and French and Dutch traders in the 18th century. Guangzhou became a treaty port in 1842, but restrictions on trade continued until a sandbank in the Pearl River (later developed into Sha-mien Island) was ceded (1861) for unrestricted foreign trading and settlement; it was returned to Chinese control in 1946. Guangzhou was a center of activity during the Republican Revolution (1911), led by Sun Yat-sen, which resulted in the establishment of the Republic of China, and it was the early headquarters of the Kuomintang, the leading political party. The Japanese occupied and heavily damaged the city during 1938-45. Extensive urban redevelopment, begun in the 1920s, was resumed after 1949, when it was combined with a major program of beautification, industrial expansion, and port improvement. Population (1991) 4,111,946.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Guangzhou

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Guilin
B5: 桂林; PY: Guln; WG: Kuei-lin, Kweilin-
City, southern China, in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, on the Gui River. It is an important transportation hub and a small industrial center in a scenic karst region made famous by classical Chinese poets and painters. Economic activities include fishing, food processing, and the manufacture of fertilizer, rubber goods, textiles, machinery, and electronic equipment. Tungsten and tin are mined nearby.
Guilin was founded in 214 BCE, and was an important center on the ancient Ling Canal (now an irrigation aqueduct) linking central and southern China. Called Lin-Gui during the Tang (T'ang) dynasty (CE 618- 907), it was a provincial capital from Ming times (1368- 1644) until 1914, and again during the period 1936- 49. Guilin, which suffered heavy damage during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937- 1945), was developed as an industrial center after 1949. Population (1991) 376,362.

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Guiyang
B5: 貴陽; GB: 贵阳; PY: Guyng; WG: Kuei-yang, Kweiyang-
City, southern China, capital of Guizhou Province, an important transportation and industrial center. Manufactures, developed largely since 1949, include aluminum, iron and steel, chemicals, fertilizers, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and machine tools. Coal and bauxite are mined nearby. The city is the site of a university and a medical school. Population (1991) 1,279,002.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Guiyang

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Guizhou
B5: 貴州; GB: 贵州; PY: Gizhōu; WG: Kuei-chou; Also: Kweichow-
Inland province, southern China. It comprises a region of high, rugged plateaus, with deeply incised valleys. Although much of the land is unsuitable for cultivation, rice, wheat, and corn are grown on terraced hillsides and in the major river valleys. Forestry is important in the north and east. Rich mineral deposits of coal, manganese, mercury, and bauxite are exploited. The province underwent rapid industrial development after it was reached by railroad in the 1950s. Ethnic minorities, which constitute about one-quarter of the population, include the Bouyei (Puyi), Dong (T'ung), Miao, Sui (Shui), and Yi. The principal cities are the capital, Guiyang, Zunyi, Anshun, and Duyun.
Although first administered by China in the Han dynasty (206 BCE- 220 CE), Guizhou was not settled by Chinese until the Ming dynasty (1368- 1644). Its modern importance dates from the 1930s, when industrial and government activities were transferred here during the Japanese occupation (1938- 45). Area, 174,000 sq km (67,200 sq mi); population (1990) 32,391,066.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Guizhou Province

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H

Haikou
B5: 海口; PY: Hǎikǒu; WG: Hai-k'ou, Hoihow; lit.: "Mouth of the Sea"-
City in southern China, largest city, and main port of Hainan Province. Hainan Province consists of Hainan Island, which is south of Guangdong Province in the South China Sea. Manufactured products of Haikou include processed food, cement, and machinery. Originally opened to foreign trade in 1876 as the seaport for Qiongshan, the city developed rapidly while under Japanese control (1939- 1945). It was returned to Chinese administration in 1945 and became an industrial center for the island after 1949. Population (1991) 280,153.

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Hainan
B5: 海南; PY: Hǎinn-
Province, southeastern China, island in the South China Sea, south of Leizhou Bandao Peninsula. Hainan Strait, about 24 km (about 15 mi) wide, separates the peninsula from the island, which adjoins the Gulf of Tonkin on the east. Between its northern and southern extremities, Hainan has a length of about 257 km (about 160 mi) and an extreme width of about 145 km (about 90 mi). The southern half is traversed by a series of mountain chains, the highest of which has a maximum elevation of about 1829 m (about 6000 ft). The region has numerous extinct volcanoes, but many of the slopes and valleys are covered with dense tropical vegetation. The northern portion of the island, except for occasional mountainous outcroppings, consists of level plains. Hainan contains rich mineral deposits, including gold, tin, iron ore, lead, and silver, but the economy is predominantly agrarian. Among the leading crops are rice, rubber, coconuts, sugar, betel nuts, and pineapples. Large numbers of hogs, cattle, and ducks are raised.
People of Chinese origin constitute about two-thirds of the population of Hainan. Several aboriginal tribes, locally designated the Maiu and Lois, inhabit the more remote areas of the mountainous region. The Maiu tribes originated on the Chinese mainland; the Lois show marked physical similarities to the Igorot tribe of the Philippines and speak the same language. A Chinese possession since 111BC, Hainan was occupied by the Japanese in February 1939, during the Second Sino-Japanese War. The island was retaken in 1945 by the Chinese Nationalists, and in 1950 it passed to the Chinese Communists. Formerly part of Guangdong Province, Hainan became a separate province in 1988. The capital, largest town, and chief seaport is Haikou. Area, about 34,300 sq km (13,240 sq mi); population (1990) 6,557,482.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Hainan Province

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Hami
B5: 哈密地區; GB: 哈密地区; PY: Hām Dqū; Uyghur: قۇمۇل ۋىلايىتى-
Town in the eastern part of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China, about 50 km (about 30 mi) south of the Tian Shan (Tien Shan) mountains. Hami is the first major stop on an ancient caravan route leading from China through the Gansu Province to Xinjiang Uygur.
Since the 1st century CE Hami has been important for trade because of its position near the convergence of two caravan routes to the west. The town was a convenient stopping point where caravans acquired fresh provisions and pack animals were rested. Hami was controlled by China during the Han Dynasty, from 206 BCE to 220 CE. It became Buddhist in the early centuries of the Christian era, retaining this religion long after Islam was established in neighboring Turkestan. About the 8th century Hami was ruled by the Uygur people, who controlled it for several centuries. From the 14th century the Uygur princes were subject to China except for brief periods in the 18th and 19th centuries. Although Xinjiang became a province of the Manchu Empire in 1882, Hami was governed by the Uygur princes until 1930. In that year, the ruler died and his heir was taken into custody of the Chinese government. The Uygurs immediately rebelled against Chinese rule and murdered the Chinese residents of Hami. After a period of strife with Russian-backed militarists, the Chinese eventually regained control.
The region surrounding Hami is irrigated by streams from the Tian Shan mountain range. Until the 1950s Hami was principally a marketplace used by Kazakh nomads from the north who traded grain, wool, and silk cloth. Since then it has become an iron and steel center. Population (1991) 161,315.

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Han Jiang (Han River)
B5: 漢江; GB: 汉江; PY: Hānjiāng-
River of China, one of the chief tributaries of the Yangtze River and a main artery of trade of central China. From its source in the southwestern portion of Shaanxi (Shensi) Province, the Han flows generally southeast across Hubei (Hu-pei) Province, emptying into the Yangtze at Wuhan. The Han Jiang, 1,532 km (952 mi) in length, is navigable by river steamers for 600 km (370 mi) above Wuhan and by smaller craft throughout most of its course. Several commercial cities, including Xing'an, are on the banks of the Han Jiang.

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Han River
SEE Han Jiang

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Handan
B5: 邯鄲; GB: 邯郸; PY: Hndān; WG: Han-tan-
City in China, in Hebei Province, a transportation and industrial center at the western edge of the Huabei Pingyuan (North China Plain). Iron ore and coking coal, mined nearby, support a small iron and steel complex; other manufactures include textiles, chemicals, cement, and machinery. Handan dates from at least the 6th century BCE. It was the capital of the state of Chao (386- 228 BCE) and was rebuilt on a site to the northeast during Han times (206 BCE- 220 CE). It remained a small regional center, with fewer than 100,000 inhabitants, until systematically developed as an industrial city in the 1950s. Population (1991) 1,352,438.

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Hangzhou
B5: 杭州; PY: Hngzhōu; WG: Hang-chou, Hangchow-
City, southeastern China, capital of Zhejiang Province, near Shanghai. It is a port at the mouth of the Qiantang River in Hangzhou Bay and at the southern end of the Grand Canal. Manufactures include silk and cotton textiles, chemicals, steel, machine tools, and processed food. Scenic Xi Hu (West Lake), with many ancient shrines and monasteries, is here. The city was walled and given its present name in CE 606. Serving as the capital of the Five Dynasties (907- 959), it prospered as a port for the silk trade. During the Southern Song dynasty (1127- 1279) it became a renowned cultural center, as well as the capital. Venetian traveler Marco Polo, who visited here in the late 13th century, characterized Hangzhou as the most beautiful city in the world. In the 14th century the city's importance declined after the port became clogged with silt. Taiping rebels destroyed much of the old city in 1861, and Japanese forces occupied Hangzhou from 1937 to 1945. Rebuilding of industrial plants took place in the 1950s. Population (1991) 2,305,741.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Hangzhou

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Harbin
B5: 哈爾濱; GB: 哈尔滨; PY: Hā'ěrbīn; WG: Ha-erh-pin-
City, northeastern China, capital of Heilongjiang Province, a port and rail junction on the Songhua River. A major commercial, industrial, and transportation center, it is situated in a productive farming region. Manufactures include electrical equipment, ball bearings, machinery, chemicals, processed food, and cement. The city, founded as a rail center in 1900 by Russian financiers, was known as Pinkiang while part of the former Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo (1932- 45). After 1949 it developed into a diversified industrial center. Population (1991) 3,433,629.

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Hebei
B5: 河北; PY: Hbĕi; WG: Ho-pei; Also: Hopeh, Chihli-
Province, northern China. It encircles but does not include the separately administered municipalities of Beijing and Tianjin. The province makes up a portion of the Huabei Pingyuan (North China Plain) in the south, the foothills of the Taihang Shan in the west, and a complex of semiarid plateaus and hills in the north bordering Nei Menggu. The principal crops are wheat and cotton. Important coal deposits are located in the east and the south. Manufactures include iron and steel and a wide range of machinery. The principal cities are the capital, Shijiazhuang; Handan; and Tangshan.
Southern sections of the province developed as the economic heartland of ancient China in the 2nd century BCE. After the 10th century CE, northern sections fell, successively, under the control of non-Chinese Khitan and Mongol empires until restored to Chinese administration in 1368 at the start of the Ming dynasty. From 1421 until 1912, and again after 1949, Beijing served as the national capital, to the economic benefit of the surrounding areas. The province was called Chihli by the Manchus (1644- 1912) and retained this name until 1928. Area, 188,000 sq km (72,600 sq mi); population (1990) 61,082,439.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Hebei Province

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Hefei
B5: 合肥; PY: Hfi; WG: Ho-fei; Also: Lu-chou, Luchow-
City, eastern China, capital of Anhui Province, an industrial and transportation center in the lower Yangtze River valley. Manufactures include machine tools, chemicals, aluminum, and textiles. Hefei was founded on its present site during the Song (Sung) dynasty (960- 1279), just south of an older city of importance since the 8th century BCE. In the 10th century CE, the independent Wu Kingdom briefly maintained its capital here. Modern industrialization, begun in the 1930s in association with the development of the Anhui coalfield to the north, accelerated after 1949 with the construction of modern textile mills and an iron and steel complex. Hefei replaced Anqing as the capital of Anhui Province in 1949. Population (1991) 964,650.

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Hegang
B5: 鶴崗; GB: 鹤岗; PY: Hgǎng; WG: Ho-kang; Also: Haoli-
City, northeastern China, Heilongjiang Province. Located in the Xiao Hinggan Ling (Lesser Khingan Range) south of the Russian border, it is one of the major coal-producing centers of China. Coal mining was begun here in 1916. In the late 1920s a railroad was built linking the city with industrial centers to the south. Population (1991) 712,429.

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Heilong Jiang (Amur River)
B5: 黑龍江; GB: 黑龙江; PY: Hēilng Jiāng; Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula; Mongolian: Хар Мөрөн, Khar Mrn; Russian: Амур; lit.: "Black Dragon River"; Also: "Black River"-
River east central Asia, formed by the junction of the Shilka and Argun rivers. The Amur flows southeast, forming the border between Russia and China for almost 1610 km (1000 mi). It then flows northeast and empties into Tatar Strait (Tatarskiy Proliv) near the city of Nikolayevsk-na-Amure. Some 2,874 km (1,786 mi) long, the Amur is one of the great rivers of the world. Including the chief headstreams, the total system has a length of about 4,416 km (2,744 mi). The Amur is navigable throughout its entire course, and the Shilka is navigable to Sretensk, Russia. The Amur is closed to navigation for about six months in winter. Among the major tributaries are the Zeya, Songhua, Ussuri, and Bureya rivers. Important Chinese towns on the Heilong Jiang, include Aihui and Tongjiang. Besides Nikolayevsk-na-Amure, the principal Russian cities on the river are Blagoveshchensk, Khabarovsk, and Komsomol'sk-na-Amure.

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Heilongjiang
B5: 黑龍江; GB: 黑龙江; PY: Hēilngjiāng; WG: Hei-lung-chiang; Manchu: Sahaliyan ula; Also: Heilungkiang-
Province, Northeast China, on the northeastern border with Russia; comprising the northern portion of the historic region of Manchuria. It is a relatively sparsely populated region with a severe continental climate. The Dongbei Pingyuan (Northeast China Plain) occupies the southern portion of the province and is crossed by the fertile valley of the Songhua River. To the north lies the heavily forested Xiao Hinggan Ling (Lesser Khingan Range), and to the east lies an upland area of marshes and swamps. Wheat, sugar beets, and soybeans are the major crops. The large Daqing oil field is in the southwest; and coal is mined in the east. The capital and chief city is Harbin, a center of heavy industry. Other cities include Qiqihar, Hegang, and Jiamusi.
The borders of the region were first disputed by China and Russia in the 17th century. The area was occupied by the Russians from 1900 to 1917. It was again taken from Chinese control in 1931, when the Japanese invaded Manchuria, and became part of the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo (1932-45). Area, 463,600 sq km (179,000 sq mi); population (1990) 35,214,873.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Heilongjiang Province

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Henan
B5: 河南; PY: Hnn; WG: Ho-nan-
Province in eastern China. Henan is one of China's most densely populated provinces. Its terrain comprises mountains in the west and densely populated plains in the east. The Huang He (Yellow River) crosses the northern part of the province, and fertile loess uplands are found in the central area. Wheat is the leading crop; cotton, tobacco, peanuts, and sesame are also grown. Coal is mined, and hydroelectricity is produced in conjunction with irrigation and flood-control projects on the Huang He. Manufactures include textiles, iron and steel, heavy machinery, and aluminum. Major cities include the capital, Zhengzhou, Luoyang, and Kaifeng.
Early Chinese civilization had its roots in Henan, and for centuries it was the political center of the empire; Anyang, in northern Henan, was a capital in the Shang (Yin) dynasty (1600?- 1050? BCE), and both Luoyang and Kaifeng served as imperial capitals until the 12th century CE. In modern times the provincial economy greatly benefited from the flood-control projects and planned industrialization undertaken in the 1950s and 1960s. Area, 167,000 sq km (64,500 sq mi); population (1990) 85,509,535.

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Hengyang
B5: 衡陽; GB: 衡阳; PY: Hngyng; WG: Heng-yang-
City, southeastern China, Hunan Province, on the Xiang (Hsiang) River near its confluence with the Lei and Zheng (Cheng) rivers. It is a major regional transportation center and the leading manufacturing and commercial city of southern Hunan. Products include mining machinery, refined lead and zinc, chemicals, farm machinery, and irrigation equipment. Mines in the surrounding region produce coal, lead and zinc, sulfur, and tungsten. An ancient city, located on a traditional northern to southern communications route, Hengyang was made a prefecture in the 6th century CE. Modern growth dates from the completion (1936) of a railroad through the city to the port of Guangzhou (Canton). The Japanese captured the city in 1944, inflicting considerable damage. The city was called Hengchou or Hengchow until 1912. Population (1991) 447,944.

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Himalaya Mountains
Tibetan: ཇོ་མོ་གླིང་མ; Chomolungma or Qomolangma; lit.: "Mother of the Universe"
Chinese: B5: 珠穆朗瑪峰; GB: 珠穆朗玛峰; PY: Zhūmlǎngmǎ Fēng or PY: Shngmǔ Fēng; B5: 聖母峰; GB: 圣母峰-
Himalayas, also Himalaya (Sanskrit for "abode of snow"), mountain system in Asia, forming a broad continuous arc for nearly 2600 km (1600 mi) along the northern fringes of the Indian subcontinent, from the bend of the Indus River in the northwest to the Brahmaputra River in the east. The Himalayas range, averaging 320 to 400 km (200 to 250 mi) in width, rises sharply from the Gangetic Plain. North of this mountain belt lies the Tibetan Plateau (Qing Zang Gaoyuan). The Himalayas form the earth's highest mountain region, containing 9 of the 10 highest peaks in the world. Among these peaks are the world's highest mountain, Mount Everest (8848 m/29,028 ft), which is on the Nepal-Tibet border; the second highest peak, K2 or Mount Godwin Austen (8,611 m/28,251 ft), located on the border between China and Jammu and Kashmr, a territory claimed by India and Pakistan; the third highest peak, Knchenjunga (8,598 m/28,209 ft) on the Nepal-India border; Maklu (8481 m/27,824 ft) on the Nepal-Tibet border; Dhaulgiri (8,172 m/26,811 ft) and Annaprna 1 (8,091 m/26,545 ft) in Nepal; Nanga Parbat (8,125 m/26,657 ft) in the Pakistani-controlled portion of Jammu and Kashmr; and Nanda Devi (7817 m/25,645 ft) in India.

Geologic Formation and Structure
The Himalayan mountain system developed in a series of stages 30 to 50 million years ago. The Himalayan range was created from powerful earth movements that occurred as the Indian plate pressed against the Eurasian continental plate. The earth movements raised the deposits laid down in the ancient, shallow Tethys Sea (on the present site of the mountains) to form the Himalayan ranges from Pakistan eastward across northern India, and from Nepal and Bhutan to the Myanmar (Burmese) border. Even today the mountains continue to develop and change, and earthquakes and tremors are frequent in the area.

Topography
Physically, the Himalayas forms three parallel zones: the Great Himalayas, the Middle Himalayas (also known as the Inner or Lesser Himalayas), and the Sub-Himalayas, which includes the Siwlik Range and foothills and the Tari and Duars piedmont (an area of land formed or lying at the foot of a mountain or mountain range). Each of these lateral divisions exhibit certain similar topographic features. The Great Himalayas, the highest zone, consists of a huge line of snowy peaks with an average height exceeding 6100 m (20,000 ft). The width of this zone, composed largely but not entirely of gneiss and granite, is about 24 km (about 15 mi). Spurs from the Great Himalayas project southwards into the Middle Himalayas in an irregular fashion. The Nepal and Sikkim (a state of northern India) portion of the Great Himalayas contains the greatest number of high peaks. The snow line on the southern slopes of the Great Himalayas varies from 4480 m (14,700 ft) in the eastern and central Himalayas of Nepal and Sikkim to 5180 m (17,000 ft) in the western Himalayas. To the north of the Great Himalayas are several ranges such as the Zskr, Ladakh, and the Kailas. The Karakoram Range lies on the Tibetan side of the Great Himalayas.
The Great Himalayan region is one of the few remaining isolated and inaccessible areas in the world today. Some high valleys in the Great Himalayas are occupied by small clustered settlements. Extremely cold winters and a short growing season limit the farmers to one crop per year, most commonly potatoes or barley. The formidable mountains have limited the development of large-scale trade and commerce despite the construction of highways across the mountains linking Nepal and Pakistan to China. Older trails, which cross the mountains at high passes, also have limited trade and are open only during the summer months.
The Middle Himalayas range, which has a width of about 80 km (about 50 mi), borders the Great Himalayan range on the south. It consists principally of high ranges both within and outside of the Great Himalayan range. Some of the ranges of the Middle Himalayas are the Ng Tibba, the Dhaola Dhr, the Pr Panjl, and the Mahbhrat. The Middle Himalayas possess a remarkable uniformity of height; most are between 1830 and 3050 m (between 6000 and 10,000 ft).
The Middle Himalayas region is a complex mosaic of forest-covered ranges and fertile valleys. While not as forbidding as the Great Himalayas to the north, this range has nonetheless served to isolate the valleys of the Himalayas from the plains of the Indus and Ganges rivers in Pakistan and northern India. Except for the major valley centers such as Srnagar, Kngra, and Kathmandu, and hill towns such as Simla, Mussoorie, and Drjiling (Darjeeling), the region is moderately populated. Within the Middle Himalayas the intervening mountain ranges tend to separate the densely populated valleys. The numerous gorges and rugged mountains make surface travel difficult in any direction. Few roads or transport routes exist between towns, partly because it is expensive to build them over the high, rough terrain. Only major population centers are linked by air and roads with principal cities in India and Pakistan.
The Sub-Himalayas, which is the southernmost and the lowest zone, borders the plains of North India and Pakistan. It comprises the Siwlik Range and foothills as well as the narrow piedmont plain at the base of the mountains. The width of the Sub-Himalayas gradually narrows from about 48 km (about 30 mi) in the west until it nearly disappears in Bhutan and eastern India. A characteristic feature of the Sub-Himalayas is the large number of long, flat-bottomed valleys known as duns, which are usually spindle-shaped and filled with gravelly alluvium. South of the foothills lies the Tari and Duars plains. The southern part of the Tari and Duars plains is heavily farmed. The northern part was forest inhabited by wild animals until about the 1950s. Most of the forests of this region have been destroyed, and much of the land has been reclaimed for agriculture.

Climate
The Himalayas influences the climate of the Indian subcontinent by sheltering it from the cold air mass of Central Asia. The range also exerts a major influence on monsoon and rainfall patterns. Within the Himalayas climate varies depending on elevation and location. Climate ranges from subtropical in the southern foothills, with average summer temperatures of about 30 C (about 86 F) and average winter temperatures of about 18 C (about 64 F); warm temperate conditions in the Middle Himalayan valleys, with average summer temperatures of about 25 C (about 77 F) and cooler winters; cool temperate conditions in the higher parts of the Middle Himalayas, where average summer temperatures are 15 to 18 C (59 to 64 F) and winters are below freezing; to a cold alpine climate at higher elevations, where summers are cool and winters are severe. At elevations above 4880 m (16,000 ft) the climate is very cold with below freezing temperatures and the area is permanently covered with snow and ice. The eastern part of the Himalayas receives heavy rainfall; the western part is drier.

Plant and Animal Life
The natural vegetation is influenced by climate and elevation. Tropical, moist deciduous forest at one time covered all of the Sub-Himalayan area. With few exceptions most of this forest has been cut for commercial lumber or agricultural land. In the Middle Himalayas at elevations between 1520 and 3660 m (between 5000 and 12,000 ft) natural vegetation consists of many species of pine, oak, rhododendron, poplar, walnut, and larch. Most of this area has been deforested; forest cover remains only in inaccessible areas and on steep slopes. Below the timber line the Great Himalayas contains valuable forests of spruce, fir, cypress, juniper, and birch. Alpine vegetation occupies higher parts of the Great Himalayas just below the snow line and includes shrubs, rhododendrons, mosses, lichens, and wildflowers such as blue poppies and edelweiss. These areas are used for grazing in summer by the highland people of the Great Himalayas.
Animals such as tigers, leopards, rhinoceroses, and many varieties of deer once inhabited the forested areas of the Sub-Himalayan foothills and the Tari plain. As a result of deforestation the habitat of most of the wildlife has been destroyed. They are now restricted to special protected areas such as the Jaldapara and Kaziranga sanctuaries in India (see Kaziranga National Park) and the Chitawan preserve in Nepal. There are few animals in the Middle Himalayas because of extensive deforestation. In the Great Himalayas musk deer, wild goats, sheep, wolves, and snow leopards are found. The existence of the Abominable Snowman or Yeti has been reported by highland Sherpas in Nepal but has eluded discovery by several expeditions.

People and Economy
The population, settlement, and economic patterns within the Himalayas have been greatly influenced by the variations in topography and climate, which impose harsh living conditions and tend to restrict movement and communication. People living in remote, isolated valleys have generally preserved their cultural identities. However, improvements in transportation and communication, particularly satellite television programs from Europe and the United States, are bringing access from the outside world to remote valleys. These outside influences are affecting traditional social and cultural structure.
Nearly 40 million people inhabit the Himalayas. Generally, Hindus of Indian heritage are dominant in the Sub-Himalayas and the Middle Himalayan valleys from eastern Kashmr to Nepal. To the north Tibetan Buddhists inhabit the Great Himalayas from Ladakh to northeast India. In central Nepal, in an area between about 1830 and 2440 m (between about 6000 and 8000 ft), the Indian and Tibetan cultures have intermingled, producing a combination of Indian and Tibetan traits. The eastern Himalayas in India and nearby areas of eastern Bhutan are inhabited by animistic people whose culture is similar to those living in northern Myanmar and Yunnan province in China. People of western Kashmr are Muslims and have a culture similar to the inhabitants of Afghanistan and Iran.
The economy of the Himalayas as a whole is poor with low per capita income. Much of the Himalayas area is characterized by a very low economic growth rate combined with a high rate of population growth, which contributes to stagnation in the already low level of per capita gross national product. Most of the population is dependent on agriculture, primarily subsistence agriculture; modern industries are lacking. Mineral resources are limited. The Himalayas has major hydroelectric potential, but the development of hydroelectric resources requires outside capital investment. The skilled labor needed to organize and manage development of natural resources is also limited due to low literacy rates. Most of the Himalayan communities face malnutrition, a shortage of safe drinking water, and poor health services and education systems.
Agricultural land is concentrated in the Tari plain and in the valleys of the Middle Himalayas. Patches of agricultural land have also been carved out in the mountainous forested areas. Rice is the principal crop in eastern Tari and the well-watered valleys. Corn is also an important rain-fed crop on the hillsides. Other cereal crops are wheat, millet, barley, and buckwheat. Sugarcane, tea, oilseeds, and potatoes are other major crops. Food production in the Himalayas has not kept up with the population growth.
The major industries include processing food grains, making vegetable oil, refining sugar, and brewing beer. Fruit processing is also important. A wide variety of fruits are grown in each of the major zones of the Himalayas, and making fruit juices is a major industry in Nepal, Bhutan, and in the Indian Himalayas.
Since 1950 tourism has emerged as a major growth industry in the Himalayas. Nearly 1 million visitors come to the Himalayas each year for mountain trekking, wildlife viewing, and pilgrimages to major Hindu and Buddhist sacred places. The number of foreign visitors has increased in recent years, as organized treks to the icy summits of the Great Himalayas have become popular. While tourism is important to the local economy, it has had an adverse impact on regions where tourist numbers exceed the capacity of recreational areas.
Historically, all transport in the Himalayas has been by porters and pack animals. Porters and pack animals are still important, but the construction of major roads and the development of air routes have changed the traditional transportation pattern. Major urban centers such as Kathmandu, Simla, and Srnagar, as well as important tourist destinations, are served by airlines. Railways link Simla and Drjiling, but in most of the Himalayas there are no railroads. The bulk of goods from the Himalayas, as well as goods destined for places within the Himalayas, generally come to Indian railheads, located in the Tari, by road. The pack animals and porters transport goods from road heads to the interior and back.

Environmental Issues
Economic changes and population increases are threatening the ecology of the Himalayas. In recent years deforestation in the foothills and the Middle Himalayas and overgrazing on the high pastures have led to soil erosion and other environmental problems. Deforestation is a particular concern in the western Himalayas, where increased demand for firewood, extensive tree trimming in order to feed livestock, and construction of roads in the border regions have increased the destruction rate of forests and the number of landslides. Rapid population growth has accelerated pollution, and Himalayan streams that were once clear are now polluted with refuse and sewage. Hill people who use the water for drinking suffer from dysentery; cholera and typhoid epidemics are also common. Large lakes like Dal in Kashmr and Naini Lake (Nainital) have also become polluted.
Regional variations in environmental degradation exist in the Himalayas. Conditions range from a critical situation in the Himalayas of Nepal, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, and Kashmr to a moderately serious situation in Bhutan and the eastern Himalayas. If rapid development continues in Bhutan and the eastern Himalayas without due regard for conservation, the problems there may assume critical proportions in the near future. The governments of India, Nepal, and Bhutan are aware of the dangers of environmental degradation in the Himalayas, and environmental management concerns are being integrated in development projects in this region.
Contributed By: Pradyumna P. Karan

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Hohhot
B5: 呼和浩特; PY: Hūhhot; WG: Hu-ho-hao-t'e; Also: Huhehot or Huhhot-
City, northern China, capital of Nei Menggu, a commercial and industrial center in a region of grasslands and major defense installations. Manufactures include processed food, chemicals, textiles, and machinery.
Hohhot is located on the site of Kuku-khoto, a Mongol religious and trading center founded in the 9th century CE. It was renamed (1581) Kuei-hua (Kweihwa) by the Chinese and in 1914 was joined with nearby Suiyuan to form Kuei-sui (Kweisui). The city was (1928- 34) the capital of the former province of Suiyuan and, as Hohohoto, served (1934- 45) as the capital of the former Japanese-controlled state of Meng-chiang. The city developed rapidly after 1947 and in 1952 replaced Zhangjiakou (Chang-chia-k'ou) as the capital of Nei Menggu. It received its present name in 1954. Population (1991) 879,202.

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Hong Kong
SEE Xianggang

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Huainan
B5: 淮南; PY: Huinn; WG: Huai-nan; Also: Hwainan-
City, eastern China, in Anhui Province. It is a diversified industrial center on the Huai River (linked to the Grand Canal) in one of China's richest coalfields. Coal production, begun here in the 1930s and expanded during the Japanese occupation (1939- 1945) of the coalfield, accelerated after 1949 with the discovery of vast new coal reserves. The city grew as a manufacturing center in the 1950s; its products include chemicals, fertilizer, iron and steel, machinery, and processed food. Population (1991) 1,310,514.

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Huang Hai (Yellow Sea)
B5: 黄海; PY: Hung Hǎi-
Arm of the Pacific Ocean, bordered on the west and north by China, and on the east by North Korea and South Korea. The Huang Hai merges with the East China Sea on the south. Bohai Strait, which separates Shandong and Liaodong peninsulas, provides access to the Bo Hai gulf and the Gulf of Liaodong. Korea Bay, the northeastern extremity of the Huang Hai, lies between Liaodong Peninsula and North Korea.
The greatest width of the Huang Hai is about 640 km (about 400 mi); it is comparatively shallow, the greatest depth being less than 90 m (less than 300 ft). Among the rivers emptying into the sea are the Huang He (Yellow River), the Yalu, and the Han. A number of small islands are found off the Korean coast, and extensive sand shoals are near the Chinese coast. Major ports on the sea include Yantai, Dalian, Tianjin, Qingdao, and Yingkou, all in China; Namp'o (formerly Chinnamp'o), in North Korea; and Inch'on, in South Korea. The Huang Hai is so named because of the yellowish coloration caused by the vast amount of sediment deposited by the Huang He.

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Huang He (Yellow River)
B5: 黄河; GB: 黃河; PY: Hung H; WG: Hwang-ho-
Second largest river in China after the Yangtze, with a total length of 5,464 km (3,395 mi). The Huang He rises in northern China in a series of springs and lakes in the Kunlun Mountains in Qinghai Province, south of the Gobi Desert. From its source, the river first flows east through deep gorges and then turns northeast at the city of Lanzhou in Gansu Province, from which point it flows for many hundreds of kilometers through the Ordos Desert (Mu Us Shamo), an easterly extension of the Gobi. Turning east, the river then flows due east for about 320 km (about 200 mi). It then turns due south, flowing swiftly through a young valley cut in deposits of loamy soil known as loess between Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces. In this portion of its course, the river picks up and carries in suspension yellow silt, which colors the water. The load of sediment is increased by the loess carried into the main stream by a number of tributaries, including the Fen and Wei rivers. The Wei River enters the Huang He in the central portion of Shaanxi, and the river then flows east across the northern portion of Henan Province to the plains of northern China.
At the city of Kaifeng, the river enters the plains and changes from a torrent to a meandering stream with a broad channel enclosed by dikes. The dikes were built over a period of centuries to control the river and prevent floods, but they have actually had the opposite effect. Because the large amount of sediment carried by the stream has silted up the bottom of the riverbed, the level of the river has risen, necessitating the construction of higher and higher dikes. If the dikes had not been built, the silt would have been deposited in the floodplain outside the riverbed. As a result, in many portions of the lower, or east, course the river is as much as 21 m (70 ft) above the surrounding plain, and when the river level rises, disastrous floods occur. The deforestation of the mountains in the upper part of the course of the river has increased the runoff and thus increased the flood heights. The floods of the Huang He have been so frequent and so devastating that the river is often called China's Sorrow. The worst flood in the history of the river, and probably the worst flood in modern times, occurred in 1931. Between July and November, some 88,000 sq km (some 34,000 sq mi) of land were completely flooded, and about 21,000 sq km (about 8000 sq mi) more were partially flooded. About 80 million people were reported homeless, and about 1 million died in the flood itself and in the famines and epidemics that followed.
The Huang He has changed course in the eastern portion a number of times. For several centuries before 1852, it emptied into the Huang Hai (Yellow Sea), south of the highlands of Shandong Province. The course shifted north that year, and, from that time until 1938, the river emptied into the gulf of Bo Hai. In 1938, during the Second Sino-Japanese War, the Chinese forces, seeking to impede the invading Japanese, destroyed the dikes near Kaifeng and diverted the Huang He to the old bed. The Chinese rebuilt the dikes in 1946-1947, rediverting the river to the Bo Hai. Construction of a dam across the Huang He at Three-Gate Gorge was begun in 1956, with funding from the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). When relations between the USSR and China chilled in 1960, the USSR withdrew its financing, delaying the project's completion until the mid-1970s. The dam created a reservoir about 190 km (about 120 mi) long, opening more of the river to navigation. However, by the time a generating plant with a capacity of 1 million kilowatts was finished in the early 1970s, the reservoir had already begun to fill with silt, making power generation only a quarter of that expected. It is anticipated the reservoir will fill entirely with silt by the middle of the 21st century.

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Hubei
B5: 湖北; PY: Hběi; WG: Hu-pei; Also: Hupeh-
Province, central China. It comprises an area of rugged mountains along the western border but is dominated by a lake-studded plain that is traversed by the Yangtze and Han rivers. Summer rice and winter wheat are leading crops, with soybeans, tea, and cotton also important. Wuhan, the capital and largest city, is one of China's leading manufacturing centers; Huangshi is another industrial city located in the province.
Hubei formed part of the ancient southern state of Ch'u and was absorbed into China during the Han dynasty (206 BCE- 220 CE). It became important as a "rice bowl" for northern China as early as the 11th century. During the 19th century, ports along the Yangtze River were important centers of European trade and industrialization. In 1911 the uprising that led to the establishment of the Chinese Republic began here at Wuhan. Area, 187,500 sq km (72,400 sq mi); population (1990) 53,969,210.

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Hunan
B5: 湖南; PY: Hnn-
Inland province, central China. The province is rich in mineral and agricultural resources and encompasses a broad, fertile alluvial plain in the north, which borders the Yangtze River and the large Dongting Hu (Grand Canal) and a series of low hills in the east, south, and west. Summer rice and winter wheat are the leading crops, with tea and cotton also important. Mineral resources include antimony, manganese, mercury, tungsten, and phosphates. Major cities are Changsha (the capital), Xiangtan, Zhuzhou, Hengyang, and Shaoyang.
Hunan was the center of the powerful southern kingdom of Ch'u before its annexation in 221 BCE by the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty, becoming part of the first unified Chinese state. Extensive Chinese settlement of the region occurred between the 8th and 11th centuries, displacing the Miao, Tujia, Yao, and other ethnic minorities into the western uplands. Between 1910 and 1949 Hunan was a center of peasant unrest. Area, 210,500 sq km (81,270 sq mi); population (1990) 60,659,754.

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I

Indus River
B5: 印度; PY: Ynd-
River of Asia, formed in western Tibet (an autonomous region of China) by the confluence of the glacial streams from the Himalayas. It flows from Tibet northwest across the Indian-controlled portion of Jammu and Kashmr, passing between the western extremity of the Himalayas and the northern extremity of the Hindu Kush mountain range; it then courses generally south through Pakistan to the Arabian Sea, covering a distance of 2,900 km (1,800 mi). The major tributaries of the Indus are the Sutlej, Rvi, and Chenb.
The Indus enters the Pakistani province of Punjab 1304 km (810 mi) from its source, and, at a point 77 km (48 mi) farther, it becomes navigable as a result of its junction with the Kbul River from Afghanistan. Entering Sind province of Pakistan, it flows under the Ayub and Lansdowne bridges at Sukkur and the Hyderbd-Kotri Bridge before branching into the generally infertile delta that covers an area of about 7770 sq km (3000 sq mi) and extends for some 201 km (125 mi) along the Arabian Sea. The Indus has some importance as an artery of traffic and in addition provides irrigation for many millions of acres of the naturally arid lands of Sind Province. Historically, the Indus River valley is important as the cradle of the ancient Indus civilization, which, with Mesopotamia and Egypt, was one of the earliest civilizations.

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Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region-
SEE Nei Menggu.

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J

Japan- Island nation in East Asia, located in the North Pacific Ocean off the coast of the Asian continent. Japan comprises the four main islands of Honsh, Hokkaid, Kysh, and Shikoku, in addition to numerous smaller islands. The Japanese call their country Nihon or Nippon, which means origin of the sun. The name arose from Japans position east of the great Chinese empires that held sway over Asia throughout most of its history. Japan is sometimes referred to in English as the land of the rising sun. Tokyo is the countrys capital and largest city.

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East Asian Region :: Japan

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Jiamusi
B5: 佳木斯; PY: Jiāmsī; WG: Chia-mu-ssu; Also: Kiamusze-
City, northeastern China, in Heilongjiang Province, an industrial center on the Songhua River, near the border with Russia. It is a major center for pulp and paper production; other manufactures include chemicals, fertilizer, machinery, and processed food (especially sugar made from locally grown sugar beets). The city was founded in the early 20th century and began its modern development as a military and provincial administrative center for the Japanese-controlled (1932- 1945) state of Manchukuo. It was developed as an industrial center by the Chinese after 1949. Population (1991) 530,765.

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Jiangsu
B5: 江蘇; GB: 江苏; PY: Jiāngsū; WG: Chiang-su; Also: Kiangsu-
Province, eastern China, on the Huang Hai (Yellow Sea); Shanghai, located in the southeastern part of the province is separately administered as an independent municipality. The province is almost entirely low-lying, with numerous lakes, canals (including part of the Grand Canal), and irrigation ditches; it comprises part of the Yangtze delta in the south and parts of the Huabei Pingyuan (North China Plain) in the north. It is one of China's most important agricultural regions, with large crops of rice, wheat, cotton, and silk grown for industrial use. Coal, phosphates, and salt are major mineral resources; and textiles, steel, chemicals, and machinery are the leading industrial products. Nanjing, the capital, is the chief manufacturing center; other large cities are Suzhou (Suchow), Wuxi, and the port of Lianyungang.
The region that is now Jiangsu was, successively, part of the ancient states of Wu, Yueh, and Ch'u before being annexed by China during the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty (221- 206 BCE). It was the center of the Southern Song Empire (1127- 1279). Jiangsu was established as a separate province in 1667. Area, 102,600 sq km (39,600 sq mi); population (1990) 67,056,519.

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Jiangxi
B5: 江西; PY: Jiāngxī; WG: Chiang-hsi; Also: Kiangsi-
Province, southeastern China. It includes cultivated alluvial lowland in the north-along the Yangtze and Gan rivers and around a large lake, the Poyang Hu-and a surrounding border of low hills on the east, west, and south. Rice is the main lowland crop, with tea important in upland areas. Major resources are coal, mined in the western hills, and kaolin clays, mined here since ancient times for the manufacture of porcelain. Leading cities are Nanchang (the capital), Ji'an, Ganzhou, Pingxiang, and Jiujiang.
Jiangxi first came under Chinese administration during the Han dynasty (206 BCE- 220 CE). Between the 9th and 19th centuries, it prospered from the trade between northern and southern China along the Gan River. It was the main military base for the early Communist movement in China from the 1920s until the Communists were expelled in 1934. Area, 164,800 sq km (63,600 sq mi); population (1990) 37,710,281.

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Jilin
B5: 吉林市; PY: Jln; WG: Chi-lin; Also: Kirin-
City, northeastern China, in Jilin Province, a port and industrial center at the head of navigation on the Songhua River. Manufactures include chemicals, ferroalloys, iron and steel, fertilizer, lumber, and processed food (especially sugar). Hydroelectricity is produced at nearby Fengman Dam, one of the largest in China.
Formerly called Yung-chi or Yungki, Jilin was founded as a fortress and military center in 1673. Modern industrialization, begun on a small scale after rail links to Changchun were completed in 1913, accelerated with the development of hydroelectricity production and chemical manufacturing during the Japanese occupation (1931- 1945). Jilin suffered heavy damage and looting during the Soviet occupation at the end of World War II (1939- 1945) and again during the Chinese civil war (1945-1949). Rapid industrial growth resumed after 1949 with the restoration and expansion of hydroelectric facilities and the establishment of thermoelectric plants. Population (1991) 1,540,546.

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Jilin
B5: 吉林; PY: Jln; WG: Chi-lin; Manchu: Girin ula; Also: Kirin-
Province in Northeast China, bordering on Russia and North Korea in the east, and occupying the central part of the historic region of Manchuria. It comprises high mountain ranges in the east, a fertile lowland in the west, and an intervening complex of low hills. The major river is the Songhua. Corn, soybeans, and sugar beets are the chief crops. Forestry is important, and the various mineral resources include coal, iron ore, copper, and lead. Changchun, the principal city, is also the capital and chief industrial center; other cities include Jilin, Tonghua, Baicheng, and Liaoyuan. Ethnic minorities, including Manchus, Hui (Chinese Muslims), and Koreans, account for about 10 percent of the population.
As part of the northeastern homeland of the Manchus, who established the Qing dynasty (1644- 1911), the region was officially closed to Chinese settlement until it was made a Chinese province in 1907. During the Japanese occupation of Manchuria (1931- 1945), it underwent rapid resource development and industrialization as part of the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo (1932- 1945). Area, about 187,000 sq km (about 72,200 sq mi); population (1991 estimate) 25,090,000.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Jilin Province

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Jinan
B5: 濟南; GB: 济南; PY: Jǐnn; WG: Chi-nan; Also: Tsinan-
City, eastern China, capital of Shandong Province. It is an industrial and transportation center situated near the Huang He (Yellow River). Manufactures include steel, machinery, tools, chemicals, motor vehicles, textiles, and processed food. Noted mineral springs and religious and historical sites are here. Tai Shan, one of ancient China's holiest mountains, is nearby, as are the Thousand Buddha Cliff, the Four Door Pagoda, and the Valley of the Buddhas Temple.
Founded in the 8th century BCE, Jinan was part of the Lu state (750-450 BCE) and an early religious center. Modern development began in 1852, when the Huang He shifted its course to just north of the city, thus providing an important artery of transportation. Jinan was occupied (1937-45) by Japanese forces and was developed as an industrial city after 1949. Population (1991) 2,450,931.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Jinan

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Jingdezhen
B5: 景德鎮; GB: 景德镇; PY: Jǐngdzhn-
City, eastern China, in Jiangxi Province, a world-famous porcelain and ceramics center. Variant spellings of the name include Ching-te-chen and Kingtehchen, and the city is also sometimes called Fouliang or Fowliang. The ceramics industry, based on local kaolin deposits, began here in the 6th century CE. The city gained world renown for the manufacture of high-quality porcelain during the Song (Sung) dynasty (960- 1279) and remained an important porcelain center until the kilns were damaged in the Taiping Rebellion (1850- 1864). Major production resumed in the 1950s. Population (1991) 281,183.

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Jinhua
B5: 金华; PY: Jīnhu-
is a prefecture-level city in central Zhejiang province. It borders the provincial capital of Hangzhou to the northwest, Quzhou to the southwest, Lishui to the south, Taizhou to the east, and Shaoxing the northeast. Population 4,521,700 (2004).

Atlas :: City Maps :: Jinhua

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Jinzhou
B5: 錦州; GB: 锦州; PY: Jǐnzhōu; WG: Chin-chou; Also: Chinchow-
City, northeastern China, in Liaoning Province. It is a rail hub and industrial center on the narrow coastal plain between Beijing and industrialized northeastern China. Major manufactures include chemicals, machinery, electrical equipment, textiles, and processed food. Founded in the 2nd century BCE, the city was important as a military and agricultural center until it developed into a textile and rail hub in the early 20th century. It was known officially as Chinhsien from 1913 to 1947 and was (1932- 1945) part of the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo. It became a center of heavy industry in the 1950s. Population 919,377 (1991).

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Kaifeng
B5: 開封; GB: 开封; PY: Kāifēng; WG: K'ai-feng;
Former: Bianliang; B5: 汴梁; PY: Binling; or Bianjing; B5: 汴京; PY: Binjīng-
City, northern China, in Henan Province, on the Huabei Pingyuan (North China Plain), south of the Huang He. It is a commercial, manufacturing, and agricultural center. Products include cotton textiles, agricultural machinery, fertilizer, and processed food. Known also in the past as Pien-ching, Kaifeng first gained prominence as the capital of the Wei dynasty in the 4th century BCE. The city developed as a prosperous commercial center at the northern end of the original Grand Canal in the 7th century CE and served as the capital of the Northern Song emperors during 960-1126. Late in the 12th century a colony of Jews settled in the city. The colonists gradually were assimilated, through intermarriage, by the Chinese. Modern industrialization, reversing a long period of decline for Kaifeng, was begun in the 1950s. Population (1991) 508,224.

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Kaohsiung
B5: 高雄市; PY: Gāoxing; Also: Kaosiung or Kaohiung-
Special municipality of Taiwan, located in the southern part of the island on Taiwan Strait. It is a fishing center and the southern port of Taiwan. Fish, rice, sugar, pineapples, and bananas are exported. The chief industries are oil refining, shipbuilding, fish and fruit processing and canning, rice and sugar milling, and iron casting. The port, which was once under Dutch occupation, developed after 1858; the industrial center developed under Japanese rule from 1895 to 1945. The city was known as Takow (Japanese Taku) until 1920 and as Takao by the Japanese from 1920 to 1945. Population 1,433,621 (1997).

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Kashi
Uyghur: قەشقەر; B5: 喀什; PY: Kāsh Also: Kashgar, Qshqr, Cascar or Kaxgar-
City, northwestern China, in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, situated in a fertile oasis at the foot of the mountains of the Pamirs near the Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan borders. Located on the Kaxgar River, Kashi is the commercial center of the arid western end of the Tarim Pendi (Tarim Basin) and is a natural focus of overland routes linking China with the countries of Turkistan, Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan. Water from wells and from the Kaxgar River supports crops of cotton, grain, beans, and fruit; hides and wool are produced in nearby semiarid grazing lands. Traditional handcrafted cotton and silk textiles, rugs, leather goods, and jewelry, produced for centuries for the overland caravan routes, remain the basis of the economy. Uygurs (Uighur) constitute a majority of the largely Muslim population.
Formerly called Shu-fu by the Chinese, Kashi was part of the Chinese empire during the reign of the Han (206 BCE- 220CE) and again under the Tang (T'ang) (618- 907 CE). After about 750 CE, when the Tang withdrew, it was ruled for long periods by Turkic, Uygur, Mongol, and other Central Asian empires before returning once more to Chinese control in 1760. From 1865 to 1877 Kashi was the capital of an independent Muslim state established in the Tarim Pendi by Yakub Beg. Population (1991) 174,570.

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Korea- Peninsula in Asia, divided since 1948 into two political entities: the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) and the Republic of Korea (South Korea).

East Asian Region :: Korea

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Korea, North- Officially Democratic People's Republic of Korea, country in northeastern Asia that occupies the northern portion of the Korea Peninsula. North Korea is bounded on the north by China, on the northeast by Russia, on the east by the East Sea (Sea of Japan), on the south by South Korea, and on the west by the Huang Hai (Yellow Sea). It has an area of 120,538 sq km (46,540 sq mi). The state of North Korea was established in 1948 as a result of the post World War II- Soviet military occupation of the northern portion of the peninsula. The capital and largest city of North Korea is P'yongyang.

Atlas :: Country Maps :: North Korea
East Asian Region :: Korea

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Korea, South- Officially known as the Republic of Korea, country in northeastern Asia that occupies the southern portion of the Korea Peninsula. South Korea is bounded on the north by North Korea; on the east by the East Sea (Sea of Japan); on the southeast and south by the Korea Strait, which separates it from Japan; and on the west by the Huang Hai (Yellow Sea). It has a total area of 99,268 sq km (38,328 sq mi), including numerous offshore islands in the south and west, the largest of which is Cheju (area, 1,845 sq km/712 sq mi). The state of South Korea was established in 1948 following the post-World War II partitioning of the peninsula between the occupying forces of the United States in the south and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) in the north. South Korea rose from devastation in the 1950s-the result of war with North Korea-to become one of the world's largest economies in the 1990s. The capital and largest city of South Korea is Seoul.

Atlas :: Country Maps :: South Korea
East Asian Region :: Korea

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Kowloon
B5: 九龙; GB: 九龍 PY: Jiǔlng; lit.: "Nine Dragons"-
Administrative area of Xianggang, forming a peninsula of the mainland China coast, across Victoria Harbor from Xianggang Island. Kowloon is an important transportation, manufacturing, and tourist area, as well as a densely populated residential and commercial zone. It has a total area of 11.9 sq km (4.6 sq mi).
Kowloon is the site of Xianggang Baptist University, founded in 1965, and two polytechnic institutions. There is a large mosque on the main commercial artery, Nathan Road, and several small parks, including Kowloon Park, where the Xianggang Museum of History is located. The Xianggang Cultural Center, the Space Museum, and the Xianggang Museum of Art are located on the waterfront at the southern tip of the peninsula.
Regular and frequent ferry service connects Kowloon to Xianggang Island. A motor vehicle and mass transit tunnel runs under Victoria Harbor. Kowloon was part of China until 1860, when it was ceded to Britain following China's defeat in the Second Opium War. The British initially used the area to protect Victoria Harbor and stationed colonial troops there, but Kowloon also quickly developed important port facilities. More significant development of Kowloon occurred after 1898, when China leased the adjacent New Territories to Britain. This added a substantial population and land area to support commercial and industrial development in Kowloon. It also permitted urban expansion northward, beyond the original Kowloon region, to include the area called New Kowloon. By 1910 a railway had been completed between Kowloon and the Chinese city of Guangzhou, and Kowloon became an important transit point for trade and traffic with China. Port and storage facilities expanded, industrial growth soon followed, and Kowloon developed as one of several important manufacturing sites in Xianggang. Since the 1950s, Kowloon has continued to grow and prosper as Xianggang has developed into an important Asian market. Kowloon, like the rest of Xianggang, returned to Chinese control on July 1, 1997. Population, including New Kowloon (1991) 2,030,683.
Contributed By: Clifton W. Pannell

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Kunming
B5: 昆明; PY: Kūnmng; WG: K'un-ming; Formerly: Yn-nan-
City, southwestern China, capital of Yunnan Province. Located on Lake Dian Chi at an altitude of 1890 m (6200 ft), the city has a temperate climate often described as 'eternal spring.' It is a commercial, industrial, and transportation center. Manufactures include steel and nonferrous metals, machine tools, chemicals, and cement. Copper, lead, zinc, and iron ore are mined nearby. A university and a medical school are in Kunming.
The city was founded during the Han dynasty (206 BCE - 220 CE), but did not become part of China until the 13th century. Known as Yn-nan or Ynnanfu, it was opened to foreign trade in 1908 and was renamed Kunming in 1913. Modern industrialization, begun during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937- 1945), accelerated after 1949 with the construction of large iron and steel and chemical complexes. Population (1991) 1,943,696.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Kunming

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Lancang Jiang (Mekong River)
B5: 澜沧江; PY: Lncāng Jiāng-
Mekong (Tibetan Dza-chu; Chinese Lancang Jiang; Thai Mae Nam Khong), river in southeastern Asia, the longest river in the region. From its source in China's Qinghai Province near the border with Tibet, the Mekong flows generally southeast to the South China Sea, a distance of 4,200 km (2,610 mi). The Mekong crosses Yunnan Province, China, forms the border between Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) and Laos and most of the border between Laos and Thailand, and flows across Cambodia and southern Vietnam, emptying into the South China Sea. In the upper course are steep descents and swift rapids, but the river is navigable south of Louangphrabang, Laos. French explorer Michel Peissel discovered the source of the Mekong in 1994 at a high mountain pass.
The basin of the Mekong is an important agricultural area, with rice as the main crop. Without irrigation, rice cultivation is impossible during the long dry season. The United Nations (UN) started the Mekong River Development Project in 1957 to improve flood control, navigation and irrigation, and to develop hydroelectric power plants along the river. However, the project's progress was impeded by the Vietnam War (1959-1975) and political instability in Cambodia and other countries in the region. In the 1990s interest was renewed in developing the hydroelectric power potential of the Mekong River. Officials from four of the six nations that share the Mekong-Cambodia, Laos, Thailand, and Vietnam-met to make plans regarding this development; China and Myanmar did not attend the talks. By 1996, 54 dams were scheduled to be built on the Mekong. Manwan Dam in China's Yunnan Province was the first to be completed; it began producing power in 1993. Thailand completed Pak Mun Dam in 1994. Some of the nations involved have voiced concerns about the dam construction. The nations downriver worry that China's dam plans will interfere with the flow of the river, either flooding land downriver or changing the nature of the river so that hydroelectric projects downstream will lose some of their power potential. Additionally the two existing dams have had a negative effect on the environment, flooding certain areas and destroying fish habitats, which affects the fishing industry of native villagers.

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Lanzhou
B5: 蘭州; GB: 兰州; PY: Lnzhōu; WG: Lan-chou; Also: Lanchow-
City, northern China, capital of Gansu Province, a major transportation and industrial center on the Huang He (Yellow River). It is one of China's leading petrochemical and nuclear power centers; other manufactures include machinery, tools, railroad equipment, chemicals, fertilizer, aluminum, and rubber goods. Coal is mined nearby, and petroleum is shipped here by pipeline from Yumen. Main road and rail routes to Nei Menggu and oil-rich northwestern China pass through the city. Lanzhou University is here. An old walled city, founded before the 6th century BCE, Lanzhou gained early importance as an overland travel center between Central Asia and China's historic heartland in the Wei River valley. Its modern transformation into a major industrial city occurred during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937- 1945) and the late 1950s. Population (1991) 1,453,645.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Lanzhou

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Lhasa
Tibetan: ལྷ་ས་; Wylie: lha sa; B5: 拉薩; GB: 拉萨; PY: Lās; WG: La-sa-
City and capital of the autonomous region of Tibet, southwestern China. It is located in southeastern Tibet in the Himalayas. The city is situated near the Lhasa He (a tributary of the Brahmaputra River) in a fertile plain almost 3660 m (almost 12,010 ft) above sea level. It is surrounded by lofty, barren mountains. The chief commercial center of Tibet, Lhasa is linked by highway with major cities of neighboring provinces. Manufactures include food products, textiles, electrical equipment, and carpets. The city has grown rapidly since the 1960s, and the majority of the population is now Chinese. The city's most famous landmark is the Potala, an enormous palace built on a ridge overlooking the northern part of the city. It is the former residence of the Dalai Lama, who was the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet. Other notable structures include the former summer palace of the Dalai Lama and two huge monasteries on the outskirts of the city.
Lhasa was the spiritual center of Tibet as early as the 7th century. It was briefly the national capital during the 9th century. In 1642 the fifth Dalai Lama (1617-1682) became the secular ruler of Tibet, beginning the construction of the Potala as his palace. Because of its remoteness and the hostile attitudes of its clergy to foreigners, Lhasa became known as the Forbidden City. Except for a few pilgrims and missionaries, the first visit by Europeans occurred in 1904, when a British expedition led by Sir Francis Edward Younghusband entered the city. Lhasa was occupied by the Chinese Communists in 1951. The 14th Dalai Lama fled in 1959 during an abortive Tibetan revolt against Chinese domination. Many religious edifices and treasures were damaged in the late 1960s during the Cultural Revolution. Population (1991) 161,788.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Lhasa

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Liaoning
B5: 遼寧; GB: 辽宁; PY: Lionng-
Province, located in Northeast China, occupying the southern part of the historic region of Manchuria. It is bordered on the south by inlets of the Huang Hai (Yellow Sea) and on the southeast by the Yalu River (its border with North Korea). The province comprises a central plain traversed by the Liao River, bordered on the east by the generally hilly Liaodong Peninsula and on the west by a complex of low hills. Main crops are corn, millet, tobacco, cotton, and apples. Liaoning is China's most urbanized and industrialized province; it has rich coal and iron ore deposits, as well as copper, lead, zinc, and manganese. Dalian, the major port of northeastern China, and the capital, Shenyang, are large industrial centers; other leading cities include Anshan, Fuxin, Fushun, and Jinzhou. Liaoning first became part of China in the Han dynasty (206 BCE- 220 CE) and was reincorporated in the Tang (T'ang) dynasty (618- 907). From the 10th to the 13th century it formed part of the non-Chinese Liao and Jin empires and was again part of China under the Qing (Manchu) emperors (1644- 1911). The Liaodong Peninsula was held by Russia from 1896 to 1905. In 1905 the peninsula passed to Japan, the entire province being taken by the Japanese in 1931; it was made a part (1932- 1945) of the Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo. The province's modern industrial base was established during the Japanese occupation. Area, 151,000 sq km (58,300 sq mi); population (1990) 39,459,697.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Liaoning Province

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Liaoyang
B5: 遼陽; GB: 辽阳; PY: Lioyng; WG: Liao-yang-
City, northeastern China, Liaoning Province, on a tributary of the Hun River. It is a center of light industry, located in a fertile agricultural region. Products include cotton textiles and processed foods. Located here are several Buddhist temples and monasteries dating from the 11th century. Founded in the 2nd century BCE, it was an important Chinese frontier post in Manchuria and often served as a regional capital for the northeast in later centuries. It was the scene (1904) of a major battle of the Russo-Japanese War. Population (1991) 559,719.

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Liaoyuan
B5: 遼源; GB: 辽源; PY: Lioyun; WG: Liao-yan-
City, northeastern China, in Jilin Province, an industrial center in a rich coal-mining area. Locally produced coal supports an important thermal power industry; other manufactures include chemicals, fertilizer, machinery, processed food, and textiles. Liaoyuan began its modern development after large coal reserves were discovered here in 1911. The city was extensively rebuilt and expanded in the 1950s after suffering heavy damage in World War II. It was transferred from the former Liaotung Province to Jilin Province in 1954. Population (1991) 486,017.

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Liuzhou
B5: 柳州; PY: Liǔzhōu; WG: Liuchow; Also: Liu-chou-
City, southern China, in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, a regional transportation and industrial center. An iron and steel complex, supplied with local coal and iron ore, was built here in the late 1950s. Other manufactures include traditional handcrafted wood and paper products, machinery, electronic equipment, chemicals, and processed food. Population (1991) 873,740.

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Luoyang
B5: 洛陽; GB: 洛阳; PY: Luyng; WG: Lo-yang-
City, northern China, in Henan Province. It is an industrial center on the Luo River, a tributary of the Huang He (Yellow River). Leading manufactures include farm machinery (especially tractors), bearings, cement, and textiles. Longmen caves, with nearly 100,000 Buddhist cliffside carvings begun in the 5th century CE, are to the south.
Luoyang gained prominence when it replaced Xi'an (Sian) as the capital of ancient China during the Eastern Zhou (Chou) dynasty (770- 256 BCE). The city was the capital again during the Eastern (Later) Han dynasty (25- 220 CE), and in 494 CE the Northern Wei dynasty (386- 534) moved its capital here from Datong and made it a major center of Buddhism. In 605, Luoyang became the capital of the Sui dynasty (581- 618), once more replacing Xi'an. It continued to be important as the eastern capital (secondary to Xi'an) under the Tang (T'ang) emperors (618- 907) and entered a long period of decline after the Song emperors (960- 1279) moved the capital east to Kaifeng. Luoyang was renamed Honanfu (commonly called Honan) during the Qing dynasty (1644- 1911) and regained its older name in 1912. While Nanjing (Nanking) was threatened (1932) by Japanese attack, Luoyang served as capital of Nationalist China. It was developed as an industrial center after 1949. Population (1991) 1,246,076.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Luoyang

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Luzhou
B5: 瀘州; GB: 泸州; PY: Lzhōu; WG: Lu-chou; Also: Luchow-
City, Sichuan Province, southern China, at the confluence of the Yangtze River and the Tuo Jiang. It is a river port and the commercial center for a fertile agricultural region. Products traded include salt, tea, and grain; a large fertilizer-manufacturing plant is located here. An ancient city, Luzhou was made a county as early as the 2nd century BCE. Historically, it served as a port outlet for an important agricultural area. With the construction (in the 1950s) of railroads that bypassed the city, it lost much of this trade. Population (1991) 262,892.

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M

Macau (Macao)
SEE Aomen

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Manchuria
B5: 滿洲; GB: 满洲; PY: Mǎnzhōu-
Historic region of northeastern China, comprising the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning. Traditionally the region included a much larger area extending west to what is now Mongolia. In 1949 a part of western Manchuria was incorporated into the Nei Menggu.
The name of the region is derived from that of the Manchus, a Mongoloid people similar, ethnologically, to the Tungus. The warlike, nomadic Qing (Manchu) tribes roamed the Manchurian plain until 1644, when they invaded China and established the Manchu, or Qing, dynasty, which ruled China until 1911. The Manchu rulers refused to permit development of Manchuria and even forbade Chinese immigration into the region until the late 18th century. Continual Russian encroachments on the northern frontier resulted in agreements between China and Russia in 1689, 1858, and 1860, fixing the Sino-Russian frontier along the Heilong Jiang (Amur River) to the Ussuri River.
By the end of the 19th century the Chinese composed approximately 80 percent of the Manchurian population. The vast potential of Manchurian resources became the object of a struggle between China, Russia, and Japan for control of the region. After the Chinese defeat in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895), Japan briefly gained control of the Liaodong Peninsula (see Sino-Japanese Wars). In 1898 Russia obtained a 25-year lease of the southern peninsula, including Dalian and Port Arthur (now part of the municipality of Dalian). Russia occupied Manchuria from 1900 until its defeat in the Russo-Japanese War in 1905.
In 1931, from their stronghold on the Liaodong Peninsula, the Japanese invaded Chinese-held territory in retaliation for an incident of alleged sabotage. Ignoring orders from the government in Tokyo, the army drove Chinese troops from Manchuria, then annexed Jehol, a Chinese province, to the three provinces of Manchuria. The Japanese established a puppet state, Manchukuo, with Henry Pu Yi as emperor.
After Japan's defeat in World War II, Manchuria was briefly occupied by the Soviet army (1945- 1946). Then Chinese troops returned, and in 1949 Communist rebels took control.
In 1949 part of Manchuria was added to the newly created Nei Menggu (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region); the remainder was divided into six provinces making up the North-Eastern Region, one of six large administrative units of China. The number of Chinese provinces was reduced to four in 1954, and to three in 1956.

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Mekong River
SEE Lancang Jiang

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Mongolia- The world's second-largest landlocked country after Kazakhstan. It is typically classified as being a part of East Asia, although sometimes it is considered part of Central Asia, and the northern rim of historical Mongolia extends into North Asia. It is bordered by Russia to the north and China to the south. Mongolia's political system is parliamentary democracy. Its capital and largest city is Ulaanbaatar. Mongolia was the center of the Mongol Empire in the thirteenth century and was later ruled by the Qing Dynasty from the end of the seventeenth century until 1911, when an independent government was formed with Russian assistance. The Mongolian People's Republic was proclaimed in 1924, leading to the adoption of communist policies and a close alignment to the Soviet Union. After the fall of communism in Mongolia in 1990, Mongolia adopted a new, democratic constitution which was ratified in 1992. This officially marked the transition of Mongolia to a democratic country, making it one of the world's youngest democracies. At 1,564,116 square kilometres, Mongolia is the nineteenth largest, and the least densely populated independent country in the world. The country contains very little arable land as much of its area is covered by arid and unproductive steppes with mountains to the north and west and the Gobi Desert to the south. Approximately thirty percent of the country's 2.8 million people are nomadic or semi-nomadic. The predominant religion in Mongolia is Tibetan Buddhism, and the majority of the state's citizens are of the Mongol ethnicity, though Buriats, Kazakhs and Tuvans also live in the country, especially in the west. About one-third of the population lives in Ulaanbaatar.

Atlas :: Country Maps :: Mongolia
East Asian Region :: Mongolia

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Mudanjiang
B5: 牡丹江; PY: Mǔdānjiāng; WG: Mu-tan-chiang-
City, northeastern China, in Heilongjiang Province. It is a regional transportation and industrial center situated on the Mudan River (a tributary of the Songhua) in an agricultural and lumbering region. An iron and steel complex was built here in the late 1960s; other manufactures in the province include paper and pulp, rubber goods, processed food, and aluminum.
A small community until the 20th century, Mudanjiang began its modern development when reached by rail in 1908. During the Japanese occupation (1931- 1945) of Manchuria, it became an administrative and manufacturing center. It was looted of industrial equipment by occupying Soviet forces at the end of World War II but was rebuilt and expanded after 1949. Population (1991) 715,604.

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Nanchang
B5: 南昌; PY: Nnchāng; WG: Nan-ch'ang-
City, eastern China, capital of Jiangxi Province. It is a regional transportation and industrial center situated near Poyang Lake in the delta of the Gan River. Manufactures include cotton textiles, motor-vehicle equipment, agricultural machinery, processed food, chemicals, and rubber goods. Known in the past as Hung-chou, Nanchang is an old walled city dating to at least the 2nd century BCE. It was an important point on water routes linking northern and southern China in pre- modern times. For a short period in 1927 Communist troops established the first Soviet republic in China here. The city was developed as an industrial center after 1949. Population (1991) 1,585,901.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Nanchang

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Nanchong
B5: 南充; PY: Nnchōng; WG: Nan-ch'ung-
City, Sichuan Province, central China, on the Jialing (Kialing) River. It is a transportation junction and industrial center located in a rich agricultural region. Manufactures include silk textiles, machinery, and processed food. Petroleum, discovered nearby in 1958, is refined here. Nanchong was founded in about the 6th century CE. Originally located upstream, it was relocated at its present site during the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). Known as Shun-ch'ing (Shunking) before 1913, the city was developed as an industrial center from the early 1960s. Population (1991) 180,273.

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Nan Hai (South China Sea)
B5: 南海; PY: Nn Hăi-
Arm of the Pacific Ocean, located off the eastern and southeastern coasts of Asia. On the north, it is divided from the East China Sea by Taiwan and the Taiwan Strait. It is partly enclosed on the east by the Philippines and Borneo. In the southwest it merges with the Gulf of Thailand (Siam), and on the west it is separated from the Gulf of Tonkin by the Chinese island of Hainan. The South China Sea increases in depth from the south, where much of it is less than 305 m (less than 1000 ft) deep, to the north, where depths of 5016 m (16,460 ft) have been found. The total area of the sea is about 3,400,000 sq km (about 1,300,000 sq mi). The chief ports on or near this sea include Manila, Singapore, Bangkok, Ho Chi Minh City (formerly Saigon), Xianggang, and Aomen. The principal rivers draining into the South China Sea are the Lancang Jiang (Mekong River) and the Xi Jiang (West River). Shipping and fishing in the sea are economically important. Weather in the region is marked by violent monsoons and typhoons.
The Spratlys, a chain of islands with reportedly vast oil reserves, are located in the South China Sea between Vietnam and the Philippines. Since the 1950s, the islands have been the subject of a territorial dispute among several Asian nations, including China, Vietnam, Taiwan, the Philippines, Malaysia, and Brunei.

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Nanjing
B5: 南京; PY: Nnjīng; WG: Nan-ching; Also: Nanking-
City, eastern China, capital of Jiangsu Province, a port on the Yangtze River. Principal manufactures include cement, fertilizer, chemicals, electronic equipment, iron and steel, motor vehicles, and machine tools. Nanjing University, Nanjing Union Theological Seminary (1952), and a noted astronomical observatory are here. Landmarks include a bridge (1968) over the Yangtze, the tomb (built 1925- 1929) of Sun Yat-sen, and remnants of a 14th-century Ming emperor's tomb.
Nanjing was founded in the 8th century BCE. Under various names, it was the national capital from the 3rd to the 6th century CE and for parts of the 10th, 14th, and 15th centuries. When Beijing became the imperial capital in 1421, the city took the name Nanjing, meaning Southern Capital. It was renamed Chiang-ning during the Qing (Ch'ing) dynasty (1644- 1911) and reverted to Nanjing in 1912. The city was heavily damaged (1853- 1864) during the Taiping Rebellion. It was declared a treaty port and opened to foreign trade in 1860.
In 1912 Nanjing was made the provisional capital of the new Republic of China. It fell to Communist control in 1927, and, when retaken by Nationalists under Chiang Kai-shek in 1928, it became the official capital. Japanese forces seized Nanjing in 1937 and held it until 1945; the capture of the city was accompanied by such atrocities that it became known as the "rape of Nanjing." Following World War II, the city served (1945- 1949) as capital of the republic of China. After 1949, when Beijing became capital of the newly established People's Republic of China, Nanjing was developed as a center for heavy industry. It became provincial capital in 1952. Population (1991) 3,091,404.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Nanjing

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Nanning
B5: 南寧; GB: 南宁; PY: Nnnng; WG: Nan-ning; Also: Yung-ning-
City, southern China, capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The city is an industrial and transportation center situated on the Yong River in a rich agricultural region near Vietnam. It is in addition the cultural and educational center for the Zhuang ethnic minority. Major manufactures include iron and steel, aluminum, processed food (especially sugar), fertilizers, and machinery.
Located in an area under tenuous Chinese control from the 4th century CE, Nanning was founded as a walled city under the Song dynasty (960- 1279). It was opened to foreign trade in 1907 and during 1912- 1936 replaced Guilin as the capital of Guangxi Province. Japanese forces occupied the city in 1940 and again during 1944- 1945. It was restored as the provincial capital in 1949, continuing as the capital when Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region was created in 1958. The city was developed as an industrial center after 1949 and was an important supply base for Vietnamese insurgents during the Indochina and Vietnam wars. Population (1991) 788,393.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Nanning

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Nei Menggu Zizhiqu (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region)
B5: 內蒙古自治區; GB: 内蒙古自治区; PY: Ni Měnggǔ Zzhqū-
Administrative region of northern China, stretching about 2650 km (about 1650 mi) in a gigantic arc from northeast to northwest China. The region is bordered on the north by Russia and Mongolia; on the east by the provinces of Heilongjiang, Jilin, and Liaoning; and on the south and southwest by Hebei, Shanxi, Shaanxi, and Gansu provinces and by Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region. Nei Menggu is one of China's largest administrative regions, with a total area of about 1,177,500 sq km (about 454,600 sq mi).
Much of Nei Menggu is a high, inland plateau with elevations of about 1000 m (about 3000 ft). The plateau is fringed with high mountains and river valleys. On the northern and western flanks the land falls toward the vast Gobi Desert. In the northeast, the surface is comprised of the Da Hinggan Ling (Greater Khingan Range) with elevations ranging from 1200 to 2000 m (3900 to 7000 ft). The Huang He (Yellow River) flows north from Ningxia Hui and forms a great loop that encloses the Ordos Desert (Mu Us Shamo). The Huang He is used for irrigation and there are numerous settlements and several cities along the river's course through Nei Menggu.
Although the range and extremes of temperatures and precipitation vary, Nei Menggu's climate is typically dry and continental, with warm summers and very cold, dry winters. The average January temperature in the capital Hohhot, located near the center of the region, is -9 C (16 F); the average August temperature is 24 C (75 F). The annual precipitation is 368 mm (14 in), with a January minimum of 2 mm (0.1 in) and a June maximum of 108 mm (4 in). The mountain range in the east receives more precipitation, about 500 mm (about 20 in). In the west vegetation is sparse, while the eastern mountains are covered with coniferous forests and, at lower elevations, a few deciduous species. Grasslands predominate on the plateau, where they sustain large numbers of grazing animals such as sheep, goats, camels, and horses.
The 1995 estimated population of Nei Menggu was 22,840,000, up from only 6.1 million in 1953. The rapid population growth since the 1950s is a result of better nutrition, increased health care services, and a substantial migration into the region of Han Chinese, China's majority ethnic group. More than 80 percent of the population is Han. Mongols comprise the largest minority group in Nei Menggu, and their presence is acknowledged by the government's designation of Nei Menggu as an autonomous region. Other minority groups in the region include the Hui (Chinese Muslims), Manchus, Daur Mongols, Koreans, the Evenki, and the Oroqen.
About one-third of Nei Menggu's population live in cities and towns. Baotou is the largest city and is a major industrial center with a large iron and steel complex, as well as cement, chemical, fertilizer, machine tool, and textile manufacturers. Hohhot, the capital, is the region's main administrative and cultural center and an important transportation and industrial hub. Hohhot contains Nei Menggu's main universities, Buddhist temples, and museums. Other important cities include Chifeng and Tongliao.
Traditionally, Nei Menggu's economy was agricultural, with products associated with animal husbandry, as well as products from the forests of the Da Hinggan Ling. Farming is productive along the Huang He; important crops include oats, wheat, millet, kaoliang (sorghum), sunflowers, and sugar beets. In recent years industry has grown. Much of it is related to the natural resources of the region, including iron ore, coal, alkali soda, and salt.
Nei Menggu has limited transportation facilities, although three important railroads traverse parts of the region. The Chinese eastern leg of the Trans-Siberian Railroad passes through northern Nei Menggu on its route from Russia to Heilongjiang. The Trans-Mongolian Railway that links Beijing with Mongolia and Russia runs through the middle of Nei Menggu. Another rail line extends from Baotou to far western China. A few major highways link the cities in Nei Menggu with the rest of China and domestic air service links the larger cities with Beijing, but much of Nei Menggu remains isolated.
As a provincial-level autonomous region, Nei Menggu reports directly to China's central government. The region is organized into 8 prefectures, 19 cities, and 71 banners (counties). Representatives to local people's congresses are directly elected from a list of candidates approved by the Chinese Communist Party. The local people's congresses elect representatives to the regional people's congress, which elects representatives to the National People's Congress in Beijing.
The region that is now Nei Menggu first experienced imperial Chinese control during the Han dynasty (206 BCE- 220 CE). Han Chinese farmers competed and fought with the Xiongnu (Hsiung-nu), the pastoral nomads who occupied the steppes and deserts of northwestern China and what is now Mongolia. The Han pushed back the Xiongnu and settled in southern Nei Menggu. In the Tang (T'ang) dynasty (618- 907) much of the rest of the territory came under Chinese control. Mongols took the region in the 10th century, and it subsequently became part of the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279- 1368) under Kublai Khan. Mongol power waned during the Ming dynasty (1368- 1644), and Chinese control over the Mongol population and occupation gradually extended out onto the Mongolian steppes and areas where settled farming was possible. Outer Mongolia gained independence as the Republic of Mongolia in 1912 and Nei Menggu became an administrative territory of China. In 1947 the Chinese Communists gained control of Nei Menggu and established an administrative organization, two years before taking over the entire country. After some additional administrative changes, the central government established the current boundaries in 1969.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Nei Menggu (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region)

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New Territories
B5: 新界; PY: Xīnji-
Area of Xianggang that lies mostly on the mainland China coast north of Kowloon and south of Guangdong Province. The New Territories also includes Lantau Island (also called Tai Yue Island) and other surrounding smaller islands. The total land area of the New Territories is about 950 sq km (about 365 sq mi), and the surrounding territorial waters cover approximately 1500 sq km (approximately 580 sq mi). The New Territories was leased by China to the United Kingdom in 1898; it was returned to China on July 1, 1997, along with the rest of Xianggang.
At the 1991 census, the New Territories had a population of 2,374,818, accounting for nearly 42 percent of Xianggang's population. The overall population density is about 2500 persons per sq km (about 6500 per sq mi), although the people are unevenly distributed, with most living in a number of new towns on the mainland. These towns and industrial estates have been created to support industrial development in the New Territories and to decentralize the population from the more crowded areas of Kowloon and Xianggang Island. Tsuen Wan was the first and largest of these new towns. Other rapidly growing ones include Tuen Mun, Sha Tin, Yuen Long, Tai Po, and Fanling.
The Chinese University of Xianggang, founded in 1963, is located in Sha Tin. Lantau Island has several Buddhist monasteries, with Po Lin Monastery being the largest. Recreational facilities include the Sha Tin Racecourse, the Xianggang Golf Club in Fanling, and an amusement park.
The British acquisition of the New Territories in 1898 set the stage for Xianggang's rapid growth during the 20th century. Since the 1950s, Xianggang has established industrial zones, planned communities, and new port facilities in the New Territories. It has also expanded existing port facilities. Although farming has declined, there are still nearly 2000 hectares (5000 acres) of active farmland which are used for poultry and egg production, and for growing vegetables and flowers.
There is a large container port at Kwai Chung and a new container terminal is planned for Lantau Island; it will connect to a river port terminal for the transshipment of containers to Guangzhou, a mainland city in Guangdong Province. A substantial road and highway network connects the major new towns of the New Territories, and the main rail line to Guangzhou links Lo Wu, Fanling, Tai Po, and Sha Tin to Kowloon. A light rail line connects Tuen Mun and Yuen Long in the western part of the New Territories. An international airport opened on Chek Lap Kok, an islet near Lantau, in July 1998. An express highway and railway link the new airport with the New Territories and Kowloon.
Farmers lived in the area that is now the New Territories before Britain leased the region from China in 1898 to create a buffer zone between Victoria Harbor and China proper. Britain sought the land less out of fear of China, than from concern over the rapid expansion of other colonial powers-Germany, France, Japan, and Russia-in China.
In addition to providing more space for an adequate military defense, the New Territories added a substantial rural population. The region also provided land for food and timber production, and a much-needed catchment area for fresh water supplies. In the 1980s the impending expiration of Britain's lease on the New Territories necessitated negotiations between Britain and China, and the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed in 1984. In it, Britain agreed to return Xianggang to Chinese sovereignty on July 1, 1997.
Contributed By: Clifton W. Pannell

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Ningbo
B5: 寧波; GB: 宁波; PY: Nngbō; WG: Ning-po; lit.: "Tranquil Waves"-
City, eastern China, in Zhejiang Province, a major fishing port and an industrial center on the Yong River. The port has an outer harbor for oceangoing vessels downstream at Zhenhai and is linked by canal to Shanghai and other cities of the populous Yangtze River (Chang Jiang) delta. Manufactures of Ningbo include processed food, textiles, machinery, tools, and fishing equipment. An important foreign trade center as early as the 5th century CE, the city was given the name Liampo by Portuguese merchants who began trading here in 1545. It was one of the original treaty ports opened to foreign commerce in 1842 but was eclipsed as a foreign trade port later in the 19th century by the development of Shanghai. The city was known as Ninghsein from 1911 to 1949, when it was renamed Ningbo. Population (1991) 1,145,219.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Ningbo

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Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
B5: 寧夏回族自治區; GB: 宁夏回族自治区; PY: Nngxi Huz Zzhqū-
Provincial-level administrative region in northwestern China, bordered by Nei Menggu to the north, Shaanxi Province to the east, and Gansu Province to the south and west. The region is one of China's smallest provincial-level administrative units. At its maximum extent, Ningxia spans about 450 km (about 280 mi) north to south and about 240 km (about 150 mi) east to west. The total area of Ningxia is about 66,400 sq km (about 25,600 sq mi).
Ningxia comprises two main geographic regions, the southern plateau and Liupan Shan (Liupan Mountains), and the northern plains along the Huang He (Yellow River). The plateau is part of the larger Huangtu Gaoyuan (Loess Plateau), formed by the accumulation of fine windblown silt known as loess. The highest point is Migang Shan in the Liupan range, at 2942 m (9652 ft). The climate is continental with hot, dry summers and long, cold, and dry winters. The average July temperature at Yinchuan, Ningxia's capital and largest city, is 25 C (77 F), and the average December temperature is -5.7 C (22 F). Average annual precipitation for Yinchuan is 195 mm (8 in), with the greatest concentration in August. There is almost no precipitation during the winter months. In the northern plain, vegetation consists primarily of drought-tolerant grasses and shrubs. Large numbers of willows have been planted along local canals and irrigation channels. In southern and western Ningxia there are evergreen coniferous forests along the mountain slopes, where precipitation is greater.
In the mid-1960s Ningxia had a population of just over 2 million. By 1995 the estimated population was 5,130,000. The substantial population increase has resulted from comparatively high birth and fertility rates. These rates have declined in recent years in step with government policies to reduce China's population growth. Roughly 34 percent of Ningxia's population is made up of minority nationalities, most of who are Hui (Chinese Muslims). Hui are physically indistinguishable from Han Chinese and speak Mandarin as their native language. Small communities of Mongols, Tibetans, and Manchus are also present. Roughly 42 percent of Ningxia's inhabitants reside within the administrative boundaries of cities and towns. Ningxia's larger cities are located in the plain along the Huang He and owe their growth and development to the presence of water available for irrigation and urban use. Yinchuan has a long history as a frontier outpost and trading center and now serves as the region's main industrial, transportation, administrative, and cultural center. A university and polytechnic institute are located in the city. Other cities include Shizuishan, Wuzhong, and Qingtongxia.
Ningxia has an agricultural economy based on rice, wheat, and a variety of fruits and vegetables grown throughout the Ningxia plain. Ningxia farms supply sugar beets to the region's sugar refineries. Sheep and other animals are herded and wool is used for the production of woolen goods. Ningxia has extensive mineral resources, with vast reserves of coal and high-grade gypsum. Ningxia has good rail and highway links. A main highway runs northeast to southwest and connects the region's major cities. A railroad parallels the Huang He, linking Ningxia with the large cities of Lanzhou in Gansu and Baotou in Nei Menggu. The Huang He is navigable for small ships and junks (a type of wooden sailboat). Commercial air service is available from Yinchuan to Beijing, Shanghai, and several other large cities.
As an autonomous region, Ningxia reports directly to China's central government in Beijing. Ningxia is divided into two prefectures and the prefecture-level municipalities of Yinchuan and Shizuishan. The prefectures are further subdivided into counties. Representatives to local people's congresses are directly elected from a list of candidates approved by the Chinese Communist Party. The local people's congresses elect representatives to the regional people's congress, which elects representatives to the National People's Congress in Beijing.
The area that is now the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region first came under imperial Chinese control during the Qin dynasty (221- 206 BCE), with the extension of the Great Wall through Ningxia. The region was further settled and developed during the Han (206 BCE- 220 CE) and Tang (T'ang) (618 CE -907 CE) dynasties. The expanding Mongol Empire seized Ningxia in the early 13th century. Following the decline of Mongol power in the 14th century, Muslim Turkic-speaking peoples from Central Asia migrated into Ningxia. In the 19th century the Muslim population, known as Hui, rebelled against the region's Manchu administration and clashed with the largely Buddhist Han and Mongol population. In the early 20th century regional Muslim warlords struggled for control of Ningxia. They were defeated in 1949 by Communist armies, and Ningxia, along with the rest of China, came under Communist control. In 1958 the area was declared the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region to recognize the large presence of Hui.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

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Pan-ch'iao
B5: 板橋; PY: Bǎnqio; WG: Pan-ch'iao, Panchiao; Also: Banqiao, Panchiau-
City, northern Taiwan, T'aipei County, a suburb of T'aipei. The community, one of the country's largest, lies between the Tanshui and the Hsin-tien rivers. The oriental garden of the Linpenyan mansion here is a popular tourist attraction. Population (1997 estimate) 2,605,374.

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P'ing-tung
B5: 屏東; PY: Pngdong-
Town, southern Taiwan, near the Lower Tanshui River. It is an industrial center in a rich agricultural area. Major manufactures include sugar, machinery, chemicals, and alcoholic beverages. A nearby military installation is also important to the city's economy. Population (1997 estimate) 214,627.

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Qingdao
B5: 青島; GB: 青岛; PY: Qīngdǎo; WG: Ch'ing-tao-
Well-known to the West by its Postal System Pinyin transliteration Tsingtao, it is a sub-provincial city in eastern Shandong province, People's Republic of China. It borders Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west and Rizhao to the southwest. Lying across the Shandong Peninsula while looking out to the Yellow Sea, Qingdao today is a major seaport, naval base, and industrial center. It is also the site of the Tsingtao Brewery which produces beer. The name "Qingdao" in Chinese means "The Green Island".

Additional Names
Qingdao was formerly known as Jiao'ao (胶澳).
Qindao (琴岛; lit. "Stringed Instrument Isle") is an additional modern name for the area which according to locals refers to the shape of the coastline.

Administration
The sub-provincial city of Qingdao administers 12 county-level divisions, including 7 districts and 5 county-level cities.

Geography and climate
Qingdao is located at the southern tip of the Shandong Peninsula. It borders three prefecture-level cities, namely Yantai to the northeast, Weifang to the west, and Rizhao to the southwest. The city's total jurisdiction area occupies 10 654 km. The city is located in flatlands, with mountains spurring up nearby. The highest elevation in the area is 1133 m above sea level. The city has a 730.64-kilometer coastline. Five significant rivers that flow for more than 50 km can be found in the region.
Qingdao enjoys mild summers and relatively warm winters, with the average July temperature at 23.8C and the average January temperature at -0.7C. The city gets most rain in June and July, at an average of 150 mm.

History
The area of which Qingdao is located today was called Jiao'ao (胶澳) when it was administered by the Qing Dynasty. In 1891, the Qing Government decided to make the area a primary defense base against naval attacks, and planned the construction of a city. Little was, however done, and in 1897, the city became a German concession and became a major German naval base in the Far East. The German Imperial government began immediately to lay out and construct the foundations and first streets and institutions of the city we see today. This also created a great area of German influence within the whole of Shandong Province, including the founding of many breweries for beer including the Tsingtao Brewery.
After a British naval attack on the German colony, Japan occupied it, with British encouragement, in 1914 during the Battle of Tsingtao after Japan had declared war on Germany during World War I. The failure of the Allied powers to restore Chinese rule to Shandong after the war triggered the May Fourth Movement.
The city reverted to Chinese Kuomintang (the ROC) rule in 1922. Renamed Qingdao in 1930, the city became a special administrative zone of the ROC Government. Japan re-occupied Qingdao in 1938 with its plans of territorial expansion onto China's coast. After World War II the KMT allowed Qingdao to serve as the headquarters of the Western Pacific Fleet of the US Navy. On 2nd June, 1949, the CPC-led Red Army entered Qingdao.
Since the 1984 inauguration of China's open-door policy to foreign trade and investment, Qingdao has developed quickly as a modern port city. It is now the headquarters of the Chinese navy's northern fleet.
Qingdao is now a manufacturing center, and home to Haier Corporation a major electronics firm. It has recently experienced a rapid growing period, with a new central business district created to the east of the older business district. This new district boasts one of the world's tallest buildings in the Bank of China Mansion. Outside of the center of the city there is a large industrial zone, which includes chemical processing, rubber and heavy manufacturing, in addition to a growing high tech area.

Demographics
By the end of 2002, Qingdao is estimated to be the home for more than 7 million inhabitants, of which around 2.6 million is residing in the Qingdao urban area. Another estimated 2.3 million reside in other cities under Qingdao's jurisdiction. The annual number of births is calculated around 82,000, with a birth rate of 11.26/1000 population, and a death rate of 6.93/1000 population, both calculated on an annual basis. This results to a 4.33/1000 population growth rate overall. Living standards are among the leading Chinese cities, with relatively high incomes for families.
Qingdao is home to 38 ethnic minorities, albeit very insignificantly, with minority population only totaling around 10 thousand by 2000, 0.14% of the city's total population.
Qingdao boasts a vibrant expatriate community. The largest group of foreign residents is Koreans, amounting to over 60,000 individuals in 2005.

Economy
Qingdao is perhaps most famously known for the Tsingtao Brewery, which German settlers founded in 1903, and which produces Tsingtao beer, now the most famous beer in China and known worldwide.
In 1984 the Chinese government named a district of Qingdao a Special Economic and Technology Development Zone (SETDZ). Along with this district, the entire city had gone through amazing development of secondary and tertiary industries. As an important trading port in the province, Qingdao flourishes with foreign investment and international trade. South Korea and Japan in particular made extensive investment in the city. At least 30,000 South Korean nationals reside there. Construction proceeds at a relatively fast pace in Qingdao. Famous corporations include Haier.
In terms of primary industry, Qingdao has an estimated 50,000 acres (200 km) of arable land. Qingdao has a zig-zagging pattern coastline, and thus possesses an invaluable stock of fish, shrimp, and other sea resources. Qingdao is also home to a variety of mineral resources. Up to thirty different kinds have been mined. Qingdao's wind power electricity generation performs at among the best levels in the region.
The GDP per capita comprised 29,596 (ca. US$3,659) in 2004. The GDP has grown steadily at an average pace of 14% annually.

Transportation
The Orient Ferry connects Qingdao with Shimonoseki, Japan. There are numerous smaller ferries connecting Qingdao with South Korea as well.
The Qingdao Liuting International Airport, 36 kilometres away from city center, is served by 13 domestic and international airlines, operating 58 routes of which 10 are international and regional. It is estimated that in 2002 over 2.3 million people, including 450,000 international travelers, were transported through the airport.
Qingdao is home to one of China's largest seaports. Cooperative relations have been established with 450 ports in 130 countries worldwide. The 1999 annual cargo handling capacity was 72 million tons. Exported commodities amounted to more than 35 million tons and 1.5 million TEUs.
Qingdao's railway development was picked up during the late 90's. At the present, domestic rail lines connect Qingdao with Lanzhou, Chengdu, Xi'an, Zhengzhou, Jinan and Jining. There are a total of 1,145km of roads in the Qingdao area, with nearly 500km of expressways. Expressways connect Qingdao with Jinan.

Culture
Through the unique architecture in some parts of Qingdao, one can draw the inference that the city is a cultural combination of east and west. Most people who reside in the Qingdao urban area speak Mandarin Chinese with a special local accent known as "Qingdao Hua" (Qingdao Dialect, not to be confused with "Shandong Hua" which is spoken more widely across the Shandong Province. Cuisine is predominantly Lu Cai (the Shandong regional dishes.) The area's most famous festival is the Qingdao International Beer Festival, held annually since 1991.

Population: 7,311,200 (2004). The urban area measures 1,102 square kilometers and urban residents total 2,584,000.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Qingdao

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Qinghai
B5: 青海; PY: Qīnghǎi; WG: Ch'ing-hai; Tibetan: མཚོ་སྔོན་; Wylie: mtsho sngon; Also: Tsinghai-
Inland province, western China. Located in the Tibetan Plateau (Qing Zang Gaoyuan), it is one of China's least populated provinces. Population, agriculture, and economic activity are concentrated in the extreme east in the valleys of the upper Huang He (Yellow River) and its tributaries. To the west lie high mountains and arid plateaus and basins, where nomadic herding predominates. Coal, petroleum, and iron ore are the leading natural resources. Also present are reserves of borax, salt, and phosphates in the province's many large salt lakes. The capital, Xining, is the only large city. Chinese constitute only about one-third of the population; Mongols, Tibetans, Hui (Chinese Muslims), and Kazaks are the largest ethnic minorities.
Qinghai, long a frontier territory, was incorporated into China in the early 18th century and made a separate province in 1928. Modern development began in the 1950s with the discovery of mineral resources and the construction of a rail line leading from Xining to the east. Area, about 721,000 sq km (about 278,400 sq mi); population (1990) 4,456,946.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Qinghai Province

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Qingjiang
Also: Ch'ing-chiang-
City in Jiangsu Province. The city area of Huaiyin County, in what is now Jiangsu Province, was separated as Qingjiang City on December 18, 1950. Qingjiang City was promoted to prefecture level of Jiangsu Province though was still operated by District of Huaiyin.
The first recognized segment of the Grand Canal route that exists today covered a length of 140 miles (225 kilometers) and was traditionally known as the Shanyang Canal. This early portion ran south from the city of Qingjiang (Huai-yin) in northern Jiangsu Province, to the Yangtze River.
The city is a vital trans- shipping point between Shanghai in the south and most of northern China, using sections of the old Grand Canal, and several rail lines to transfer goods. As a result of this transportation hub that has evolved around the city since 1950, several textile, chemical and fuel plants are located in Qingjiang.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Qingjiang

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Qinhuangdao
B5: 秦皇島; GB: 秦皇岛; PY: Qnhungdǎo; WG: Ch'in Huang Tao; Also: Chinhwangtao-
City, northern China, in Hebei Province, a major seaport on the gulf of Bo Hai. Coal from nearby Tangshan in the K'ailuan coalfield and petroleum from the Daqing oil field in the northeast are exported. The port, connected to Daqing by pipeline, is ice-free in winter. In severe winters, when the harbor at Tianjin (Tientsin) freezes, it is an alternate port for Beijing. Glass and chemicals are manufactured. The Great Wall, which stretches about 2400 km (1500 mi) along China's northern border, ends in the east at Qinhuangdao.
Qinhuangdao was a minor fishing village until developed (1899- 1903) as a coal port by British mining interests. It was opened as a treaty port in 1907, and its harbor facilities were expanded in the 1970s. Population (1991) 393,914.

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Qiongshan
B5: 瓊山; WG: Kiungshan; Also: Ch'iungshan; Formerly Qiongzhou-
Formerly the leading city of Hainan, the largest Chinese island, in southeastern China. Qiongzhou is located about 460 km (about 290 mi) southwest of Xianggang and 28 km (17 mi) off the southern tip of Leizhou Bandao Peninsula, from which it is separated by Hainan Strait. Qiongzhou lies on the west bank of the Nandu Jiang River, 5 km (3 mi) from its mouth, near the northeastern coast of Hainan. Prior to 1953, Qiongzhou was the seat of government for the island.
Known as Chu Yai during the period of the Han Dynasty (206 BCE- 220CE) and later as Tan Erh, the community was named Yai Kiung during the time of the Liang Dynasty (502- 557). Rulers of the Tang Dynasty (618- 907 CE), inspired by the Qiong Mountain, named the town Qiongshan. During both the Ming (1368- 1644 CE) and the Qing (1644- 1911 CE) dynasties, it was called Qiongzhou. Under the Chinese Republic, after 1911, the town was again called Qiongshan, and the Chinese Communists changed the name back to Qiongzhou after they took control of the island in 1950.
When Qiongzhou was opened to foreign commerce in 1876, the city of Haikou, 5 km (3 mi) to the north, functioned as its shallow-water seaport. Once an isolated fishing village, Haikou has grown steadily. The Chinese Communist regime transferred all administrative and economic functions there in 1952, and Haikou became the principal city on Hainan, relegating Qiungzhou to the status of a small town within the city limits of Haikou.

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Qiongzhou
SEE Qiongshan

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Qiqihar
B5: 齊齊哈爾; GB: 齐齐哈尔; PY: Qqhā'ěr; Manchu: Cicigar hoton-
City and municipality in northeastern China, in Heilongjiang Province, a rail center and port on the Nen River (a tributary of the Songhua River). The municipality includes the city of Qiqihar; nearby Hulan Ergi, a major industrial center; and adjacent agricultural areas. Manufactures include iron and steel, transportation equipment, machinery, machine tools, chemicals, processed food (especially sugar and soybean products), and wood and paper products.
One of the oldest cities of northeastern China, Qiqihar was founded as a walled military fortress in the late 17th century. From 1931 to 1945 it was an important military center for Japanese-controlled Manchuria. Modern industrialization, begun by the Japanese in the 1930s, accelerated under Chinese direction after 1949 with an emphasis on steel and heavy machinery. Population (1991) 1,524,803.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Qiqihar

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Quanzhou
B5: 泉州; PY: Qunzhōu; WG: Ch'an-chou-
City in Fujian Province, southeastern China, on an estuary that empties into Quanzhou Bay, an inlet of the Taiwan Strait. Quanzhou is 72 km (45 mi)) northeast of Xiamen. Shaped like a carp, Quanzhou is sometimes called "Carp City." The climate of the city is mild year-round. From the Tang Dynasty (618- 907) to the founding of the Chinese Republic in 1912, Quanzhou was the capital of Fujian Province. Its status was then reduced to that of an ordinary city, and Fuzhou became the capital. In the Tang Dynasty and Song Dynasty (960- 1279), and especially in the Yuan Dynasty (1279- 1368), Quanzhou prospered because of its trade with foreign nations. The gradual silting of nearby rivers, and the growth of the ports of Xiamen to the south and Fuzhou to the north, eventually deprived Quanzhou of its commercial importance. In the 1850's Quanzhou was entirely wiped out in the Taiping Rebellion, a popular uprising against the imperial Qing Dynasty. Quanzhou is famous for its ancient stone bridge, the Lo Yang Chiao, also known as the Wen Li Chiao, which is about 1100 m (about 3600 ft) long and 4.5 m (15 ft) wide. Tsai Shang, a prefectural governor during the Song Dynasty, built the bridge when the city was at the height of its prosperity. Population (1991) 185,154.

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Qufu
B5: 曲阜; PY: Qūf; WG: Ch'-fu-
City in Shandong Province, eastern China, 120 km (75 mi) south of Jinan. As the birthplace of the Chinese philosopher Confucius, Qufu (Ch'-fu) is considered to be a sacred place. Thousands of pilgrims come every year to visit the mementos, tomb, and ceremonial hall of China's great sage.
Qufu is more than 3000 years old. From the 8th to 5th centuries BCE it was made the capital of the Kingdom of Lu. About one-third of Qufu is occupied by the Confucius temple Ta Chen Tien, meaning the "Hall of Greatest Perfection." The main hall is 23 m (74 ft) high, 41 m (135 ft) wide, and 26 m (84 ft) deep. The green tiled roof, marble stairs, ramps leading to the entrance, and the huge marble pillars supporting the shrine are its outstanding features. Within the hall is a large statue of Confucius surrounded by statues of his 72 disciples. The sacrificial vessels and the ancient musical instruments in the hall are priceless antiques. The temple was built about 500 BCE, and was later enlarged and beautified by successive emperors. Outside is a well from which Confucius used to drink, a cypress tree he planted, and a plum tree under which he lectured. In modern times when the Tianjin-Pukou Railway was being built, the railway authorities were advised by descendants of Confucius to divert the line 8 km (5 mi) away from the town so that the tranquility of Confucius's eternal resting place would not be disturbed.
The tombs of Confucius and his disciples are located outside of the northern gate of Qufu. A broad avenue lined with tall ancient cypress trees, and stone statues of lions, dragons, horses, and unicorns, leads to the cemetery entrance. Over the tomb of Confucius is mounted a marble slab inscribed with his posthumous title: "Prince of Literary Enlightenment."

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Qujing
B5: 曲靖; PY: Qūjng-
City in the eastern sector of Yunnan Province near the border of Guizhou Province, in southwestern China. Located on the upper reaches of the Nanpan River, the city provides the eastern entrance to Yunnan from Guizhou Province. Qujing is 76 km (47 mi) northeast of Kunming, the capital of Yunnan Province. Qujing was first known as Weixian during the Han dynasty (206 BCE- 220 CE). In the following period of the Three Kingdoms (220 CE- 265 CE), during which three competing dynasties waged continuous war on one another, the name was changed to Qianning. When the Manchus established the Qing dynasty (1644- 1911) after conquering the whole of China, they named the city Nanning. During World War II (1939- 1945), Qujing became one of the air bases of the United States Fourteenth Air Force.
Before the completion of the railroad from Sichuan to Yunnan, Qujing provided the only rail access to Yunnan Province from the eastern Chinese provinces. With Zhanyi, 10 km (6 mi) away, Qujing guards the eastern approach to Yunnan, and its strategic importance was demonstrated when its loss allowed General Wu Sankwei, a noted general of the late Ming dynasty (1368- 1644), to conquer the province. By concentrating his forces from Guizhou and Guangxi provinces at Qujing, General Wu succeeded in taking possession of the whole province of Yunnan with little fighting. Population (1991) 178,669.

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R

Red River-
SEE Yuan Jiang

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S

Salween
Tibetan: རྒྱ་མོ་དངུལ་ཆུ་;  Chinese: Nujiang; B5: 怒江; PY: N Jiāng-
River, southeastern Asia. The river rises in Tibet Autonomous Region in China, where it is also known as Nu Jiang, and runs south through Yunnan Province. After entering northeastern Myanmar (formerly known as Burma) the Salween flows generally south, and then forms part of the border between Myanmar and Thailand before emptying into the Gulf of Martaban at the port of Moulmein. The Salween River is 2,800 km (1,740 mi) long, but because of numerous rapids it is only navigable for 120 km (74 mi) above its mouth.

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Sha- mo-
SEE Gobi Desert

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Shaanxi
B5: 陝西; GB: 陕西; PY: Shǎnxī; WG: Shan-hsi; Also: Shaan-hsi, Shensi-
Inland province, northern China. It comprises three distinct physical regions: in the north, a semiarid, loess-covered plateau that is deeply eroded; in the center, the fertile alluvial valley of the Wei River; and in the south, the lofty and rugged Qin Ling mountains. Wheat, millet, soybeans, and cotton are major crops, with rice and tea important in the extreme south. Coal and petroleum resources are extensive, but remain relatively unexploited because of a lack of transportation. Major cities are the capital, Xi'an and Baoji.
Chinese civilization is thought to have originated in the easily cultivated loess soils of the Wei River valley and its environs more than 4000 years ago. Xianyang and nearby Xi'an (former Ch'ang-an) were early imperial capitals, but the province later became impoverished as the political center of China shifted east in the 10th century. It was the scene of great destruction and bitter fighting in the Muslim Rebellion (1862- 1878) and suffered severe drought and famines in the early 20th century. Communist forces had their base at Yan'an in the north from 1936 until their victory over the Nationalists in 1949. Area, about 195,800 sq km (about 75,600 sq mi); population (1990) 32,882,403.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Shaanxi Province

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Shache (Yarkand)
B5: 莎車; PY: Shāchē, Suōchē-
City in western China, in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Shache is an oasis situated near the Yarkant River, at the edge of the Takla Makan Desert and at the foot of the Kunlun Mountains. It is the center of a fertile irrigated region that produces wheat, cotton, beans, fruit, and silk. Located on a highway near the borders with India, Afghanistan, and Tajikistan, the city is also a trading center. Local manufactures include carpets, silk and cotton textiles, and leather goods. The population is dominated by Chinese and Uygurs (Uighurs), a Turkic-speaking people of Muslim faith. An ancient city, Shache was first conquered by the Chinese in the 1st century CE. In the early Middle Ages it became an important trading center on the Silk Road, a caravan route that linked China and Europe, and was visited by the Venetian traveler Marco Polo about 1270. Population (1988 estimate) 128,950.

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Shandong
B5: 山東; GB: 山东; PY: Shāndōng; WG: Shan-tung; Also: Shantung-
Province, located in North China, on the gulf of Bo Hai and the Huang Hai (Yellow Sea), across from the Liaodong Peninsula. It includes the Shandong Peninsula in the east and a central hilly complex surrounded by part of the intensively cultivated northern China Plain. The flood-prone Huang He (Yellow River) crosses northern sections. Wheat and soybeans are the chief crops here, and wild silk is important on the peninsula. Major resources are the Shengli petroleum fields in the north and extensive coal deposits at Zibo (Tzu-po), Boshan, and Zaozhuang. Jinan, the capital, and Qingdao (Tsingtao) and Zibo municipality are major urban areas.
Settled as early as the 3rd century BCE, Shandong was part of China during the Shang dynasty (1600?- 1050? BCE) and played a major role in ancient Chinese history. It was venerated as the birthplace of the philosophers Confucius and Mencius. In the 19th century it became a major focus of European efforts to counteract Russian control of the Liaodong Peninsula. Weihai was leased to Great Britain from 1898 to 1930, and the Qingdao area was leased first to Germany (1898- 1915) and then to Japan (1915- 1922). Coal mining, begun by Germans, was expanded during the Japanese occupation (1937- 1945) of Shandong. It was returned to Chinese control in 1945. Area, about 153,300 sq km (about 59,200 sq mi); population (1990) 84,392,827.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Shandong Province

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Shanghai
B5: 上海; PY: Shnghǎi-
City in eastern China, situated on the Huangpu River, a tributary of the Yangtze River, near the Yangtze's mouth to the East China Sea. Shanghai (Chinese for "on the sea") commands the entrance to the Yangtze River Basin, a large, populous, and economically productive region in central China. Shanghai is China's most important port, commercial hub, and industrial center. Shanghai has hot, rainy summers and dry, cool winters. With an average daily temperature range of 23 to 32 C (74 to 90 F), July is typically the hottest month. The average daily temperature range in January, the coldest month, is 0 to 8 C (33 to 46 F). Shanghai has an average annual precipitation of 1142 mm (45 in). June is the wettest month and December is the driest. There are occasional typhoons in the summer and autumn.
Shanghai is an independently administered municipal district of 6341 sq km (2448 sq mi). It includes nine counties and 12 urban districts of the city proper. The urban districts cover 2057 sq km (794 sq mi), of which about 300 sq km (about 116 sq mi) is built-up and densely populated. This area is expanding as a result of many construction projects in Shanghai. The municipality includes about 30 islands in the Yangtze River and along the coast of the East China Sea. The largest, Chongming Dao, constitutes one of Shanghai's nine counties.
Contributed By: Clifton W. Pannell

Atlas :: City Maps :: Shanghai (6)
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Shanghai Province
East Asian Region :: Shanghai

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Shantou
B5: 汕頭; GB: 汕头; PY: Shntu; WG: Shan-t'ou; Also: Swatow-
City, southern China, in Guangdong Province, a seaport and industrial center, in the Han River delta, on the South China Sea. Fish, fruit, processed food, and lumber are the city's principal exports. Major industries include food processing and shipbuilding. A minor fishing village until the 19th century, Shantou developed rapidly as a seaport and commercial center after it was opened to foreign trade in 1860. It was occupied (1939- 1945) by Japan and was developed by the Chinese as an industrial center following the severance of traditional trade ties with nearby Taiwan after 1949. Population (1991) 742,220.

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Shanxi
B5: 山西; PY: Shānxī; WG: Shan-hsi; Also: Shansi-
Province, located in North China. It occupies a loess-covered plateau and has as its economic focus the Fen River valley, which widens to form the fertile and centrally located Taiyuan Basin. Mountainous areas ring the north, east, and west. The Huang He (Yellow River), which here flows over rapids and through deep gorges, forms the western and part of the southern border. Grains (kaoliang and wheat) and cotton are the chief crops. Efforts have been made to increase agricultural productivity by irrigation and reclamation of eroded lands. Coal production is a major industry; other mineral resources include iron ore, titanium, and salt. The capital, Taiyuan, is the largest city and chief industrial center; Datong is the other major city.
Shanxi formed part of the ancient Chinese cultural heartland. It became an important Buddhist center when part of the Northern Wei Empire (386- 534) and served until early Ming times (1368- 1644) as a buffer state between Central Asia and China proper, after which its prosperity declined. It began its modern development under the leadership (1911- 1949) of Yen Hsi-shan, a local warlord, and was developed as a coal-mining center while under Japanese occupation (1938- 1945). Area, about 157,100 sq km (about 60,700 sq mi); population (1990) 28,759,014.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Shanxi Province

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Shaoguan
B5: 韶關; GB: 韶关; PY: Shoguān; WG: Shao-kuan-
City, southern China, in Guangdong Province, a regional transportation and industrial center on the overland Guangzhou (Canton)-north China route. Variant spellings of the name include Shaokwan and Shiukwan; the city is also sometimes called Shao-chou, Kkong, or Ch'u-chiang. Coal mined nearby supports an iron and steel plant; other manufactures include nonferrous metals, machinery, chemicals, and cement. Shaoguan was founded in the 1st century BCE. It grew rapidly as the temporary capital of Guangdong Province during the Japanese occupation (1938- 1945) of Chinese coastal areas. Industrialization accelerated in the 1950s and '60s with the development of metallurgical industries. Population (1991) 480,667.

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Shaoxing
B5: 紹興; GB: 绍兴; PY: Shoxīng; WG: Shao-hsing; Also: Shaohing-
City, eastern China, in Zhejiang Province, in a productive agricultural region on Hangzhou (Hangchow) Bay. Traditional manufactures include tea, rice wine, handcrafted cotton and silk textiles, and lacquerware. An iron and steel plant was established here in the 1950s. Shaoxing dates from at least the 7th century BCE, when it was the capital of the ancient state of Yeh. Points of interest include an 11th-century pagoda, 13th-century stone bridges, and a museum commemorating the birthplace of the writer Lu Xun. Population (1991) 179,818.

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Shaoyang
B5: 邵陽; GB: 邵阳; PY: Shoyng; WG: Paoking; Also: Pao-ch'ing-
City, southern China, in Hunan Province. It is a transportation and commercial center for the upper Zi (Tze) River valley. Major industries include the manufacture of paper and motor-vehicle equipment, established since 1949 to supplement traditional bamboo, paper, and iron handicrafts. Population (1991) 247,227.

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Shashi
B5: 沙市; PY: Shāsh; WG: Sha-shih-
City, eastern China, in Hubei Province, a port on the Yangtze River. Variant spellings of the name include Shaxi and Shasi. Textiles, processed food, and chemicals are major manufactures. Subordinate to nearby Jingzhou for many years, Shashi first gained prominence as a river port in the 19th century. It was opened to foreign trade as a treaty port in 1898 and was developed as an industrial center after 1949. Population (1991) 281,352.

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Shenyang
B5: 瀋陽; GB: 沈阳; PY: Shěnyng; WG: Shen-yang; Also: Mukden-
City, northeastern China, capital of Liaoning Province, on the Hun River, a major industrial center. Manufactures include machine tools, processed copper, machinery, steel, and electrical equipment. Northeast College of Technology, a School of Medicine, and a Music Conservatory are located here. The 17th-century Manchu Imperial Palace, the tomb of Emperor Tai-tsung, and other Chinese historical monuments are notable landmarks.
Originally called Shen, the city was a prosperous Mongol trading center from the 10th to the 12th century CE. Renamed Feng-t'ien, it was under Chinese control during 1368-1625; and, as Mukden and Shengking, was an early capital (1625- 1644) of the Qing (Manchu) dynasty (1644- 1911) before its conquest of Beijing. Modern development, begun by Russian interests in 1895, continued under Japanese influence following the Russo-Japanese War (1904- 1905) and with the aid of powerful local warlords. The Mukden Incident (1931) marked the start of the Japanese conquest of Manchuria and establishment of the former Japanese-controlled state of Manchukuo (1932- 1945). Looted of its industrial equipment, the city was returned to China in 1945 and renamed Shenyang in 1948. It was the capital (1949- 1954) of the short-lived Northeast Administrative Region and was rebuilt as a diversified industrial center in the 1950s. Population (1991) 4,649,490.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Shenyang

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Shenzhen
B5: 深圳; PY: Shēnzhn; WG: Sham Chun; Also: Shamchun; lit. "Deep Drains"-
Sub-provincial city of Guangdong province in southern Mainland China, located at the border with Hong Kong. Since the late 1970s it has been one of the fastest growing cities in China or anywhere in the world.

The one-time fishing village of Shenzhen, singled out by late Chinese paramount leader Deng Xiaoping, is the first of the Special Economic Zones (SEZ) of China. It was originally established in 1978 due to its proximity to Hong Kong, then a prosperous British colony. The SEZ was created to be an experimental ground of capitalism in communist China. The location was chosen to attract industrial investments from Hong Kong since the two places share the same language, dialect and culture. The concept was proved to be a great success, propelling the further opening up of China and continuous economic reform. Shenzhen eventually became one of the largest cities in the Pearl River Delta region which is one of the economic powerhouses of China and is the largest manufacturing base in the world.
Shenzhen, formerly known as Bao'an County (宝安县), was promoted to prefecture level, directly governed by Guangdong province, in November 1979. In May 1980, Shenzhen was formally nominated as a 'special economic zone', the first one of its kind in China. It was given the right of provincial-level economic administration in November 1988.
Shenzhen is the earliest of the four special economic zones in China. The late Chinese president Deng Xiaoping is usually credited with the opening up of economic revival in China, often epitomized with the city of Shenzhen, which profited the most from the first legacies of Deng.

Shenzhen Municipality comprises six districts: Luohu (罗湖), Futian (福田), Nanshan (南山), Yantian (盐田), Bao'an (宝安), and Longgang (龙岗). The Special Economic Zone comprises Luohu, Futian, Nanshan, and Yantian but not Bao'an and Longgang.
Located in the centre of the SEZ and adjacent to Hong Kong, Luohu is the financial and trading centre. It covers an area of 78.89 km. Futian, where the Municipal Government is situated, is at the heart of the SEZ and covers an area of 78.04 km. Covering an area of 164.29 km, Nanshan is the centre for high-tech industries and it is situated in the west of the SEZ. Outside the SEZ, Bao'an (712.92 km) and Longgang (844.07 km) are located to the north-west and north-east of Shenzhen respectively. Yantian (75.68 km) is known for logistics. Yantian Port is the second largest deepwater container terminal in China,and fourth largest in the world.

The boomtown of Shenzhen is located in the Pearl River Delta. It covers an area of 2,020 square kilometres (780 square miles), with a population of thirteen million. Shenzhen is a sub-tropical maritime region, with frequent typhoons in late spring and early summer, but otherwise, this city has a pleasant climate, often blessed with cool breeze at night, with an average temperature of 22.4 degrees Celsius year-round (72 degrees Fahrenheit).
It is located 160 km south of the provincial capital Guangzhou, 70 km south of the industrial city of Dongguan. To the northwest, resort city Zhuhai is a mere 200 km away, and it is 35 km north of Hongkong.

Shenzhen has seen its population and activity develop rapidly since the establishment of the SEZ. With its official population listed at around five million, but estimated at a total population of thirteen million in metropolitan and its peripheral areas in 2005, Shenzhen has been the fastest growing city in China for the past thirty years, and likely to be the most rapidly evolving city in the world. But one problem with such a rampart growth of population is the accompanied problem of people without hukou (with 70% of that number being residents without a permanent hukou), most "old" Shenzhenese felt that the practice of freeing the city to inland is making it less competitive with other Chinese cities. Among the reasons for this development is the cost of labor, which is substantially lower than in neighboring Hong Kong.
There had been migrants flowing into the Shenzhen area since the Southern Song Dynasty (1127- 1279) and the number has been soaring after it was established as a city. In Guangdong, it is the only city where Mandarin is mostly spoken, with migrants from all over the country. At present, the average age in Shenzhen is less than 30. Among the total, 8.49 percent are between the age of 0 and 14, 88.41 percent between the age of 15 and 59, one-fifth between 20 and 24 and 1.22 percent are aged 65 or above.
The population structure polarizes into two opposing extremes: densely populated intellectuals with a high level of education, and migrant workers with poor education.
According to the Hong Kong General Chamber of Commerce, in 2002, 7,200 Hong Kong residents commuted daily to Shenzhen for work, and 2,200 students from Shenzhen commuted to school in Hong Kong. Though neighboring each other, daily commuters still need to pass through customs and immigration checkpoints as travel between the SEZ and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) is restricted.
China relaxed travel restrictions to allow individuals from southern cities of Guangzhou and Shenzhen, as well as Beijing and Shanghai, to visit Hong Kong in late July 2003. Previously, mainland travellers could only visit the city as part of tour groups.
Immigration into Shenzhen from the Chinese interior is heavily restricted by the hukou system. One consequence is that just outside of Shenzhen there are large towns which consist of a large number of migrants from the Chinese interior who attempt to enter the city.

In 2001, the working population reached 3.3 million. Though the secondary sector of industry had the largest share (1.85 million in 2001, increased by 5.5%), the tertiary sector of industry is growing fast (1.44 million in 2001, increased by 11.6%). Shenzhen's GDP totaled CNY 492.69 billion in 2005, up by 15 percent over the previous year. Its economy grew by 16.3 percent yearly from 2001 to 2005 on average, The proportion of the three industries to the aggregate of GDP was 0.3:51.6:48.1 in 2004 and 0.2:52.4:47.4 in 2005. The proportion of the tertiary industry to GDP was down by 0.7 percent. Shenzhen is in the top ranks among mainland Chinese cities in terms of comprehensive economic power. It ranked the fourth in GDP among mainland Chinese cities in 2001, while it ranked the top in capitation GDP during the same period. Its import and export volume has been the first in the last nine consecutive years. It is the second in terms of industrial output. For five consecutive years, its internal revenue within local budget ranks the third. It comes the third in the actual use of foreign capital.
Shenzhen is also a major manufacturing center in China. One high rise a day and one boulevard every three days is one famous line referring to Shenzhen in the 1990s. With 13 buildings at over 200 meters tall, including the Shun Hing Square (the 8th tallest building in the world), Shenzen is a marvel of lights after sunset. A person cannot help but ask oneself if one is in a video game or in a real city.
Shenzhen is home to some of China's most successful high-tech companies, such as Huawei and ZTE. A number of foreign IT companies also have facilities in the city - Apple Computers has a manufacturing plant based in Shenzhen. It appears to be shipping a large majority of the new Intel based machines at this stage.
The city has more than four hundred of the world's five hundred biggest companies.

The Shenzhen Stock Exchange (the SSE) is a mutualized national stock exchange under the China Securities Regulatory Commission (the CSRC), that provides a venue for securities trading. A broad spectrum of market participants, including 540 listed companies, 35 million registered investors and 177 exchange members, create the market. Here buying and selling orders are matched in a fair, open and orderly market, through an automated system to create the best possible prices based on price-time priority.
Since its creation in 1990, the SSE has blossomed into a market of great competitive edges in the country, with a market capitalization around RMB 1 trillion (US$ 122 billion). On a daily basis, around 600,000 deals, valued US$ 807 million, trade on the SSE.
China securities market is undergoing fundamental changes. The implementation of the new Securities Law, Company Law, self-innovation strategy as well as the development of non-tradable share reform embodies enormous opportunities to the market. Adhering to the principle of Regulation, Innovation, Cultivation and Service, the SSE will continue to maintain its focus on developing the Small and Medium Enterprises Board, while seeking for a tier market.
The initial public offering (IPO) activity in Shenzhen stock exchange was suspended from September 2000 as the Chinese government pondered merging its bourses into a single exchange in Shanghai and launch a Nasdaq-style second board in Shenzhen aimed at private and technology companies.

Many visitors that cross the Hong Kong SAR/mainland China border to Shenzhen go for the shopping, where goods and services are supposedly far cheaper than those in Hong Kong. However, without coming prepared knowing the prices of specific items the goods may end up being far more expensive than in Hong Kong while others are only marginally cheaper, even after a long phase of negotiating. The lack of a price differential and inconvenience may make it better off buying in Hong Kong.
The largest of the shopping malls is Lo Wu Commercial City, situated close to the railway station. This contains an overwhelming array of beauty parlours and stores selling clothes, handbags, fabric, jewelry and electrical goods as well as many vendors of pirated software, DVDs, counterfeit goods and mobile phones. With the number of tourists, it is also a popular location for prostitution, drugs, pickpockets and begging.
As of 2005, a modern subway links Lo Wu with most of Shenzhen along its east-west axis.

Situated in the south of the Pearl River Delta in Chinas Guangdong Province, Shenzhen Port is adjacent to HK. The citys 260km coastline is divided by the Kowloon Peninsula into two halves, the eastern and the western. Shenzhens western port area lies to the east of Lingdingyang in the Pearl River Estuary and possesses a deep water harbor with superb natural shelters. It is about 20 sea miles from hongkong to the south and 60 sea miles from Guangzhou to the north. By passing pearl river system, the western port area is connected with the cities and counties in pearl river delta networks; by passing On See dun waterway, it extends all ports both at home and abroad. The eastern port area lies north of Dapeng Bay where the harbor is wide and calm and is regarded as the best natural harbor in South China.
Shenzhen handled a record number of containers in 2005, ranking as the world's fourth-busiest port, after rising trade increased cargo shipments through the southern Chinese city. Hutchison Whampoa Ltd, China Merchants Holdings (International) Co and other operators of the port handled 16.2 million standard 20-foot boxes last year, a 19 per cent increase.
Investors in Shenzhen are expanding to take advantage of rising volume. Hong Kong-based Hutchison, the world's biggest port operator, and its Chinese partner plan to add six berths at Yantian by 2010, bringing the total to 15. China Merchants, a State-controlled port manager, said on January 6 it will increase its investment in a container terminal in Shenzhen's Mawan. The company also plans to pay its parent company HK$2.07 billion (US$265 million) for land at Shekou to expand its cargo business.
Yantian International Container Terminals, Chiwan Container Terminals, Shekou Container Terminals, China Merchants Port and Shenzhen Haixing (Mawan port) are the major port terminals in Shenzhen.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Shenzhen

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Shijiazhuang
B5: 石家莊; GB: 石家庄; PY: Shjiāzhuāng; WG: Shih-chia-chuang; Also: Shihkiachwang; lit.: "The Shi Family Village" or "Stone Family Village"-
City, northern China, capital of Hebei Province. It is a commercial, transportation, and industrial center situated at the northern edge of the Huabei Pingyuan (North China Plain). Major manufactures include textiles, chemicals, processed food, fertilizer, machinery, and agricultural equipment. Coal is mined nearby.
Founded before the 3rd century BCE, Shijiazhuang was a small settlement dominated by nearby Zhengding until it was developed as a rail center in 1905. Modern industrialization, begun in the 1930s, accelerated with the construction of modern textile and chemical plants in the 1950s and 1960s. Population (1991) 1,472,460.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Shijiazhuang

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Sichuan
B5: 四川; PY: Schuān; WG: Szŭ-ch'uan; Also: Szechwan, Szechuan-
Province in southern China, crossed by the upper Yangtze River. The most populous and one of the largest Chinese provinces, it has as its economic focus the fertile Sichuan, or Red, Basin in the east. High mountains, loftiest and widest to the north and northwest of China, border the basin on all sides. Rice (grown in the summer) and wheat (grown in the winter) are the chief crops, while sugarcane, silk, and tung oil are also important. Large and only partly developed reserves of coal, petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, and salt brine support a variety of manufacturing industries. Major cities of the province are Chengdu, the capital; Nanchong; Neijiang; and Zigong (Tzu-kung).
Sichuan was annexed by China during the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty (221- 206 BCE). In the 3rd century CE it was the center of the independent Shu Kingdom and was subsequently known under many other names before assuming the name Sichuan during the Song dynasty (960- 1279). From 1911 to 1930 the region was ruled by several rival warlords. Modern economic development began during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937- 1945), when China's Nationalist government established Chongqing as its temporary capital. The province was nearly doubled in area in 1955, when it absorbed the former Sikang province. In 1996 the city of Chongqing separated from Sichuan, becoming an autonomous municipality directly under China's central government. Prior to the separation, Sichuan had a total area of about 569,000 sq km (about 219,700 sq mi) and a population (1990) of 107,218,173.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Sichuan Province

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Songhua
B5: 松花江; PY: Sōnghuā jiāng-
River, northeastern China, 1,850 km (1,150 mi) long, comprising an important tributary of the Amur. The Songhua rises in the mountains near the North Korean boundary and flows northwest through a region of heavy forests until it is joined by the Nen River in central Manchuria. At this point the Songhua turns sharply and flows in a northeastern direction through a level, fertile agriculture region, joining the Amur at Tongjiang (T'ung-chiang). A hydroelectric dam on the river north of the city of Jilin (Kirin) forms the Songhua Reservoir.

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South China Sea
SEE Nan Hai

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Sutlej
Chinese: Langqn-
Chief tributary of the Indus River. It rises in Tibet, flows southwest through Himchal Pradesh State, India, and then passes through the great arid plains of Punjab Province, Pakistan, joining the Indus after a course of 1,450 km (901 mi). The Sutlej is the southeastern most of the five rivers of the Punjab, the other four being its two main tributaries, the Bes and the Chenb, together with two branches of the latter. Below the confluence of the Bes, the river is sometimes called the Ghara, and its lowest course, after receiving the Chenb, is called the Panjnad ("five rivers").

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Suzhou
B5: 蘇州; GB: 苏州; PY: Sūzhōu; WG: Suchow; Also: Su-chou, Wu-hsien-
City, eastern China, in Jiangsu Province, near Shanghai. It is noted for scenic canals, arched bridges, and historic gardens. Manufactures include silks, cotton textiles, embroidery, electronic equipment, and chemicals. Tai Hu (Lake T'ai) and the Grand Canal are nearby; other landmarks include a 5th-century BCE royal tomb and a pagoda from the 10th century CE.
The city became capital (518 BCE) of the short-lived Wu state. It took the name Suzhou in 589 CE and was at a peak of prosperity as a silk center, renowned for its beauty, in the 14th to 17th centuries. Taiping rebels destroyed (1860- 1863) much of the old city. It was soon rebuilt and was opened as a treaty port in 1896. The city was occupied by Japan in 1937- 1945. Modern industrial development was expanded and diversified after 1949. Population (1991) 897,757.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Suzhou

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T

Tai'an
B5: 泰安; PY: Ti'ān; WG: T'ai-an-
City, eastern China, in Shandong (Shan-tung) Province. Located at the foot of Tai Shan , China's holiest and most famous mountain, the city is important chiefly as a gateway for the many pilgrims who ascend the mountain by road. Numerous Buddhist and Daoist (Taoist) shrines, including the walled Tai temple, are local landmarks. Population (1991) 237,880.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Taian

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T'aichung
B5: 臺中; PY: Tizhōng; WG: T'ai-chung; Also: Taijung-
City, west central Taiwan. It is a distribution and processing center for the surrounding agricultural region in which rice, sugarcane, and bananas are grown. Manufactures here include textiles, machinery, and chemicals. National Chunghsing University (1961), Tunghai University (1955), China Medical College (1958), and engineering and arts and science colleges are here. The city's main growth began under the Japanese occupation of 1895-1945. Many refugees from the mainland settled here after the Communist victory in 1949. Population (1997 estimate) 876,384.

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T'ainan
B5: 臺南; PY: Tinn, WG: T'ai-nan; Also: Taiwanfu-
City, southwestern Taiwan, on Taiwan Strait, near Kaohsiung. The city is a major economic and cultural center, containing rice and sugar mills and ironworks. It is the site of National Cheng Kung University (1927). Founded in the late 16th century, it became the capital of the island under the rule of Cheng Ch'eng-kung, better known to the West as Koxinga, and his sons. The city remained capital of the island until 1885, when the government was transferred to T'aipei. Population (1997 estimate) 710,954.

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T'aipei or Taipei
B5: 臺北, 台北; GB: 台北; PY: Tiběi Sh; Also: Taibei-
Temporary capital of the government on Taiwan and the island's largest city, located on the western bank of the Tanshui River at the northern end of Taiwan Island. T'aipei, which means "northern terrace" in Chinese, is the political, economic, cultural, and transportation center of Taiwan. The city owes its prominence and growth to its designation as an administrative capital in 1894, a role that was enlarged in 1949 when the Kuomintang lost the Chinese civil war against the Communists and retreated to Taiwan.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Taipei
East Asian Region :: Taipei

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Tai Shan
B5: 泰山; PY: Ti Shān-
Mountain, Shandong (Shan-tung) Province, eastern China. The peak is at an elevation of 1,539 m (5,048 ft), and on the slopes are many shrines and temples. The mountain has been sacred to Chinese for several thousand years and was formerly a goal of pilgrimages. Considered sacred by Buddhists, Daoists (Taoists), and various folk cults, Tai Shan was, during several dynasties, the site of official rituals.

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Taiwan or T'aiwan
B5: 臺灣, 台灣; GB: 台湾; PY: Tiwān; WG: T'ai-wan; Also: Formosa-
Island in East Asia. Taiwan is bordered on the west by the Taiwan Strait, which separates the island from mainland China, on the north by the East China Sea, on the east by the Pacific Ocean, and on the south by the South China Sea. The government on Taiwan also administers the P'enghu Islands (Pescadores), the Chinmen Islands (Quemoy Islands) offshore from the mainland city of Xiamen, and the Matsu Islands offshore from Fuzhou, the capital of Fujian Province.
The government that administers Taiwan calls itself the Republic of China. Leaders of the government moved to the island from the Chinese mainland in 1949, when Communist armies gained control of the mainland and established the People's Republic of China (PRC). The government on Taiwan recognizes the mainland city of Nanjing (spelled Nanking in Taiwan) as its official capital, and designates Taiwan's largest city of T'aipei as its temporary capital. The PRC does not recognize the government on Taiwan and considers the island a renegade province. Taiwan recognizes that the Communist government rules the Chinese mainland while the republican government rules Taiwan.
Contributed By Chienping John Lee, Clifton W. Pannell

Atlas :: Country Maps :: Taiwan
East Asian Region :: Taiwan

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Taiwan Strait
B5: 台灣海峽; GB: 台湾海峡; Tiwān Hăixa-
Shallow channel separating the province of Fujian in southeastern China from the island of Taiwan. It is about 185 km (115 mi) wide and about 70 m (about 230 ft) deep. The strait connects the South China Sea in the southwest with the East China Sea in the northeast and contains the P'enghu Islands (Pescadores). The port cities of Xiamen, Quanzhou, and Fuzhou are on its Chinese coast. The strait was named Formosa, meaning "beautiful," by Portuguese navigators in the 16th century.

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Taiyuan
B5: 太原; PY: Tiyun; WG: T'ai-yan; Also: Yang-ch'; lit.: "Great Plains"-
City, northern China, capital of Shanxi Province, on the Fen River. It is a transportation and industrial center for China's major coalfield. Principal manufactures include fertilizer, chemicals, iron and steel, industrial machinery, cement, and aluminum. Shanxi Agronomy College is here.
Taiyuan was founded in the 3rd century BCE near the ancient city of Chin-yang, a part of the Chao state (453- 221 BCE). It was an important Buddhist center in the 6th century CE and was at times the northern capital of the Tang (T'ang) emperors (618- 907). In 982 a new city was established west of the old center. Taiyuan became capital of Shanxi during the Ming dynasty (1368- 1644). The city was known as Yang-ch' during 1912- 1947. An early industrial center, Taiyuan was expanded into a major metallurgical and chemical center after 1949. Population (1991) 1,711,709.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Taiyuan

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Tangshan
B5: 唐山; PY: Tngshān; WG: T'ang-shan-
City, northern China, in Hebei Province. It is a major industrial city situated in the K'ailuan coalfield near Beijing. Locally mined coal is used to generate much electricity here; manufactures include steel, machinery, motor vehicles, and cement. Tangshan was transformed by the British in the 1880s from a small village, known for its coal deposits since the 16th century, to a modern coal-mining center. The British controlled the mines (except for 1941- 1945) until they were expelled (1952) by the Chinese. After 1953 the mines were modernized and expanded, and Tangshan developed as an important center of heavy industry. The city was severely damaged, and many persons were killed, by two earthquakes in 1976. Population (1991) 1,968,386.

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Tarim River
B5: 塔里木河; PY: Tălĭm H-
River, northwestern China, the principal river of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. The river rises in the Karakoram Range in the extreme northern part of India; the upper course is called the Shache (Yarkant) River. It flows north, is joined by the Hotan (Ho-t'ien) River, and then flows east and southeast through the Takla Makan (Taklimakan) Desert. The Tarim empties into the ephemeral region of lakes and marshes known as Lop Nur (Lop Nor) at the northern base of the Altun Shan (A-erh-chin Shan) mountain range. Including the Shache, the river is 2,000 km (1,240 mi) long. A number of small settlements are located along the Tarim.

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Tianjin
B5: 天津; PY: Tiānjīn; WG: T'ien-ching; Also: Tientsin-
Autonomous municipality, northern China, surrounded on all sides by Hebei Province, near Beijing, a major port and industrial center. The city is situated at the junction of the Hai River and the Grand Canal. One of three administrative units directly run by the central government in Beijing, the extensive municipality includes the city of Tientsin, a large manufacturing center and a port; the seaport of Tanggu, on the Bo Hai gulf; several villages; and some farmland. The leading manufactures of the municipality include steel, textiles, machinery, electronic equipment, machine tools, and chemicals; other products are processed food, rubber goods, motor vehicles, and rugs and carpets. Nankai University (1919) and Tianjin University are here.
A minor seaport, called Hai-chin and Chih-ku from the 11th to the 14th century, Tianjin gained prominence as a port for Beijing during the Ming (1368- 1644) and Qing (Ch'ing) (1644- 1911) dynasties. It was occupied by British (1858) and French (1860) forces and grew rapidly after being opened to foreign trade and settlement in 1860. Much of the old city, including its walls, was destroyed during the Boxer Uprising (1900). The community was soon rebuilt in an early 20th-century European style. The Japanese occupied the city during 1937- 1945; they began the construction of Tanggu and initiated port improvements at Tianjin proper, completed by the Chinese in the early 1950s. Tianjin became the capital of Hebei in 1958 and was raised to the status of a centrally administered province-level municipality in 1967. Heavy damage occurred (1976) during an earthquake centered at nearby Tangshan. Population (1991) 5,171,317.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Tianjin
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Tianjin Province

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Tian Shan
B5: 天山; PY: Tiān Shān; Also: Tien Shan; lit.: "Celestial Mountains"-
Major mountain system, Central Asia, extending from the Pamirs northeast along the border between Kyrgyzstan, southeastern Kazakhstan, and the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. The Tian Shan (Chinese, "Heavenly Mountains") has a length of about 2414 km (about 1500 mi) and a width of about 320 to 480 km (about 200 to 300 mi); it covers an area (1,036,000 sq km/400,000 sq mi) approximately equal to that of the Rocky Mountains in the United States. In China it divides the Junggar Pendi (Dzungarian Basin) to the north from the vast, arid Tarim Pendi (Tarim Basin) to the south. The major rivers, including the Syr Darya, Ili (Yili), and Chu, flow generally westward. In the border area where Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and China meet is a string of high peaks, notably Victory Peak (7439 m/24,406 ft), the highest in the system, and Hantengri Peak (6398 m/20,991 ft), from which the 34-km (21-mi) long Muzart glacier descends. West of these peaks, at an altitude of 1,607 m (5,273 ft) is the Kyrgyz Lake Ysyk-Kl (6,100 sq km/2,360 sq mi). In the eastern part of the range, the most striking feature is the Turpan Pendi (Turfan Depression), a 161-km (100-mi) long stretch of lowland reaching 154 m (505 ft) below sea level and enclosed by high mountains.
The ranges of the Tian Shan, which generally lie along an east-west axis, were lifted up by geologic folding during the Paleozoic era. The crystalline and sedimentary rock has been subject to extensive erosion and to deep faulting; severe earthquakes have occurred along the rim of the system throughout modern times. The ranges are steeply sloped, their crests often incised by glaciers that wind down toward intervening valleys. The largest glaciers occur at high altitudes along the international boundary, although glaciers 19 km (12 mi) in length are not unusual in the high eastern Tian Shan.
The northern slopes of the Tian Shan receive enough moisture to support deep evergreen forests and highland meadows suitable for grazing livestock. There, at an elevation of 853 m (2800 ft), the fertile Ili Valley lies within two arms of the system. The southern slopes of the mountain system are relatively dry and barren.
The several million inhabitants of the Chinese Tian Shan are largely Muslim, non-Chinese people, farmers and herders who speak the Uygur (Uighur) or Kyrgyz language; colonization by ethnic Chinese, however, is on the increase. On the western side of the border, in Kyrgystan and Kazakhstan the population is denser and industrialization more advanced; oil, coal, iron, and copper deposits are exploited. Livestock raising is the dominant agricultural occupation.

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Tibet (Xizang)- Province-level administrative region of China, located in a high-mountain area in the southwestern part of the country. It is officially called the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR).
Throughout its long history, Tibet at times has governed itself as an independent state and at other times has had various levels of association with China. Regardless of China's involvement in Tibetan affairs, Tibet's internal government was for centuries a theocracy (state governed by religious leaders), under the leadership of Buddhist lamas, or monks. In 1959 the Dalai Lama (spiritual leader of Tibetan Buddhism and at that time the head of Tibet's internal government) fled to India during a Tibetan revolt against Chinese control in the region. China then took complete control of Tibet, installing a sympathetic Tibetan ruler and, in 1965, replacing the theocracy with a Communist administration.
The TAR covers an area of about 1,222,000 sq km (about 472,000 sq mi). It is bounded on the north by Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region and Qinghai Province; on the east by Sichuan and Yunnan provinces; on the south by Myanmar (formerly known as Burma), India, Bhutan, and Nepal; and on the west by India. Lhasa is the region's capital and largest city. Some Tibetans contend that Tibet includes parts of Qinghai, Gansu, Sichuan, and Yunnan provinces where ethnic Tibetans live.
With an average elevation of more than 4000 m (12,000 ft), Tibet is the highest region on earth. For this reason, it is sometimes called the Roof of the World. Most of the people in Tibet live at elevations ranging from 1200 m (3900 ft) to 5100 m (16,700 ft). Tibet is also one of the world's most isolated regions, surrounded by the Himalayas on the south, the Karakoram Range on the west, and the Kunlun Mountains on the north.

Special Report :: Tibet
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Xizang Province (Tibet)
Politics :: Human Rights Issues :: Tibet
East Asian Region :: Tibet

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Tonghua
B5: 通化; PY: Tōnghu; WG: Tunghwa; Also: T'ung-hua-
City, northeastern China, in Jilin Province. It is an industrial center situated in a forested, mountainous region. Major manufactures include paper and machinery. Coal, limestone, and iron ore are mined here for shipment to the great Anshan iron and steel complex in Liaoning Province.
Tonghua was founded in the 19th century. Modern industrialization began in the 1930s when the city was part of Japanese-controlled Manchukuo (1932- 1945) and continued under Chinese direction after 1949. Tonghua was the capital of the former Antung Province during 1937- 1943. It became part of Liaoning Province in 1949 and was transferred to Jilin in 1954. Population (1991) 403,962.

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Tonkin, Gulf of
SEE Beibu Wan

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U

rmqi
Uyghur: ئۈرۈمچی; B5: 烏魯木齊; GB: 乌鲁木齐; PY: Wūlǔmq; WG: Urumchi; Also: Wu-lu-mu-ch'i-
City, northwestern China, capital of Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. It is an industrial and cultural center of a petroleum-rich region near the Kazakh border. The city lies in a fertile oasis, about 900 m (about 3000 ft) above sea level, on the arid northern edge of the Tian Shan. Manufactures include iron and steel, cement, agricultural machinery, chemicals, and textiles. Coal and iron-ore deposits are nearby. The population, reflecting a long history on a caravan route from Central Asia, is mostly Uygur (Uighur), with Chinese, Kazakh, and Kyrgyz minorities. Mosques in the city reflect a continuing Islamic influence. Xinjiang University is here.
The city became a Uygur stronghold in the 8th century CE following periods of tenuous Chinese control during the Han (206 BCE- 220 CE) and Tang (T'ang) (618- 907) dynasties. It came under Chinese control again in the 1760s as part of Eastern Turkistan, and in 1884 the city was made the capital of the newly created Sinkiang Province. Known officially by its Chinese name of Dikhua after 1763, it was renamed rmqi (a name in popular usage) in 1954 and in 1955 became the capital of the new Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region. Industrialization, hampered by isolation, accelerated after the discovery (1955) of petroleum deposits at nearby Karamay. Population (1991) 1,110,793.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Urumqi

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Wan Xian
B5: 萬縣; GB: 万县; PY: Wnxin-
Second largest Yangtze River port in Sichuan Province, China. Wan Xian is located 227 km (141 mi) northeast of the city of Chongqing. Wan Xian has long been a transfer point for goods moving into or out of the Yangtze basin because above the city the narrow Yangtze Gorges hamper navigation. The port was declared open to foreign trade in 1917. Population (1991) 156,823.

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Weifang
B5: 潍坊; PY: Wifāng-
City in eastern China, in Shandong Province, a trade and commercial center at the western end of the Shandong Peninsula. Manufactures include processed food, textiles, and agricultural machinery. Coal is mined nearby, at Fangxi, and the Shengli oil field is to the northwest. The city was founded in the 3rd century BCE. It was called Weizhou in ancient times and Weixian from 1911 to 1949. Population (1991) 415,556.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Weifang

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Weihai
B5: 威海; PY: Wēihǎi-
City and naval base on the Strait of Bo Hai in the Huang Hai (Yellow Sea), at the northeastern tip of the Shandong Peninsula, in eastern China. Liugong Dao Island shelters Weihai's harbor, and several rocky mountains provide a barrier on the mainland. The harbor of Weihai has two exits: the eastern channel and the western channel.
Weihai was the homeport of imperial China's northern naval units, and it was at Weihai that the Chinese imperial navy was defeated during the first Sino-Japanese War in 1895. After the war the Japanese held Weihai until the indemnity stipulated in the Treaty of Shimonoseki was paid. The United Kingdom helped China pay the indemnity to the Japanese and in 1898 obtained the lease of Weihai from China. In 1930 Weihai was returned to China with the provision that the United Kingdom was to have a renewed lease of Liugong Dao for another ten years. The repossession of the Weihai area by China was not completed until the end of World War II (1939-1945). Population (1991) 128,888.

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Wenzhou
B5: 溫州; GB: 温州; PY: Wēnzhōu-
City in eastern China, in Zhejiang Province, a port on the Ou River. Wenzhou is in a mountainous region. Locally produced lumber, tea, and oranges are the principal exports. Manufactures include processed food and wood and paper products. The city was founded in the 4th century CE. It became an important tea port in the 19th century and was opened to foreign trade in 1876. Population (1991) 475,716.

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Wuhan
B5: 武漢; GB: 武汉; PY: Wǔhn-
City and capital of Hubei Province, in central China, a major industrial complex and inland port at the confluence of the Han and Yangtze rivers. The port is accessible to oceangoing vessels. The integrated iron and steel complex at nearby Wukang, one of the largest of its type in China, supports a variety of manufactures, including heavy machinery, railroad equipment, and motor vehicles. Other products include glass, chemicals, textiles, paper, and aluminum.
Wuhan was formed in 1950 when three cities-Wuchang, Hankou, and Hanyang-were combined into one administrative unit. The name is an abbreviation for the cities, which retained their individual identities. Hankou, the commercial center and largest of the three, occupies the northwestern quadrant, lying west of the Yangtze and north of the Han River. Hanyang, the smallest of the three and a manufacturing and residential section, lies west of the Yangtze and south of the Han River. Wuchang, the administrative and educational center and provincial capital, is on the eastern bank of the Yangtze. Wuhan University, in Wuchang, is the principal institute of higher education. Landmarks include the Yangtze River Bridge, connecting Hanyang and Wuchang; East Lake (Tong Hu), one of China's largest lakes, with many historical attractions; Tortoise Hill (in Hanyang); and Xiang Pagoda, made famous by Tang (T'ang) dynasty (618-907) poets and restored several times since it was built in the 3rd century. Wuchang is also the site of the Mao Zedong Peasant Movement Institute and has monuments commemorating the Republican Revolution of 1911.
Wuchang, a capital of the Wu kingdom in the 3rd century, is the oldest of Wuhan's component cities. Hanyang was founded during the Sui dynasty (581-618); and Hankou, then known as Hsia-k'ou, during the Song (Sung) dynasty (960-1279). Hankou became the leading commercial center of central China and was opened as a treaty port in 1861. The revolution leading to creation of the Republic of China in 1912 began in Wuchang in 1911. Modern industrialization started in the late 19th century and accelerated after 1949, stimulated by construction of the bridge over the Yangtze (1957), the integrated iron and steel complex (1956-1959), and aluminum-fabricating facilities (1971). Population (1991) 4,901,450.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Wuhan

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Wuhu
B5: 芜湖; PY: Wh; lit.: "Weedy Lake"-
City in eastern China, in Anhui Province, a port and industrial center on the lower Yangtze River. Major manufactures, developed largely since 1949, include textiles, paper, motor vehicles, and machinery. Iron ore mined in the region is processed nearby, at the large Ma'anshan iron and steel complex. Wuhu was founded in the 2nd century BCE and was opened to foreign trade in 1876. Population (1988 estimate) 409,500.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Wuhu

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Wuxi
B5: 無錫; GB: 无锡; PY: Wxī; Also: Wu-hsi, Wuhsi, or Wusih; lit.: "Without Tin"-
City in eastern China, in Jiangsu (Chiang-su) Province, near Shanghai. It is a transportation, industrial, and resort center on Tai Hu (Lake T'ai) and on the Grand Canal and other canals. Manufactures include machinery, machine tools, motor vehicles, silk and cotton textiles, and processed food. Landmarks are Tai Hu, one of China's largest lakes, and Xihui Park, both with many gardens and historic temples; the Grand Canal; and Li Garden. Wuxi is also famous for the production of Huishan clay figurines of animals and of opera and play characters.
The city is among the oldest in China. It was initially called Yaosih, meaning "with tin," when first mentioned in the 3rd century BCE and was renamed Wuxi, meaning "without tin," during the Han dynasty (206 BCE- 220 CE) when local tin ores were depleted. It developed as a transportation and market center for rice after the Grand Canal was opened in CE 609. Industrialization, begun in the 1890s with an early emphasis on silk and cotton textiles, expanded into the manufacture of precision and high-technology items after 1949. Population (1991) 972,616.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Wuxi

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Xi'an
B5: 西安; PY: Xī'ān; WG: Hsi-An; Also: Sian-
City in northern China, capital of Shaanxi (Shen-hsi) Province, the cultural and industrial center of the historic and agriculturally rich Wei River valley. Manufactures include cotton textiles, electrical equipment, machinery, and fertilizers. Xi'an Jiaotong University (1896) is here. Landmarks of special interest are the tomb of China's first emperor, Shihuangdi (Shih-huang-ti), archaeological excavations of which began in 1977; Shaanxi Provincial Museum, repository of some of the region's rich archaeological discoveries; the Big and Little Goose Pagodas, remnants of a once-famous 7th-century Buddhist retreat; the Great Mosque, which has served the city's large Muslim population since the 8th century; and a city wall dating from the Ming dynasty (1368-1644). Nearby landmarks include the partly explored tombs of the Tang (T'ang) emperors (618-907); four tumuli (burial mounds), said to be tombs of the Zhou (Chou) (1027?-256 BCE) kings; Xi'an Hot Springs; and Banpo, a neolithic village (6000? BCE).
Xi'an, one of China's oldest cities, was the capital of the Zhou, Qin (Ch'in) (221-206 BCE), and Western (earlier) Han (206 BCE- 8 CE) dynasties. It was again the capital under the Sui (589-618) emperors, and, known as Chang'an (also Ch'ang-an), was the capital and prosperous eastern terminus of Central Asian trade routes under the Tang emperors. Abandoned as the capital after the fall of the Tang, it began a long period of decline that lasted until Ming times. In 1936 the Chinese Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek was kidnapped here; he was held captive until he agreed to join the Communists in a united front against the Japanese. Rapid industrialization of the city began in the 1950s. Population (1991) 3,035,803.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Xian

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Xiamen (Amoy)
B5: 廈門; GB: 厦门; PY: Ximn-
City in southern China, in Fujian Province, on Xiamen Island, a port at the mouth of the Jiulong River. Strategically situated near the Chinmen (Quemoy) Islands and Taiwan, Xiamen is a fishing and manufacturing center. Products include ships, processed food, and chemicals.
Portuguese traders arrived in Xiamen in the 1540s; they were followed by British merchants in the 17th century and by French and Dutch traders in the 18th century. The port was closed to foreigners in the 1750s and was not reopened until 1842, when it became one of the first treaty ports. Xiamen was an important tea-exporting center in the late 19th century, and a large foreign population lived on the island of Gulang, which is located in Xiamen's harbor. Xiamen was also a gateway for commerce with Taiwan. Japanese forces occupied the port from 1938 to 1945. The city was developed as an industrial center, with improved rail and road links with inland China, after trade with Taiwan ended in 1949. Population (1991) 357,290.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Xiamen

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Xiangfan
B5: 襄樊; PY: Xiāngfn-
Prefecture-level city in Hubei province.
Xiangfan is a famous national-level historical and cultural city in China, with a history of over 2800 years. Its major scenic spots and cultural sites include Xiangyang City Moat, the Pseudo-classic Street, Ancient Longzhong, Memorial Temple to Mi Fu, Lu- men Temple.
The wall of Xiangfan city is very old, but the condition is fine now. The region's premier tourist attractions are Dahongshan scenic area and some historical relics, including the Lumenshan relic, the Zhanggongci Temple, the Cheng' en Monastery, and the Baishui Monastery.
It has an area of 26.7 thousand square kilometers and a population of 6.75 million.
The central part of Xiangfan is a plain. The rest are mountains and hills. Xingfan has a subtropical monsoon climate with an annual average temperature of 15.8C, and has 240 frost-free days. Annual rainfall averages 878 millimeters.
Xiangfan is rich in water energy resource. Mineral deposits include rutile, ilmenite, phosphorus, barite, coal, iron, aluminum, gold, manganese, nitre, and rock salt. Rutile and ilmenite reserves rank high in China.
Textile industry is the mainstay. Machinery, chemical, electronics, and construction material making are also Xiangfan's industries. Xiangfan is rich in agricultural resources, the chief farm products of Xiangfan include grain, cotton, vegetable oil crops, tobacco, tea, and fruit.
Rail and road transportation facilities in Xiangfan are good. Air routes link Xiangfan with some other major cities throughout China, including Beijing, Shanghai, Guangzhou.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Xiangfan

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Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu (Hong Kong)
B5: 香港特別行政區; PY: Xiānggǎng Tbi Xngzhngqū-; WG: Hsiang-kang T'e-pie Hsing-cheng-ch'-
Administrative region of China, consisting of a mainland portion located on the country's southeastern coast and more than 200 islands. Xianggang is bordered on the north by Guangdong Province and on the east, west, and south by the South China Sea. Xianggang was a British dependency from the 1840s until July 1, 1997, when it passed to Chinese sovereignty as the Xianggang Special Administrative Region (SAR).
Contributed By:
Clifton W. Pannell

Atlas :: City Maps :: Hong Kong
Atlas :: Country Maps :: Hong Kong
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Xianggang Special Administrative Region
East Asian Region :: Hong Kong

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Xiangtan
B5: 湘潭; PY: Xiāngtn-
City in southern China, in Hunan Province, a river port and industrial center on the Xiang River. Manufactures here include iron and steel, electric equipment, processed food, and textiles. Manganese ore is mined nearby, at Shaoshan. Xiangtan was established at its present site in the 8th century CE and was opened to foreign trade in 1905. It began to be developed as a manufacturing center in the 1950s and 1960s and is part of an industrial area centered at nearby Changsha. Population (1991) 525,448.

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Xigaz
Tibetan: གཞིས་ཀ་རྩེ་; Wylie: gzhis ka rtse; B5: 日喀則; GB: 日喀则; PY: Rkāz; Also: Shigatse-
Second largest city in the region of Tibet, smaller only than the city of Lhasa. Xigaz is located on the Brahmaputra River, 220 km (137 mi) southwest of Lhasa and 82 km (51 mi) northwest of the city of Gyangz. Warm weather and irrigation facilities make the Xigaz region a farming center in Tibet, despite its elevation of 3650 m (12,000 ft) above sea level. The accessibility of this city, although limited, makes it a leading commercial town in Tibet. From Sichuan Province in western China, Xigaz is reached by an ancient trade route from Lucheng via Batang to Lhasa. From India it can be reached by a caravan route from Sikkim State, north of Drjiling, via the Chumbi Valley. The important exports of Xigaz are yak tails, musk, wool, hides, medicinal herbs, and salt. The principal imports of the city include tea, silk, chinaware, and cotton goods.
Near Xigaz are two Lamaist monasteries: Konkaling, northwest of the city, and the famous Teshi Lumpo, the seat of the Panchen Lama, the second most important leader in Tibetan Buddhism after the Dalai Lama. The Teshi Lumpo, or Tashilumpo, is a town by itself, consisting of dozens of buildings, circled by a wall 1.6 km (1 mi) round. In the mid-20th century 3000 lamas lived in this monastery. Population (estimated) 20,000.

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Xinan- Important center for river traffic in the Guangdong (Kwangtung) province, in the northwest part of the Zhu Jiang (Pearl River) delta, in south China. The port consists of the adjoining cities of Hekou (Samshui) and Xinan (Sanshui) and is linked by a 48-km (30-mi) railroad with Guangzhou (Canton), the capital of Guangdong province.
Xinan ("three waters") is at the junction of the Xi Jiang (West River) and the Bei (North) rivers. The port was opened to foreign trade in 1897 by a treaty with the United Kingdom. The main imports are cotton piece goods, machinery, seafood, sugar, paraffin, and wheat flour, while the main exports are straw bags, firecrackers, tea, paper, matches, and white alum.

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Xi Jiang
B5: 西江; PY: Xī Jiāng; WG: Si Kiang; Also: Hsi Chiang; lit.: "West River"-
River, southern China. The major river of the region, it rises in Yunnan Province and flows generally east for 2,100 km (1,300 mi) through Guangxi Zhuang (Kwangsi Chuang) Autonomous Region and Guangdong (Kwangtung) Province to enter the South China Sea near Xianggang. It is known in its upper course as Hongshui (Hung-shui); its principal tributaries include the Xiang (Hsiang), Kuai (Kuei), Bei (Pei), and Dong (Tung) rivers. Passing through gorges for much of its course, the Xi Jiang forms a great delta as it approaches the city of Guangzhou; the delta region is crisscrossed by canals and distributaries. The Xi Jiang is one of the most important commercial waterways of China. It is navigable for nearly its entire length and oceangoing vessels may travel upstream as far as Wuzhou (Wu-chou).

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Xining
B5: 西寧; GB: 西宁; PY: Xīnng; Tibetan : ཟི་ནིང་; Wylie: Zi-ning-
City in northwestern China, capital of Qinghai Province, a transportation and industrial center on a tributary of the Huang He (Yellow River). Manufactures include processed food, woolen textiles, leather goods, steel, machinery, electrical equipment, and chemicals. For centuries Xining has been a gateway to Tibet and Central Asia, and major highways now follow old caravan routes. The rail line from Lanzhou reached here in 1959, ushering in a period of rapid industrialization in the 1960s and 1970s. Population (1991) 777,983.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Xining

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Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Uyghur: شىنجاڭ ئۇيغۇر ئاپتونوم رايونى ; Xinjang Uyghur Aptonom Rayoni; B5: 新疆維吾爾自治區; GB: 新疆维吾尔自治区; PY: Xīnjiāng Wiw'ěr Zzhqū; WG: Hsin-chiang; Also: Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region, Eastern Turkistan-
Provincial-level administrative region in far northwestern China. The region is bounded on the west and northwest by Tajikistan, Kyrgyzstan, and Kazakhstan; on the north by Russia; on the northeast by Mongolia; on the east by the provinces of Gansu and Qinghai; on the south by Tibet; and on the southwest by Afghanistan and the disputed region of Jammu and Kashmr. Xinjiang is China's largest region, with a total area of about 1,646,800 sq km (about 635,800 sq mi), approximately one-sixth of China's total land area. From east to west the region extends about 1900 km (about 1200 mi) and from north to south about 1450 km (about 900 mi).
Tall mountains surround Xinjiang on three sides. The Altay Mountains lie on the north, the Kunlun Mountains and the Karokoram Range are on the south, and the Pamirs high plateau region is to the west and southwest. The world's second highest peak, K2 (Mount Godwin Austen), with an elevation of 8611 m (28,250 ft) lies on the border with Jammu and Kashmr. The Tian Shan extend from east to west in northern Xinjiang. North and south of the Tian Shan are two great basins-the Tarim Pendi to the south and the Junggar Pendi to the north. Xinjiang's main settled areas lie along the fringes of these basins. At the eastern end of the Tian Shan is the Turpan Pendi (Turfan Depression), which contains China's lowest point, with a depth of 154 m (505 ft) below sea level. South of the Turpan Pendi is Lop Nur, an unpopulated salt lake and marsh area that is the site of China's nuclear-testing facilities. Each great basin has a large desert, the Takla Makan in the south and the Gurbantnggt in the north, and these are among the driest places on earth. Drainage throughout the region is internal, meaning that almost none of the rivers empty into the sea but evaporate in the deserts or lakes. The largest rivers are the Tarim and the Ili.
Xinjiang's climate is dry and continental, with warm summers and long, cold winters. North of the Tian Shan in the Junggar Pendi, the city of rmqi has an average annual precipitation of only 178 mm (7 in), a January average temperature of -11 C (12 F), and a July average of 25 C (77 F). The area south of the Tian Shan, in the Takla Makan, receives no precipitation in some years. Most precipitation occurs at higher elevations in the mountains and especially on the west- and north-facing slopes. As a result, much of the available moisture is stored in glaciers. As these melt they feed the region's streams and rivers, providing water for the cities and irrigated agriculture of the basins. Plant life in Xinjiang is limited to hardy shrubs and trees that can endure the dry and cold conditions of the harsh winters; evergreen forests grow in the mountains. Wildlife includes wild horses, camels, and yaks. Diverse species of migratory birds pass through the region.
The 1995 estimated population of Xinjiang was 16.6 million. The 1900 estimated population was only 2.1 million. More than 90 percent of the people were various non-Han Chinese nationalities; the largest group was the Uygurs, a Muslim Turkic people. By 1949 the population had more than doubled to 4.3 million. During the 1950s and early 1960s Xinjiang experienced heavy migration of ethnic Han Chinese from eastern China. This, coupled with high birth rates among the minority nationalities, as well as increased life expectancy, caused considerable population growth.
In the mid-1990s about 40 percent of the population were Uygurs; Han Chinese accounted for slightly less. Other non-Han minorities include Kazaks, Hui (also Chinese Muslims), Kyrgyz, and Mongolians. The Han are concentrated mainly in the cities, although a significant Han population remains on military farms that were set up in the 1950s to resettle landless war veterans from the east. Han dominate the cities as administrative and industrial workers, whereas the non-Han ethnic nationalities remain largely rural and engage in various farming and herding activities.
Most cities in Xinjiang lie near the flanks of the mountains, strung along the paths of the Silk Road, the ancient trade route between China and Rome. rmqi is Xinjiang's capital and largest city, as well as its industrial, commercial, and transportation hub. The city is also the major cultural center of the region and contains Xinjiang University as well as leading research institutes. Other large cities include Shihezi, Aksu, and Hami; smaller cities include Kashi, Korla, Yining, and Turpan. Kashi, located in the western Tarim Pendi, is unusual in that it has a largely Uygur population.
Agriculture was the traditional economic base of Xinjiang, and farming occurs where rivers flow onto the basins and are harnessed for irrigation. New industries have recently developed to exploit available local resources, which include extensive oil, natural gas, and coal deposits. Also important are copper, lead, zinc, and nickel, and various nonmetallic resources such as limestone, mica, and gypsum. In addition, a variety of industries such as textile manufacturing and food processing have developed to satisfy local demand. Xinjiang has established new trade links with the independent countries of Central Asia that were created when the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) disbanded in 1991. As a result there has been rapid growth in cross-border trading of consumer and industrial goods.
Transportation links largely follow the former routes of the Silk Road and traverse east to west along the flanks of the Tian Shan and Kunlun mountains. The most developed highways and rail lines are north of the Tian Shan in the Junggar Pendi, where most of the larger cities are located. A main rail line connects rmqi with Lanzhou and Beijing to the east and also extends west into Kazakhstan to connect to the former Soviet railroads of Central Asia.
The administration of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region reports directly to China's central government in Beijing. Many of the higher governmental positions are occupied by Uygurs, who are appointed or elected from lists of candidates approved by the Chinese Communist Party (CCP). The region is subdivided into prefectures, cities, and counties. Some of these administrative units are also labeled autonomous to designate the significant role of minority nationality populations in their governance and management. Despite the Uygur presence, local governance is dominated by the CCP, which is largely composed of Han Chinese.
Xinjiang first came under the loose control of imperial China during the Han dynasty (206 BCE- 220 CE). About 100 BCE the Han extended the Great Wall from Gansu into Xinjiang and established several military garrisons along what became the Silk Road. The indigenous Uygur inhabitants were nomadic herders and oasis cultivators who were organized into tribal alliances and small kingdoms. Chinese influence waned after the Han dynasty and the Uygurs regained control. Periods of more effective Chinese control came during the Tang (T'ang) dynasty (618 BCE-907 BCE) and the Mongol Yuan dynasty (1279-1368). Xinjiang was made a province in 1884 during the Qing dynasty (1644-1911).
In the 20th century a Han Chinese warlord, Yang Zengxin, gained control of the province and was later appointed governor. Yang was assassinated in 1928 and the province was only loosely controlled until the Communists gained control of China in 1949. Communist troops then moved into Xinjiang and were subsequently followed by large numbers of Han Chinese military colonists who were resettled on military farms. In 1955 Xinjiang was established as an autonomous region. The Uygurs have resisted Han cultural assimilation and have periodically clashed with Communist authorities. Despite official policies and documents that guarantee the rights of minority nationalities, there has been Han repression of minorities, resulting in strife and violence between the Uygurs and the Han. An Uygur guerrilla separatist group has stepped up activity in recent years. In early 1997 violence erupted in rmqi and Yining. Bombings were reported, riots broke out, and hundreds of people were killed or injured.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

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Xinxiang
B5: 新鄉; GB: 新乡; PY: Xīnxiāng-
City in eastern China, in Henan Province, a rail junction and industrial center at the head of navigation on the Wei River. The Wei, made navigable for small vessels by river improvements in the 1950s, links the city with Tianjin, the main port for Beijing. Textiles and processed food are major manufactures. The city dates from the Sui dynasty (581-618) and was a small market center before being developed as an industrial center in the 1950s. Population (1991) 526,357.

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Xizang
Tibetan: བོད་རང་སྐྱོང་ལྗོངས་; Wylie: Bod-rang-skyong-ljongs; B5: 西藏自治區; GB: 西藏自治区; PY: Xīzng Zzhqū-
Inland province, better known as the region of Tibet.

SEE Tibet

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Xuzhou
B5: 徐州; PY: Xzhōu; WG: Hs-chou-
City, eastern China, in Jiangsu Province. It is a major transportation center situated in a rich coal-mining region near the Grand Canal. Manufactures, developed on a large scale since 1949, include machinery, textiles, and machine tools.
Xuzhou's importance dates to the 2nd century BCE, when the city was linked by canal to the ancient capitals in the Wei River valley. It was called T'ung-shan from 1912 to 1945 and was part of neighboring Shandong Province from 1949 to 1952. Population (1991) 1,105,679.

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Yangquan
B5: 阳泉; PY: Yngqun-
City in northern China, in Shanxi Province, a trade and industrial center in a coal-mining region. Major industries are thermoelectricity and pig iron, smelted from local iron ores for shipment to steelworks at Tianjin and nearby Taiyuan. Yangquan was transformed from a minor village into a modern rail junction and ironworking center in the early 20th century. It expanded rapidly after 1949. Population (1991) 387,945.

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Yangtze Jiang
B5: 長江; GB: 长江; PY: Chng Jiāng; WG: Yang-tsze Kiang; Tibetan: འབྲི་ཆུ་; Drichu-
longest river of Asia, in China, 6,300 km (3,900 mi) in length. It rises in the Kunlun Mountains in the southwestern section of Qinghai Province, and flows generally south through Sichuan Province into Yunnan Province, where, in the vicinity of Huize, it bends sharply to the northeast. Then, it flows generally northeast and east across central China through Sichuan, Hubei, Anhui, and Jiangsu provinces to its mouth in the East China Sea, about 23 km (about 14 mi) north of Shanghai.
The headwaters of the Yangtze are situated at an elevation of about 4900 m (about 16,000 ft). In its descent to sea level, the river falls to an altitude of about 300 m (about 1000 ft) at Yibin, Sichuan Province, the head of navigation for river boats, and to 192 m (630 ft) at Chongqing. Between Chongqing and Yichang, at an altitude of 40 m (130 ft) and a distance of about 320 km (about 200 mi), it passes through the spectacular Yangtze Gorges, which are noted for their natural beauty but are dangerous to shipping. Yichang, 1600 km (1000 mi) from the sea, is the head of navigation for river steamers; oceangoing vessels may navigate the river to Hankou, a distance of almost 1000 km (almost 600 mi) from the sea. For about 320 km (about 200 mi) inland from its mouth, the river is virtually at sea level.
More than 1,683,500 sq km (650,000 sq mi) of territory are drained by the Yangtze and its branches. The principal tributaries are the Han, Yalong, Jialing, Min, and Tuo He, on the north and on the south, the Wu; at Zhenjiang, the Grand Canal links the Yangtze to the Huang He (Yellow River). During periods of heavy rains, two lakes-Dongting Hu and Poyang Hu-receive some of the overflow of the Yangtze. Despite these outlets, floods caused by the river occasionally have caused great destruction of life and property.
With its numerous tributaries and feeders, the Yangtze provides a great transportation network through the heart of some of the most densely populated and economically important areas in China. Among the principal cities on the Yangtze, in addition to those cited in the foregoing, are Wuchang, Nanjing, Hanyang, and Anqing. Jiangsu Province, largely a deltaic plain consisting of silt deposited by the Yangtze (more than 170 million cu m/6 billion cu ft annually), is one of the chief rice-growing areas of China.
In 1994 construction began on the massive Three Gorges Dam near Yichang. Scheduled for completion in 2009, the dam will measure about 180 m (about 600 ft) high and about 2.5 km (about 1.5 mi) wide. The dam is expected to help control the flooding of the Yangtze River valley; in addition, river flows will make the Three Gorges complex the largest electricity-generating facility in the world. A lake about 650 km (about 400 mi) long will form behind the dam, forcing the relocation of more than 1 million people and permanently flooding many historical sites.
Although the entire river (jiang) is known as the Yangtze to foreigners, the Chinese apply that designation only to the last 480 or 645 km (300 or 400 mi) of its course, the portion traversing the region identified with the Yang kingdom (flourished about 10th century BCE). From Its upper reaches to Yibin, the river is called the Jinsha, or "Golden Sand," and various other names are applied in the provinces it traverses. The official name for the entire river is Chang Jiang, or "Long River."

Atlas :: Country Maps :: Map of Yangtze River

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Yangzhou
B5: 揚州; GB: 扬州; PY: Yngzhōu; WG: Yang-chou; Also: Yangchow; lit.: "Rising Prefecture"-
City in eastern China, in Jiangsu Province, on the Grand Canal. It is situated in a rich agricultural region near the Yangtze River. Leading manufactures are processed food, textiles, and traditional handicrafts; machine tools are also produced.
Yangzhou was founded during the Qin (Ch'in) dynasty (221 -206 BCE). It developed as a wealthy port after the construction of the Grand Canal during the Sui dynasty (CE581-618) and was an important center for writers and painters in the 18th century. The city was called Yangtui from 1912 to 1949. It began its modern development, reversing a long period of stagnation, in the 1960s, stimulated by redevelopment of the Grand Canal as a major waterway. Population (1991) 312,892.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Yangzhou

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Yantai
B5: 煙臺; GB: 烟台; PY: Yānti; WG: Chefoo-
City in eastern China, in Shandong Province, a deepwater port on Bo Hai gulf, on northern Shandong Peninsula. Major economic activities include fishing, food processing, and the manufacture of iron and steel and machinery. Yantai was opened as a treaty port in 1863. The Yantai Convention, opening additional Chinese ports to foreign trade, was signed here in 1876. The city's importance declined after 1898, when Qingdao was developed as a port. A railroad linking Yantai and Qingdao was built in the 1950s, and an iron and steel complex was built here in the 1960s. Population (1991) 408,538.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Yantai

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Yarkand
SEE Shache

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Yellow River
SEE Huang He

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Yellow Sea
SEE Huang Hai

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Yichang
B5: 宜昌; PY: Ychāng-
City in eastern China, in Hubei Province, a port on the Yangtze River. The Yangtze Gorges, upstream to the east and navigable only by small vessels, make Yichang the head of navigation on the middle Yangtze River and an important transshipment point for traffic to and from adjacent Sichuan Province. Manufactures include chemicals, textiles, paper, processed food, and cement.
An old, walled city, important from ancient times, Yichang grew rapidly as a treaty port after 1877. Japanese forces damaged (1938-1940) and occupied (1940-1945) the city during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), severely disrupting commercial activities. Industrial activity expanded after 1949. Population (1991) 512,776.

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Yichun
B5: 伊春; PY: Yīchūn-
City in Heilongjiang (Heilungkiang) Province, in northeastern China, at the confluence of two headstreams of the Songhua River. It is located in a thickly forested area of the Xiao Hinggan Ling (Lesser Khingan Range) and has an important lumbering industry. The city is connected by railroad with manufacturing centers to the south. Yichun was a small town until the 1950s, when it was developed as a lumbering center. Population (1990) 790,000.

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Yichun
B5: 宜春; PY: Ychūn; WG: I-ch'un-
mountainous city in Jiangxi Province. Yichun literally means "pleasant spring". It is located in the northwest of the province along a river surrounded by mountains. Its area is 18,669 km; 50% forested, 35% mountainous. It has a total population of 5,100,000; 1,100,000 urban and the other 4,000,000 rural. 99.5% of the people are Han but many other ethnic minorities are represented. A large sports complex with two stadiums was built in the 1990's and draws teams for sports competitions from all across China. Agriculture is the main industry but other natural resource industries such as timber and mining are extremely important for the economy. Major mineral deposits include aluminum, tungsten, gold, zinc, and copper. Yichun is also a stop along the major railway running between Beijing and Nanchang, the capital of Jiangxi.

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Yinchuan
B5: 銀川; GB: 银川; PY: Ynchuān-
Capital of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region, and former capital of the Tangut Empire (Xi-Xia). Population: 736,300

Atlas :: City Maps :: Yinchuan

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Yuan Jiang (Red River)
B5: 元江; PY: Yunjiāng; lit.: "Primary River"-
River in southeastern Asia, principal river of northern Vietnam. The river rises in the mountains of Yunnan Province in southern China, where it is called the Yuan Jiang. It then flows southeast across northern Vietnam, where it is called the Sng Hong. The river passes through Hanoi, the nation's capital, and empties into the Gulf of Tonkin. The Yuan Jiang spans 800 km (500 mi). Its chief tributaries are the Black (Sng D) and Clear (Sng L) rivers. The delta of the Yuan Jiang forms one of the most fertile and populous areas in Vietnam.

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Yumen
B5: 玉門; GB: 玉门; PY: Ymn; lit.: "Jade Gate"-
City in northwestern China, in Gansu Province. It is a transportation and processing center situated in a region with productive petroleum fields. Major rail and highway routes to Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region pass through the city, and a pipeline carries crude oil east to refineries in Lanzhou.
Named for the nearby Jade Gate in the Great Wall, Yumen lies on the ancient Silk Road and prospered until modern times as a center of the overland caravan trade. Petroleum production began here in 1939 following discovery of the Laojunmiao oil field and expanded rapidly after vast new petroleum reserves were discovered nearby in 1957. Population (1988 estimate) 91,200.

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Yunnan
B5: 雲南; GB: 云南; PY: Ynnn; lit.: "South of the Clouds"-
Province in southern China, bordering the countries of Burma, Laos, and Vietnam. Most of the inhabitants of Yunnan live on a relatively low plateau in the east, which includes an economic center at Kunming. Kunming is the capital, largest city, and principal industrial center of Yunnan. An inaccessible high plateau, dissected by deep gorges, dominates the western areas. Ethnic minorities, including Yi, Miao, Dai, and Tibetans, constitute about one-fourth of the total population. The chief crops, restricted to small areas suitable for farming, are rice and corn. Resources include tin (at Gejiu), copper (at Dongchuan), iron ore (at Jincheng), and coal (underlying much of the province).  The Lancang Jiang (Mekong River) runs through the province from north to south, into Vietnam.
After a brief period of tenuous Chinese control in Han times (206 BCE- 220 CE), Yunnan became the center of the powerful Thai kingdom of Nan Chao in the 8th century. Nan Chao was conquered and incorporated into China as a province by the Mongols in the 13th century, but Chinese control remained in the hands of local officials and warlords until as late as the 1930s. The modern economic development of Yunnan began during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), a component of World War II, when government agencies and important industrial establishments were relocated here, away from the Japanese-occupied eastern coast. Area, about 394,000 sq km (about 152,100 sq mi); population (1991 estimate) 37,820,000.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Yunnan Province

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Zaozhuang
B5: 棗莊; GB: 枣庄; PY: Zǎozhuāng-
Prefecture-level city in southern Shandong province. The second smallest prefecture-level city in the province, it borders Jining to the west and north, Linyi to the east, and the province of Jiangsu to the south. Population: (2003) 3,637,600.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Zaozhuang

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Zhangjiakou
B5: 张家口; GB: 張家口; PY: Zhāngjiākǒu; WG: Chang-chia-k'ou-
City, in northeastern China, Hebei Province. Located at a gate in the Great Wall of China, the city has historically been a communications and commercial link between Beijing and Nei Menggu. It has manufactures that include processed foods, machinery, and apparel. Iron ore is mined in the vicinity. A fort was built here in the early 15th century during the Ming dynasty to serve as a defense against Mongol attacks. After another fort was built in the early 17th century a town began to develop. As the terminus of a caravan route to Mongolia, it carried on a substantial trade. The city was opened to Russian trade in 1860 and was reached by railroad in 1911. Trade declined after the Russian Revolution. The city, occupied by the Japanese in 1937, was made an administrative center. Population (1991) 673,901.

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Zhangzhou
B5: 漳州; PY: Zhāngzhōu; WG: Chang-chou; Also: Changchow-
City in China, in southern Fujian Province, 45 km (28 mi) west of Xiamen. Zhangzhou is located in a region of granite mountains and has a mild climate year-round.
Zhangzhou was discovered before the time of the Tang Dynasty (618-907). Devastated during the Taiping Rebellion (1850-1864), its recovery was among the quickest of the affected cities in the province. The Nan Shan Sze, a Buddhist temple, is located outside the southern city gate, and the Kiang Tung Chiao, a 12th-century stone bridge 240 m (800 ft) long, spans the Jiulong River 10 km (6 mi) from the eastern city gate. Confucian scholar Zhu Xi served as a city official in Zhangzhou toward the end of the 12th century, and he founded the city's Tze Yan Shu Yuan academy for the study of the classics. Population (1991) 181,424.

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Zhanyi
B5:  沾益; PY: Zhāny; WG: Chanyi-
City in the northeastern part of Yunnan Province in southern China, about 130 km (about 80 mi) northeast of Kunming. Located at an altitude near 1920 m (near 6300 ft), Zhanyi has a mild climate. The city's January temperature averages 9C (48F), and the July temperature averages 21C (70F). Between 1000 and 1270 mm (40 and 50 in) of precipitation falls annually, most of it in July and August. Grass, shrubs, and bushes cover the plain that surrounds the city, and stands of coniferous trees are found in the local mountains. Agriculture is a major occupation of the area, rice being a dominant crop.
During World War II (1939- 1945) Zhanyi was the site of a United States Air Force base that was used by the Air Transport Command. A quartermaster truck depot and a signal corps were also stationed in the area.

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Zhejiang
B5: 浙江; PY: Zhjiāng; WG: Che-chiang; Also: Chekiang, Chehkiang or Chekiang-
Province in eastern China, bordering on the East China Sea. One of the smallest of the Chinese provinces, it includes the southern half of the populous Yangtze River delta in the north; a complex of rugged mountain ranges, with heights of more than 1900 m (6200 ft) in places, in the south; and the offshore islands of the Zhoushan Archipelago, situated at the entrance to Hangzhou Bay. Major rivers are the Fuchun, which becomes the Qiantang below the city of Hangzhou, and the Ou, which enters the sea in the south at Wenzhou. Rice and silk are important lowland crops, with tea a major product in upland areas. Leading industries are fishing, traditional handicrafts, and the manufacture of cotton and silk textiles, machinery, and chemicals. Important cities include Hangzhou (the capital) and the ports of Ningbo and Wenzhou.
After being part of the Wu and Yeh kingdoms, Zhejiang was conquered by the state of Ch'u in the 4th century BCE, and it was incorporated into the Chinese Empire in the 3rd century BCE. It was briefly the center of another Wu kingdom from 222 to 280 CE, and the region began to prosper from trade along the Grand Canal as early as the 7th century. Hangzhou was a center of great wealth in the 12th and 13th centuries as the capital of the Southern Song dynasty, and the city has continued to dominate the economic and cultural life of the province in modern times. Area, about 102,000 sq km (about 39,400 sq mi); population (1991 estimate) 42,020,000.

Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Zhejiang Province

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Zhengzhou
B5: 鄭州; GB: 郑州; PY: Zhngzhōu-
City in eastern China, capital of Henan Province. It is an important railroad and industrial center in the Huang He (Yellow River) valley at the western edge of the Huabei Pingyuan (North China Plain). Major manufactures include cotton textiles, machinery, electric equipment, aluminum, and processed food. A monument in the old city commemorates a famous railroad strike here in 1926.
Founded during the Shang (Yin) dynasty (1766?-1027? BCE), the city was known (1913-1949) as Cheng-hsien. After suffering heavy damage from floods in the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945), it was rebuilt and systematically developed as a major industrial metropolis. It replaced Kaifeng as the capital of Henan in 1954. Population (1991) 2,001,109.

Atlas :: City Maps :: Zhengzhou

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Zhenjiang
B5: 鎮江; GB: 镇江; PY: Zhnjiāng; WG: Chen-chiang-
City in eastern China, in Jiangsu Province, a port at the junction of the Grand Canal and Yangtze River. Soybeans and grain are often traded, and manufactures include processed food (especially flour), pharmaceuticals, machine tools, and pulp and paper.
Zhenjiang, which dates from at least the 8th century BCE, gained prominence as a port on the Grand Canal in the Sui and Tang (T'ang) dynasties (589 CE-907 CE). The city was opened as a treaty port in 1861 and had a foreign settlement until 1927. It was eclipsed as a center of foreign trade by the rise of Shanghai in the 1880s. Population (1991) 508,249.

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Zhuzhou
B5: 株洲; PY: Zhūzhōu-
City in southern China, in Hunan Province, a rail and manufacturing center on the Xiang River. Lead, zinc, and copper, mined nearby, are smelted here. Local coal supplies are processed in the city before shipment to steel mills at Xiangtan and Wuhan; the coal also is used to generate thermoelectricity here. Other major manufactures include railroad equipment and chemicals. Zhuzhou was a minor town before its planned development as a regional industrial center in the 1950s. Population (1991) 413,907.

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Zibo
B5: 淄博; PY: Zīb-
Municipality in eastern China, in Shandong (Shantung) Province, a major industrial center in a rich coalfield. The municipality includes Zichuan, Boshan, Zhangdian, and adjacent areas. The name is also sometimes used as the official name of Zhangdian, the administrative center of the municipality. Coal mining, centered at Boshan and Zichuan, supports the production of thermoelectricity, chemicals, machinery, refractory materials, and electrical equipment. Lighter industries (food processing and textile production) are concentrated in and around Zhangdian.
Coal mining and modern industrialization, begun here in the early 20th century by German interests, continued under joint Chinese and Japanese control in the 1920s and 1930s. Already a major industrial region by 1937, the area was occupied and further developed industrially by Japan during the Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). In 1949 Boshan and Zichuan were merged to form a single municipality with the name Zibo (an abbreviation of Zichuan and Boshan). This was enlarged in 1954 to include Zhangdian to the north; in 1961 the administrative center was moved from Boshan to Zhangdian. Population (1991) 2,955,575.

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Zigong
B5: 自貢; GB: 自贡; PY: Zgng; WG: Tzu-kung-
City in southern China, in Sichuan Province. Rich local deposits of salt brine and natural gas support a large and varied chemical industry; other manufactures include electricity, machinery, and fertilizers. The city was formed and named in 1939 with the merger of Gongjing, a great salt-producing center since the 7th century CE, and Tzeliutsing. It was reached by rail in 1958 and developed rapidly as an industrial center in the 1960s and 1970s. Population (1991) 477,076.

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Zunyi
B5: 遵義; PY: Zūny-
City in southern China, in Guizhou Province. It is a regional transportation and industrial center; major manufactures include textiles, processed food, machinery, chemicals, and fertilizer. Deposits of coal, bauxite, and manganese ore are nearby.
Zunyi was founded in the 7th century CE but was of minor importance until selected for development as an industrial center in the 1950s. It is famous throughout China as the place where, in 1935, Mao Zedong (Mao Tse-tung) was acknowledged during the Long March as the dominant leader of the Chinese Communist Party. Population (1991) 261,862.

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Geographic Terms
While studying this database, it may be helpful to have English references to certain Chinese geographic terms.  Below is a series of tables which contain the most common terms, with the term in English and its pinyin Chinese counterpart.  The first table defines directions, like up and east.  The second table defines topographic terms, like river and sea.  The third table defines administrative geography, like city and port.
Table 1
Direction
English Pinyin English Pinyin
north bei northeast dongbei
east dong northwest xibei
south nan southeast dongnan
west xi southwest xinan
down xia up shang
left zuo right you
far yuan near jin
long chang short duan
narrow xiazhai wide kuan
 
Table 2
Topography
English Pinyin English Pinyin
river he, jiang lake hu
sea hai plain pingwan
ocean hai, yang area diqu
canal yunhe cave shandong
cliff xuanya continent dalu
desert shamo harbor gang
highland gaoyuan mountain, hill shan
karst yanrong straits haixia
gorge xia  
 
Table 3
Administrative Geography
English Pinyin English Pinyin
village cunzhuang region diqu
town zhen province sheng
park gongyun dam diba
county xian urban chengshi
city chengshi port gang, wan
country guo  

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Topographic Features
The Geography of China and the surrounding region is varied and abounding in topographic extremes.  Below is a series of tables which contain notable topographic features from around China and those which transcend borders.  The first table contains rivers.  The second table contains bodies of water.  Names are listed in sections by their western version, with the indigenous Chinese pinyin translation.
Table 1
Rivers
Western Version Chinese Pinyin
Yellow River Huang Hu
Yangtze River, Yang-tsze Kiang Yangtze Jiang
Amur River Heilong Jiang
Mekong River Lancang Jiang
Red River Yuan Jiang
West River Xi Jiang
Pearl River Zhu Jiang
 
Table 2
Bodies of Water
Western Version Chinese Pinyin
Yellow Sea Huang Hai
East China Sea Dong Hai
South China Sea Nan Hai
Pacific Ocean Taiping Yan

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Cities and Provinces
In any fictional, non- fictional or translated literary work on China, where names of cities and/ or provinces are mentioned, published prior to 1990, and even some after, there is a discrepancy between what the West refers to as a Chinese city or province, and what the Chinese, themselves, refer to it as.  The first table below provides the western term or transliteration, with the Chinese pinyin indigenous name.  The second table provides a match between a Chinese city and the greater administrative region, or province in which it lies; these terms will be in their Chinese pinyin name.  The third table lists cities by greater administrative region, or province; again, terms will be in their Chinese pinyin name, but with links to their respective entries in the database (not all cities will have an entry/ link).
Table 1
Western Version Chinese Pinyin
Anhwei Anhui
Macau, Macao Aomen
Ching- yuang Baoding
Peking Beijing
Pengpu Bengbu
Penki Benxi
Keelung, Kirun Chilung
Chungking Chongqing
Lda Dalian
Andong Dandong
Fukien Fujian
Fu-shan Fushun
Fu-hsin, Fou-hsin Fuxin
Fu-chou, Foochow Fuzhou
Kansu Gansu
Ko-chiu, Kokiu Gejiu
Kwangtung Guangdong
Canton, Kuang-chou, Kwangchow Guangzhou
Kuei-lin Guilin
Kuei-yang, Kweiyang Guiyang
Kweichow, Kuei-chou Guizhou
Hai-k'ou, Hoihow Haikou
Han-tan Handan
Hang-chou, Hangchow Hangzhou
Ha-erh-pin Harbin
Chihli, Ho-pei, Hopeh Hebei
Lu-chou, Luchow, Ho-fei Hefei
Ho-kang Hegang
Heilungkiang, Hei-lung-chiang Heilongjiang
Ho-nan Henan
Heng-yang Hengyang
Hu-ho-hao-t'e, Huhehot Hohhot
Huai-nan, Hwainan Huainan
Hupeh, Hu-pei Hubei
Chia-mu-see, Kiamusze Jiamusi
Kiangsu, Chiang-su Jiangsu
Kiangsi, Chiang-hsi Jiangxi
Kirin, Chi-lin Jilin
Chi-nan, Tsinan Jinan
Chin-chou, Chinchow Jinzhou
K'ai-feng Kaifeng
Kaosiung, Kaohiung Kaohsiung
Kashgar, Kaxgar Kashi
K'un-ming, formerly Yn-nan Kunming
Lan-chou, Lanchow Lanzhou
Liao-yan Liaoyuan
Liu-chou, Liuchow Liuzhou
Lo-yang Luoyang
Lu-chou, Luchow Luzhou
Mu-tan-chiang Mudanjiang
Nan-ch'ang Nanchang
Nan-ch'ung Nanchong
Nanking, Nan-ching Nanjing
Nan-ning, Yung-ning Nanning
Inner Mongolia Nei Menggu
Ning-po Ningbo
Tsinghai, Ch'ing-hai Qinghai
Ch'in-huang-tao, Chinhwangtao Qinhuangdao
Ch'-fu Qufu
Shaan-hsi, Shensi Shaanxi
Shantung Shandong
Swatow, Shan-t'ou Shantou
Shan-hsi, Shansi Shanxi
Shao-kuan Shaoguan
Shao-hsing or Shaohing Shaoxing
Pao-ch'ing, Paoking Shaoyang
Sha-shih Shashi
Shen-yang, Mukden Shenyang
Shih-chia-chuang, Shihkiachwang Shijiazhuang
Szechwan Sichuan
Su-chou, Suchow, Wu-hsien Suzhou
T'ai-an Tai'an
Taiwanfu T'ainan
Formosa T'aiwan
Taiyan, T'ai-yan, Yang-ch' Taiyuan
T'ang-shan Tangshan
Tientsin, T'ien-ching Tianjin
T'ung-hua, Tunghwa Tonghua
Urumchi, Wu-lu-mu-ch'i rmqi
Sian Xi'an
Amoy Xiamen
Hong Kong Xianggang
Sinkiang Uighur Autonomous Region, Eastern Turkistan Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Hs-chou Xuzhou
Chefoo Yantai
Chang-chia-k'ou Zhangjiakou
Changchow Zhangzhou
Chanyi Zhanyi
Chekiang Zhejiang
 
Table 2
City Greater Administrative Region
Aberdeen Xianggang
Anshan Liaoning
Anyang Henan
Baoding Hebei
Baoji Shaanxi
Baotou Nei Menggu
Beijing Hebei
Bengbu Anhui
Benxi Liaoning
Changchun Jilin
Changsha Hunan
Changzhi Shanxi
Chek Chue Xianggang
Chengdu Sichuan
Chiayi Taiwan
Chilung Taiwan
Chongqing Sichuan
Coloane Aomen
Dalian Liaoning
Dandong Liaoning
Datong Shanxi
Fanling Xianggang
Fushun Liaoning
Fuxin Liaoning
Fuzhou Fujian
Gejiu Yunnan
Guangzhou Guangdong
Guilin Guangxi
Guiyang Guizhou
Haikou Hainan
Hami Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Handan Hebei
Hangzhou Zhejiang
Harbin Heilongjiang
Hefei Anhui
Hegang Heilongjiang
Hengyang Hunan
Hohhot Nei Menggu
Huainan Anhui
Jiamusi Heilongjiang
Jingdezhen Jiangxi
Jilin Jilin
Jinan Shandong
Jinzhou Liaoning
Kaifeng Henan
Kaohsiung Taiwan
Kashi Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Kowloon Xianggang
Kunming Yunnan
Lanzhou Gansu
Lhasa Tibet
Liaoyang Liaoning
Liaoyuan Jilin
Liuzhou Guangxi
Luoyang Henan
Luzhou Sichuan
Mudanjiang Heilongjiang
Nanchang Jiangxi
Nanchong Sichuan
Nanjing Jiangsu
Nanning Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Neijiang Sichuan
Ningbo Zhejiang
Pak Kok Xianggang
Pan-ch'iao Taiwan
P'ing-tung Taiwan
Qingdao Shandong
Qinhuangdao Hebei
Qiongzhou Hainan
Qiqihar Heilongjiang
Quanzhou Fujian
Qufu Shandong
Qujing Yunnan
Sha Tin Xianggang
Shache Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Shanghai Shanghai
Shantou Guangdong
Shaoguan Guangdong
Shaoxing Zhejiang
Shaoyang Hunan
Shashi Hubei
Shenyang Liaoning
Shijiazhuang Hebei
Suzhou Jiangsu
Tai Po Xianggang
T'aichung Taiwan
T'ainan Taiwan
Taipa Aomen
T'aipei Taiwan
Taiyuan Shanxi
Tangshan Hebei
Tianjin Hebei
Tonghua Jilin
Tsuen Wan Xianggang
Tuen Mun Xianggang
Urumqi Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region
Wan Xian Sichuan
Weifang Shandong
Weihai Shandong
Wenzhou Zhejiang
Wuhan Hubei
Wuhu Anhui
Wuxi Jiangsu
Xiamen Fujian
Xian Shaanxi
Xiangtan Hunan
Xigaz Tibet
Xinan Guangdong
Xining Qinghai
Xinxiang Henan
Xuzhou Jiangsu
Yangquan Shanxi
Yangzhou Jiangsu
Yantai Shandong
Yichang Hubei
Yichun Heilongjiang
Yuen Long Xianggang
Yumen Gansu
Zhangjiakou Hebei
Zhangzhou Fujian
Zhanyi Yunnan
Zhenjiang Jiangsu
Zhenzhou Henan
Zhuzhou Hunan
Zibo Shandong
Zigong Sichuan
Zunyi Guizhou
 
Table 3
Greater Administrative Region City
Anhui Province Bengbu
Hefei
Huainan
Wuhu
Aomen Special Administrative Region Macau
Taipa
Coloane
Fujian Province Fuzhou
Quanzhou
Xiamen
Zhangzhou
Gansu Province Lanzhou
Yumen
Guangdong Province Guangzhou
Shantou
Shaoguan
Xinan
Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region Guilin
Liuzhou
Nanning
Guizhou Province Guiyang
Zunyi
Hainan Province Haikou
Qiongzhou
Hebei Province Baoding
Beijing
Handan
Qinhuangdao
Shijiazhuang
Tangshan
Tianjin
Zhangjiakou
Heilongjiang Province Harbin
Hegang
Jiamusi
Mudanjiang
Qiqihar
Yichun
Henan Province Anyang
Kaifeng
Luoyang
Xinxiang
Zhenzhou
Hubei Province Shashi
Wuhan
Yichang
Hunan Province Changsha
Hengyang
Shaoyang
Xiangtan
Zhuzhou
Jiangsu Province Nanjing
Suzhou
Wuxi
Xuzhou
Yangzhou
Zhenjiang
Jiangxi Province Jiangdezhen
Nanchang
Jilin Province Changchun
Jilin
Liaoyuan
Tonghua
Liaoning Province Anshan
Benxi
Dalian
Dandong
Fushun
Fuxin
Jinzhou
Liaoyang
Shenyang
Nei Menggu Zizhiqu Baotou
Hohhot
Qinghai Province Xining
Shaanxi Province Baoji
Xian
Shandong Province Jinan
Qingdao
Qufu
Weifang
Weihai
Yantai
Zibo
Shanghai Province Shanghai
Shanxi Province Changzhi
Datong
Taiyuan
Yangquan
Sichuan Province Chengdu
Chongqing
Luzhou
Nanchong
Neijiang
Wan Xian
Zigong
Taiwan Chiayi
Chilung
Kaohsiung
Pan-ch'iao
P'ing-tung
T'aichung
T'ainan
T'aipei
Tibet Lhasa
Xigaz
Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu Aberdeen
Chek Chue
Fanling
Kowloon
Pak Kok
Sha Tin
Tai Po
Tsuen Wan
Tuen Mun
Yuen Long
Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region Hami
Kashi
Shache
rmqi
Yunnan Province Gejiu
Kunming
Qujing
Zhanyi
Zhejiang Province Hangzhou
Ningbo
Shaoxing
Wenzhou

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Index

Below is an index of terms entered into the database.

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A

Amoy
SEE Xiamen

Amur River
SEE Heilong jiang

Anhui Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Anhui Province

Anqing
Atlas :: City Maps :: Anqing

Anshan
Atlas :: City Maps :: Anshan

Anyang

Aomen (Macau)
Atlas :: City Maps :: Macau
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Aomen Special Administrative Region (Macau)
Atlas :: Country Maps :: Macau
East Asian Region :: Macau

B

Baoding

Baoji

Baotou
Atlas :: City Maps :: Baotou

Beibu Wan (Tonkin, Gulf of)

Beijing
Atlas :: City Maps :: Beijing (8)
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Beijing Province
East Asian Region :: Beijing

Bengbu
Atlas :: City Maps :: Bengbu

Benxi

Brahmaputra River

C

Canton
SEE Guangzhou

Changchun
Atlas :: City Maps :: Changchun

Changsha
Atlas :: City Maps :: Changsha

Changzhi

Chengdu
Atlas :: City Maps :: Chengdu

Chiayi

Chilung

China Sea

Chongqing
Atlas :: City Maps :: Chongqing

D

Da Yunhe (Grand Canal)

Dalian
Atlas :: City Maps :: Dalian

Dandong

Datong

Dong Hai (East China Sea)

Dongting Hu

E

East China Sea
SEE Dong Hai

 
F

Fujian Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Fujian Province

Fushun
Atlas :: City Maps :: Fushun

Fuxin

Fuzhou
Atlas :: City Maps :: Fuzhou

G

Gansu Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Gansu Province

Gejiu

Gobi Desert

Grand Canal
SEE Da Yunhe

Guangdong Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Guangdong Province

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region

Guangzhou
Atlas :: City Maps :: Guangzhou

Guilin
Atlas :: City Maps :: Guilin

Guiyang
Atlas :: City Maps :: Guiyang

Guizhou Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Guizhou Province

H

Haikou

Hainan Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Hainan Province

Hami

Han Jiang

Han River
SEE Han Jiang

Handan

Hangzhou
Atlas :: City Maps :: Hangzhou

Harbin
Atlas :: City Maps :: Harbin

Hebei Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Hebei Province

Hefei
Atlas :: City Maps :: Hefei

Hegang

Heilong Jiang (Amur River)

Heilongjiang Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Heilongjiang Province

Henan Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Henan Province

Hengyang

Himalaya Mountains

Hohhot
Atlas :: City Maps :: Hohhot

Hong Kong
SEE: Xianggang

Huainan
Atlas :: City Maps :: Huainan

Huang Hai

Huang He

Hubei Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Hubei Province

Hunan Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Hunan Province

I

Indus River

Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region
SEE: Neimenggu

J

Japan
Atlas :: Country Maps :: Japan
East Asian Region :: Japan

Jiamusi

Jiangsu Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Jiangsu Province

Jiangxi Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Jiangxi Province

Jilin
Atlas :: City Maps :: Jilin

Jilin Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Jilin Province

Jingdezhen

Jinan
Atlas :: City Maps :: Jinan

Jinhua
Atlas :: City Maps :: Jinhua

Jinzhou

K

Kaifeng

Kaohsiung

Kashi

Korea
East Asian Region :: Korea

Korea, North
Atlas :: Country Maps :: North Korea

Korea, South
Atlas :: Country Maps :: South Korea

Kowloon

Kunming
Atlas :: City Maps :: Kunming

L

Lancang Jiang

Lanzhou
Atlas :: City Maps :: Lanzhou

Lhasa
Atlas :: City Maps :: Lhasa

Liaoning Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Liaoning Province

Liaoyang

Liaoyuan

Liuzhou

Luoyang
Atlas :: City Maps :: Luoyang

Luzhou

M

Macau
SEE: Aomen

Manchuria

Mekong River

Mongolia
Atlas :: Country Maps :: Mongolia

Mudanjiang

N

Nanchang
Atlas :: City Maps :: Nanchang

Nanchong

Nan Hai (South China Sea)

Nanjing
Atlas :: City Maps :: Nanjing

Nanning
Atlas :: City Maps :: Nanning

Nei Menggu Zizhiqu
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Nei Menggu (Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region)

New Territories

Ningbo
Atlas :: City Maps :: Ningbo

Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region

O
   
P

Pan- ch'iao

P'ing-tung

 
Q

Qingdao
Atlas :: City Maps :: Qingdao

Qinghai Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Qinghai Province

Qinhuangdao

Qiongshan

Qiongzhou

Qiqihar
Atlas :: City Maps :: Qiqihar

Quanzhou

Qufu

Qujing

R

Red River
SEE: Yuan Jiang

 
S

Salween River

Sha- mo

Shaanxi Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Shaanxi Province

Shache

Shandong Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Shandong Province

Shanghai
Atlas :: City Maps :: Shanghai (6)
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Shanghai Province
East Asian Region :: Shanghai

Shantou

Shanxi Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Shanxi Province

Shaoguan

Shaoxing

Shaoyang

Shashi

Shenyang
Atlas :: City Maps :: Shenyang

Shenzhen
Atlas :: City Maps :: Shenzhen

Shijiazhuang
Atlas :: City Maps :: Shijiazhuang

Sichuan Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Sichuan Province

Songhua River

South China Sea
SEE Nan Hai

Sutlej River

Suzhou
Atlas :: City Maps :: Suzhou

T

Tai'an
Atlas :: City Maps :: Taian

T'aichung

T'ainen

Taipei
Atlas :: City Maps :: Taipei
East Asian Region :: Taipei

Tai Shan Mountain

Taiwan
Atlas :: Country Maps :: Taiwan
East Asian Region :: Taiwan

Taiwan Strait

Taiyuan
Atlas :: City Maps :: Taiyuan

Tangshan

Tarim River

Tianjin
Atlas :: City Maps :: Tianjin
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Tianjin Province

Tian Shan Mountains

Tibet
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Xizang Province (Tibet)
East Asian Region :: Tibet

Tonghua

Tonkin, Gulf of
SEE Beibu Wan

U

rmqi
Atlas :: City Maps :: Urumqi

V

W

Wan Xian

Weifang
Atlas :: City Maps :: Weifang

Weihai

Wenzhou

Wuhan
Atlas :: City Maps :: Wuhan

Wuhu
Atlas :: City Maps :: Wuhu

Wuxi
Atlas :: City Maps :: Wuxi

X

Xi'an
Atlas :: City Maps :: Xian

Xiamen
Atlas :: City Maps :: Xiamen

Xiangfan
Atlas :: City Maps :: Xiangfan

Xianggang Tebie Xingzhengqu (Hong Kong)
Atlas :: City Maps :: Hong Kong
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Xianggang Special Administrative Region (Hong Kong)
Atlas :: Country Maps :: Hong Kong
East Asian Region :: Hong Kong

Xiangtan

Xigaz

Xinan

Xi Jiang

Xining
Atlas :: City Maps :: Xining

Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region

Xinxiang

Xizang Province
SEE: Tibet

Xuzhou

Y

Yangquan

Yangtze Jiang
Atlas :: Country Maps :: Map of Yangtze River

Yangzhou
Atlas :: City Maps :: Yangzhou

Yantai
Atlas :: City Maps :: Yantai

Yarkand
SEE Shache

Yellow River
SEE Hhuang He

Yellow Sea
SEE Huang Hai

Yichang

Yichun, Heilongjiang

Yichun, Jiangxi

Yinchuan
Atlas :: City Maps :: Yinchuan

Yuan Jiang

Yumen

Yunnan Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Yunnan Province

Z

Zaozhuang
Atlas :: City Maps :: Zaozhuang

Zhangjiakou

Zhangzhou

Zhanyi

Zhejiang Province
Atlas :: Provincial Maps :: Zhejiang Province

Zhengzhou
Atlas :: City Maps :: Zhengzhou

Zhenjiang

Zhuzhou

Zibo

Zigong

Zunyi