The Judean Desert at the Qumran site has yielded a number of leather objects which permit the study of ancient tanning techniques. Water skins, large bags, pouches, purses, sandals, and garments have been found in various desert sites.

The majority of these leather objects are fashioned from sheepskin; a few pieces, particularly those used as patches, are of goatskin and calfskin. These skins were tanned by using vegetable matter, specifically tannic acid extracted from nuts and pomegranates.